Documentary collection

Documentary collectionDocumentary Collection

DEFINITION of 'Documentary Collection'

Letter Of Credit

Bill Of Exchange

BREAKING DOWN 'Documentary Collection'

A key document in documentary collections is the bill of exchange or draft, which is a formal demand for payment from the exporter to importer. D/Cs can be classified into two types, depending on when payment is sought by the exporter: 1) documents against payment (D/P), which requires the importer to pay the face amount of the draft at sight, or 2) documents against acceptance (D/A), which requires the importer to pay on a specified future date.

In a D/P collection, the exporter ships the goods and then gives the shipping documents to his or her bank (which is also known as the remitting bank). The bank forwards these documents to the importers bank (known as the collecting bank), which will only release the documents to the importer on receipt of payment for the goods. The collecting bank then remits the funds to the exporters bank for payment to the exporter.

A D/A collection differs from a D/P collection because the exporter extends credit to the importer through a time draft in the latter case. Once the importer signs the time draft which becomes a binding obligation to pay by the due date shown on the draft because of the signed acceptance the documents are released to the importer. The collecting bank contacts the importer on the due date for payment, which upon receipt is remitted to the exporters bank for payment to the exporter.

The exporters risk is obviously higher in the D/A collection process, since the exporter has no control over the goods after the importers acceptance and may not get paid for them.

In terms of risk, D/Cs are much safer than an open account but have fewer safeguards than a letter of credit. since the banks neither guarantee payment nor verify document accuracy and authenticity. These features can be exploited by fraudsters posing as either the exporter or importer. As a result, D/Cs are not recommended for exports to nations that are politically or economically unstable. Overall, because of their lower cost and simple process, D/Cs are best suited for established trade relationships in sound export markets, and for transactions involving ocean shipments rather than air or land shipments which are more difficult to control.

Free forex currency tips

Free forex currency tipsFree FOREX Currency Tips

Forex Markets ot the currency markets are one of the most widely growing markets of the world. Trading activities are increasing day by day to an enormous level. With very high liquidity and trading action the international currency markets are being given more and more attention by traders world wide. More traders on a daily basis speculate in the FOREX futures on the exchanges as well as people come here to hedge their business positions the exporters and the importers.

Forex-gold trading

Forex-gold tradingForex Trading in Pakistan

Benefits for attending the course: This field has a critical importance for financial institutions, investment companies and stock traders.

Understanding the importance and function of Foreign exchange Gold market

Stock traders/Investors can enhance their Fundamental and technical analysis skills

Investors can learn how to maximize profit and perform money management

Investment companies can help their clients for better investment options

Exporters and Importers can save foreign exchange losses from market fluctuations

Learn to create and maintain a diversified investment portfolio

Acknowledgement certificate would be awarded to course participants

Benefits for Gold traders and investors

Understanding the importance and function of International Gold market

Understand the risk and rewards of investing in Gold in present economic scenario

Technical and fundamental analysis of Gold

How investors can save themselves from losses in Gold future contracts and rate fluctuations

Gold as a safe haven against paper currency

This course includes following topics:

Introduction of Foreign Exchange Market

Introduction of Gold Market

Factors which affect the Foreign Exchange/ Gold Market

Fundamentals Analysis

Economic Indicators

Techniques Strategies of trading in Gold Forex

Foreign Exchange Market

Gold Market

Factors which affect the Foreign Exchange/ Gold Market

Fundamentals Analysis

Economic Indicators

Techniques Strategies of trading in Gold Forex

Money Management

How to manage your own trading portfolio

Technical Analysis

Technical Indicators

Best Currency for saving

Money Management

Risk Management

How to manage your own trading portfolio.

Who should attend this course?

Treasury Personnel

Stock Brokers

Commodity Brokers

Asset Management Companies

Insurance Companies

Mutual Funds

Individual Investors

Forex traders

Gold traders

Individual Investors

Financial Institutions

Treasury Department

Stock Brokerage Houses

Commodity Brokerage Houses

Insurance Companies

Exporters

Importers

Asset Management Companies

Mutual Funds

Forex traders

Gold traders

Gann fans

Gann fansGann Fans, created by W. В D. Gann, are based on prices moving in predictable patterns. Gann's theory is based on time/price movements with the 1 time unit by 1 price unit (i. e. 1 x 1) being the main angle (45-degrees). However, there are other angles such as the 1 x 2, 2 x 1, 1 x 4, 4 x 1, etc. Gann Fans are drawn from major price peaks and bottoms and are used to show trendlines of support and resistance .

The following Gann Fan (1 x 8) is shown on the price chart of Corn futures:

The price of Corn futures was held up by a support line that rose at a rate of 8 price units by 1 time unit (1 x 8).

The chart of Wheat below shows both an upward Gann Fan and a downward Gann Fan, both the 1 x 8 angle:

In the chart of wheat futures above, wheat prices were held up by the 1 x 8 support line. When wheat prices peaked and subsequently began to fall, wheat was held down by the 1 x 8 resistance line.

Gann Fanns are an art and involve intense study by potential users. The fact that the creator W. D. Gann wrote most of his studies on Gann Fans and angles in a cryptic language doesn't help the potential student of Gann Fans either.

Highland global trading pty ltd

Highland global trading pty ltdSouth Africa

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Minimum support price for food grains according to crop year(fair average quality)

Minimum support price for food grains according to crop year(fair average quality)Minimum Support Price for Food grains According to Crop Year (Fair Average Quality)

The data shows the trend in the minimum support price for various food grains viz. paddy common, coarse cereals, wheat, gram, etc.

Notes. 1. Paddy common. From 1997-98, Minimum Support Price (MSP) is announced for two varieties of paddy - common and

Grade ‘A, as against the earlier three categories of common, fine and super fine.

2. Wheat prices for 1992-93 and 1993-94, include a Central bonus of Rs.25 per quintal.

3. Wheat price for 2006-07 and Paddy common for year 2007-08 include an additional incentive bonus of Rs.100 per quintal is

payable over the MSP.

4. Wheat prices for 1996-97 includes a Central bonus of Rs.60 per quintal payable up to June 30, 1997

5. Wheat prices for 2005-06 includes a Central bonus of Rs.50 per quintal payable over the MSP.

6. Paddy common for 2006-07 include an additional incentive bonus of Rs. 40 per quintal on procurement between Oct. 1,

2006 to March 31, 2007.

7. Arhar, Moong and Urad for 2007-08 includes a bonus of Rs. 40 per quintal payable over and above the MSP.

8. Paddy common for 2008-09 includes a bonus of Rs 50 per quintal over the MSP.

9. Arhar, Moong and Urad for 2010-11 include an additional incentive at the rate of Rs. 5 per kg payable

during the harvest/arrival period of two months.

Is wishful thinking derailing your trading results would you even know

Is wishful thinking derailing your trading results would you even knowIs wishful thinking derailing your trading results? Would you even know?

Here is an interesting piece from one of my favourite reads, Tim Harford.

I know his pieces are interesting 'cause I usually read to the end of them!

A few years ago, Guy Mayraz, who is now a behavioural economist at the University of Melbourne, conducted a test of wishful thinking.

(The University of Melbourne? I like this guy already. - D )

He divided experimental subjects into "farmers", who benefited from high wheat prices, and "bakers", who profited when wheat was cheap. Then he showed them historical charts of wheat prices and asked them to make forecasts.

Mayraz paid a bonus for accuracy, yet the farmers systematically predicted higher prices than the bakers.

This is wishful thinking in its purest form. Whether engaged in a tough negotiation, or simply trying to predict the future, we find it hard to distinguish between what is true, and what we wish was true.

There is more at the article. that's just the conclusion. it occurs to me that it may very well be applicable to traders (mea culpa).

About currency correlation

About currency correlationAbout Currency Correlation

Some currency pairs are correlated and some are not. Lets try to see what currency correlation is. But before talking about Forex correlation, lets start from the macro level.

Every currency has its own characteristics:

There are safe heaven currencies which attract investments when there are major economic turmoil and risks to global economy is perceived to be high. These currencies are considered to be safe investments when the risk appetite is low.

There are commodity currencies from countries which are major commodity exporters and the health of those economies and hence the health of their currencies depend on the growth of commodity exports.

There are low yield currencies with very low inflation rate and hence very low interest rates and then there are high yield currencies.

There are economies and currencies from nations which are large and net exporters and then there are those who are large and net importers.

The points mentioned above are just on macro level but what these reflect that many of the economies across the globe are correlated. It may be a strong positive correlation or a strong negative correlation or it may be weak ones but if some economies have correlations then it is natural that their currencies would also have correlation. The strength of a currency is nothing but the strength of that economy. So currency correlation basically represents the correlation of those economies.

So when we say that every currency has its own characteristics, we should also say that many of those characteristics are shared with other currencies and are common with some other currencies. This is like families of currencies. The currencies of one family or with similar characteristics would behave similar to each other during various kinds of economic scenarios or market sentiments. For example when there is a perceived risk for global economy, the currencies when may be considered as safe, would become stronger or when there is more risk appetite because of higher confidence in the health of global economy. the currencies with high yield but more risk factor may shine better.

To summarize it, we can say that we do not have to analyze each currency individually but on a macro level we can divided currencies in different groups or families and the initial analysis can be for the individual groups or families and not just the individual currencies. The currencies of on group may tend to behave similarly and move in the same direction normally.

Now to go one step more into detail about currency correlation, lets see what kinds of relationships are possible between currencies:

1) Generally behaving in the similar way i. e. positive correlation.

2) Generally behaving in the opposite way i. e. negatively correlated currency pairs.

3) Not caring about each other or random relationship i. e. no correlation.

The above is the essence of currency correlation. To summarize again and in other words; some currency pairs tend to move in the same direction most of the time, some currency pairs tend to move in the opposite direction most of the time and some currency pairs do not show any relationship and their moves are completely random in relation to each other. These are positive correlation, negative correlation and no correlation respectively. Lets see some of the practical and live examples of currency correlations as follows and we will be talking about the details of Forex correlation on other sections of this site.

Why Currency (Forex) Correlations are Important

Forex correlation need to be understood on macro level and need to be kept in mind, especially when we trade with multiple currency pairs. There is no need to check it on daily basis if the trades are not based on some kind of correlation system. In fact we would always recommend to avoid trading any suggested correlation system. It would simply be too complicated and not worth your time and risks.

We need to be simply aware of the correlation in different Forex pairs so that we avoid cancelling any profits by taking any opposite positions for any Forex pairs which have strong positive correlation or taking the similar positions for two Forex pairs which have strong negative correlation.

Now you can create apowerfully effective marketing plan to bring apredictable flow of new clients

Now you can create apowerfully effective marketing plan to bring apredictable flow of new clientsNow YOU Can Create A Powerfully Effective Marketing Plan To Bring A Predictable Flow Of New Clients Into Your Business …

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Si32is areturn to forex controls-expert

Si32is areturn to forex controls-expertSI 32 is a return to forex controls-Expert

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A financial expert says the introduction in of Statutory Instrument number 32 of 2013 has marked a return to foreign exchange controls in Zambia.

Over the weekend, Finance Minister Alexander Chikwanda announced that he had signed SI 32 of 2013 aimed at monitoring balance of payment in a transparent manner.

The new law applies to financial service providers licensed under the Banking and Financial Services Act, and importers of goods or services exceeding 10,000 US dollars or the equivalent in other foreign currency.

And any person, who contravenes any provision contained in SI 32 of 2013, will be deemed to have committed an offence and is liable, upon conviction, to a fine not exceeding one hundred thousand penalty units or to imprisonment for a period not exceeding ten years, or to both.

But Maambo Hamaundu said although government keeps denying that Zambia has returned to forex controls, the new Statutory Instrument has effectively reintroduced forex controls in a limited fashion.

“For me whether they accept it or deny it, what we are seeing now is a return to foreign controls albeit in a limited manner,” Mr. Hamaundu said.

He said, “You have provisions in the SI that limit the cash amounts that people can withdraw from a financial services provider to US$ 5,000 per month. We never had such restrictions on cash withdraws previously and that in essence is a control.”

Mr. Hamaundu added, “Many of us did anticipate that government was by and large going to introduce some measure of foreign exchange controls and a quick glance at SI 32 shows that there are controls, they have introduced foreign exchange controls although in a limited fashion.

Mr. Hamaundu explained that the new law has also come with a lot of paperwork required to be met by all exporters of goods and services which might add to the cost of doing business.

“All those forms requiring to be filled will bring administrative challenges for most businesses,” he said.

Mr. Hamaundu has warned that the new Statutory Instrument might have long term negative effects on the Zambian economy.

He said foreign investors will opt to sit on the fence and not to commit huge financial resources in Zambia because of the new restrictions.

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Forex traders leads

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Forex Traders Leads : would our list of Forex traders includes their first and last names and telephone numbers e-mail addresses website opt in information and much more. This list was extremely expensive to come by and includes a downloadable e-mail list of Forex stock traders. Marketing to a list of Forex traders just got easier with our brand-new Forex traders e-mail list for sale. Includes thousands of records that contain vital data and information regarding recently signed up Forex currency exchange traders e-mail addresses. A current list of currency exchange traders and Forex traders are now available for immediate download in our members only area. We also have other investor lists available such as our CBS Market Watch Investor List, Our Day Trading Stock Investor List and our High Net worth Investor Lists as Well.

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Trading commodity spreads

Trading commodity spreadsTrading Commodity Spreads

By Chuck Kowalski. Commodities Expert

Many professional commodity traders focus on trading spreads. A spread involves the simultaneous buying of one commodity and the selling of the same or similar commodity. Using spreads often cuts down on the risk of buying a straight commodity position.

The premise for the trade is that the trader expects the corn market to be stronger than the wheat market. As long as corn moves up more than wheat or doesn’t fall as much, the trader can make a profit.

Spreads can also be done within the same commodity. For example, a trader can buy July corn and sell December corn at the same time during spring. This is called a bull spread. The front month typically moves more than the further out months. If someone was expecting corn prices to move higher during the year, this would be a considered a proper trade.

Corn prices can move 10 plus cents each day, while spreads usually only move a fraction of that amount. They are considered a more conservative strategy than solely buying or selling a straight futures contract. The margin is also much lower on a futures spread than it is on a straight futures contract.

Types of Commodity Spreads

A trader can find almost any type of commodity spread to meet any outlook on the markets. This not only applies to an outlook on one market, but it can apply to an outlook on multiple markets.

Continue Reading Below

Below are the types of futures spreads that a trader can utilize.

Intra Market Spreads - These are commonly called Calendar Spreads. They involve the buying and selling of different contract months within the same commodity. For example, a trader can buy May soybeans and sell November soybeans.

Inter Market Spread - This type of futures spread involves buying and selling of different but related commodities. The commodities usually move closely together, but there may be particular reasons why one commodity might be stronger than the other. For example, a trader could buy silver and sell gold.

Inter Exchange Spreads - The inter exchange spread involves the simultaneous purchase and sell of the same underlying commodity, but traded on different exchanges. An example of this trade would be buying December wheat futures traded on the CME Group and selling December wheat futures traded on the Kansas City Board of Trade.

Trading Commodity Spreads

A trader should be more aware of the price spread between the two contracts rather than actual prices. The price spread is the difference between the two contracts. For example, July corn is trading at $6.05 and December corn is trading at $5.75. The spread is 30 cents. If July corn moves up faster than December corn, the spread will increase. Therefore, buyers of the spread will make a profit.

The more conservative nature of commodity spreads does not necessarily mean there is less risk. Anyone who has traded spreads over a period of time knows that things can sometimes go awry. Weather conditions and crop reports are but a couple of the things that can cause spreads to jump more than normal.

A worse case scenario is when the futures contract you buy moves sharply lower and the contract you sell moves sharply higher. Two fairly correlated commodities like corn and wheat can do this. It is not a good feeling when you are looking for a five cent gain on a spread and overnight you loose 15 cents because of crop news coming out of China. The key here is to always be aware of the risks even though you are using a more conservative strategy.