Nfa looks into banning credit card deposits–the impact

Nfa looks into banning credit card deposits–the impactAdvertising

Earlier this month, the NFA sent its members a ‘Request for Comments’ letter are about the prohibiting of credit card payments. The NFA’s Compliance Risk Committee (CRC) is concerned that these payment solutions promote depositing with borrowed funds and small sized deposits which barely cover minimum margin requirements. In their words “The CRC is concerned that retail customers may be opening accounts with funds that are not risk capital and are using credit cards as a source for borrowing funds to invest. The CRCs overall concerns with this practice are compounded by the fact that many FDMs that offer this funding mechanism also permit retail customers to open an account with a very low deposit amount (e. g. $100) that merely covers the intended transactions initial margin requirement. Any slight movement in a customers forex position causes the customer to quickly fall below the margin requirement for the transaction.”

At Forex Magnates we have been admittedly late in reporting this piece of news, partly due to preferring to speak with market participants to gauge the impact of what a ban on credit card deposits would mean. On first glance it appears as another swing by the regulators against the US FX industry, as forex firms are the only brokers within the NFA’s umbrella accepting credit card deposits. Also, in the above mentioned quote, forex was highlighted. As such, the actions are being viewed negatively and other media sources are calling this more proof that the NFA is out to destroy the US retail FX market. However, the actual impact of any such rule will depend on the operations of each broker.

For large, multinational brokers with financial licenses from multiple countries, the US market has been steadily contracting. As such, a credit card ban would be disruptive to their operation over the short term, but the total effect of on their bottom lines is expected to be negligible. In fact, long term these brokers could benefit due as costlier payment methods would be expected to lead to larger average deposit sizes. On the other end of the spectrum are brokers with a large concentration of US clients. Specifically, any firm with an aggressive sales and retention staff that focuses on low initial deposits and reoccurring re-deposits will suffer. Similarly, affiliates with cost per acquisition (CPA) deals who often push ‘get rich quick’ marketing on the sites will most likely see a sharp drop in conversions. However, with ‘self deposits’ where clients can begin trading before documents are sent to a broker’s compliance team for review not in existence in the US, as well as greater enforcement on malicious dealing desk taking place, ‘get rich quick’ schemes from US affiliates have been focusing their marketing out of the US market.

As of now there is no timetable yet in place to the formation of a credit card ban, and ‘Requests from Comments’ are typically followed by a public meeting which hasnt been set. In Forex Magnates Q4 Industry Report. we took a look at the Payment Industry. The article was focused on Credit Card deposits and Real Time Bank Transfers which are very popular in Europe. One of the conclusions of the article is that the payment solutions industry is experiencing many changes and innovation, specifically in its adaption to cross border payments and mobile. Therefore, while credit cards are an essential part of the US FX industry, it is safe to assume that alternate forms of payments won’t take long to fill the gap. On this point, Oanda’s CEO K Duker answered in a Reddit AMA that he expects digital currencies like bitcoin to play a bigger part of payment solutions for firms in the future.

Potential Benefits (Alternate Opinion)

Beyond the immediate disruption, it can be argued that such an action from the NFA would be the best thing that could happen to the US retail FX industry as it will force brokers to focus on targeting quality traders.

Unlike in many other parts of the world, in the US, FX competes against an established market of equity and futures day trading. FX was a late arrival to scene and owes its initial marketing push to the Dot com bubble burst of 2001 when the Nasdaq lost 70% of its value. Initial marketing was aimed at traders that had been burned by the falling markets and slogans included “good stock traders can become great FX traders” as well as “profit in both rising and falling markets.” While the industry was able to convert clients, it was beset with scandals like REFCO and market rigging complaints in its early days that have cast a suspicious eye on the retail FX market. As such, despite an increase in volumes and numbers of traders, the industry continues to lag far behind other asset classes in the US in terms of ‘perceived’ transparency and honesty. This is partly due to the market making nature of the product as well as gimmicky marketing that is seen over and over again. Therefore, to truly evolve and become a long term product to rival with the heavily entrenched equity and futures market, brokers need to completely shed the ‘get rich quick’ feel that still exists within FX and start targeting traders!!

On an overall level, FX as an asset class has reached parity with many of its rivals. With its levels of liquidity and tight spreads, cross asset traders are heavily involved with analyzing and trading the product. This has been specifically seen in the CME where overall FX volumes have risen 10 fold in the last ten years, with systematic cross asset traders entering FX being touted as one of the main drivers of volume. That being said, the issue in the US doesn’t seem to be a lack of interest in FX as much as an inability for retail brokers to source semi-professional clients.

Adding restrictions on credit card deposits will force the US industry to focus its means on converting real traders. What is a real trader? In my opinion, someone who is willing to make a serious effort to become a successful trader. Part of that serious effort is having a realistic view on risk management and size of trades. When you take a look at the average sub $2000 account, there just isn’t much of an opportunity to generate a consistent return to justify the ‘ opportunity cost ’ of spending one’s time trading. Therefore, this typically leads to ‘gambling’ taking place and the ‘ hope ’ of scoring a 2X or greater trade. As such, these clients that are enticed with low deposit minimums and high leverage have historically shown a high failure rate when compared to customers trading larger accounts and spending more time in front of the screen.

Therefore, while a lack of credit card deposits will lead to an initial blow to the industry, it will cause a prescreening of clients to take place and lead to an industry that is composed of higher quality customers who trade greater volumes with a longer lifetime value.

Interested to hear the comments and opinions of our readers on this sensitive issue.

Readers looking to get in touch with the CFTC to complain (or support) should email Elizabeth C. Sheridan, Senior Attorney at esheridannfa. futures by February 7, 2013.

Online Nfa looks into banning credit card deposits–the impact

Quantified trading strategies with the machine is the rally losing steam

Quantified trading strategies with the machine is the rally losing steamQuantified Trading Strategies with The Machine: Is the Rally Losing Steam?

Here is today's edition of Inside The Machine for Thursday, September 1, 2011.

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What is strategy execution

What is strategy executionWhat Is Strategy Execution?

What is strategy execution? Strategy execution is a hot topic in management today. In fact, the Conference Board’s recent Survey of CEOs revealed that chief executives are so concerned about strategy execution that they rated it as both their number one and number two most challenging issue. For anyone who’s tried to execute strategy, this finding should come as no surprise: it’s estimated that more than 60% of strategies are not successfully implemented.

When asked to define strategy execution, most managers respond with statements like, “It’s the successful implementation of a strategic plan” or “It’s getting your strategy done.” While these perspectives are certainly valid, they aren’t very helpful in terms of understanding what needs to be done to actually drive business results.

Here’s a look at some mainstream approaches to strategy execution:

Strategy execution as a process. The most notable book to date on strategy execution is Execution: The Discipline of Getting Things Done . by Larry Bossidy and Ram Charan. Bossidy, a retired CEO, and Charan, a renowned management consultant, make the case for execution as a discipline or “systematic way of exposing reality and acting on it.” They explain that “the heart of execution lies in three core processes":

3. Operations

They explain the processes and descriptions managers use to successfully drive business results.

Strategy execution as a system. The information presented in Execution is certainly useful, but the authors don’t fully explain how an organization can implement their three core processes to achieve strategy success. There have been significant advancements in this area since Execution was published in 2002. In 2008, Harvard Business School Professor Robert S. Kaplan and his Palladium Group colleague David P. Norton wrote The Execution Premium: Linking Strategy to Operations for Competitive Advantage . In it they present their management system, which houses six sequential stages intended to help organizations capture what they call an “execution premium”—a measurable increase in value derived from successful strategy execution. They outline six stages in this system:

1. Develop the strategy

2. Plan the strategy

3. Align the organization

4. Plan operations

5. Monitor and learn

6. Test and adapt

Through detailed subactivities—26 in total — Kaplan and Norton explain how organizations have successfully executed strategy via application of their management system.

Strategy execution as a step-by-step process. Both of the models outlined above are important and anyone serious about the practice of strategy execution should be familiar with them, but they suffer from what might be called the “Goldilocks Problem.” The process view doesn’t contain enough detail to help managers construct the three processes within an organization (i. e. too cold). Conversely, the systems view contains so many sub steps that it can be overwhelming to managers (i. e. too hot).

So, how can we find a solution that is “just right"? While there is no easy answer, the best of both approaches can be synthesized into 10 steps outlined below. These steps provide both high level direction as well as the detail necessary to capture the lion’s share of strategy execution success.

Step 1: Visualize the strategy. One of the most pressing challenges in all of strategy is simply understanding what a strategy is. An effective way to improve this understanding is to visualize the strategy via an illustration that shows both the important elements of the strategy and how each relates to one another. Frameworks such as the Strategy Map by Kaplan and Norton, the Activity Map by Michael Porter, or the Success Map by Andy Neely help in this regard.

Step 2: Measure the strategy. Key elements of the visualized strategy should be assigned an easily understood performance measure. The full set of strategic performance measures can be organized into a dashboard, a Balanced Scorecard, or some other framework so the reader can determine that progress is being made toward completion of the strategy.

Step 3: Report progress. In the same way that a budget is reviewed monthly to ensure financial commitments are being kept, the strategy should be reviewed regularly, but with more of an eye toward determining if the strategy is producing results, versus controlling performance.

Step 4: Make decisions. Strategy execution is much like sailing a boat toward a planned destination. A defined course and a full complement of navigational charts will never eliminate the need to remain vigilant, to assess the environment, and to make corrections as conditions change. As part of the regular reporting process leaders must make ongoing strategic decisions to keep the strategy current and on course.

Step 5: Identify strategy projects. Organizations may have scores, if not hundreds, of projects ongoing at any point, but they rarely have a firm grasp on the type and range of these projects. The first step in improving project-oriented strategy execution is to capture and organize all projects—strategy projects in particular—that are underway in throughout an organization.

Step 6: Align strategy projects. Once projects are captured they must then be aligned to the strategies or goals for the organization. This step entails comparing each project, either proposed or ongoing, to the strategic goals to determine if alignment exists. Only those projects that directly impact the strategy should be resourced and continued.

Step 7: Manage projects. Organizations must develop a capability in project management if they are to execute strategy effectively. In some settings, projects receive very little management. In others, projects persist well beyond their scheduled completion. The full complement of projects in any organization should be coordinated and controlled by a central project office or officer with the responsibility for monitoring both progress and performance.

Step 8: Communicate strategy. It is difficult to execute strategy when the strategy itself isn’t well understood, or performance relative to it is not communicated. Leaders must communicate their visualized strategy to the workforce in a way that will help them understand not only what needs to be done, but why.

Step 9: Align individual roles. Employees want to know they are making a meaningful contribution to their organization’s success. It’s up to senior leaders to ensure that employees at all levels can articulate and evaluate their personal roles toward achievement of specific strategic goals. This is perhaps one of the most critical aspects of the execution process.

Step 10: Reward performance. In strategy execution, as in any other area of management, what gets measured gets done. Taking this one step further, what get measured and rewarded gets done faster. After explaining the strategy and aligning the workforce to it, senior managers institute the incentives that drive behaviors consistent with the strategy.

Strategy execution is difficult in practice for many reasons, but a key impediment to success is that many leaders don’t know what is strategy execution or how they should approach it. Home-grown approaches may be incomplete if they fail to incorporate many of the basic activities highlighted above.

While the 10-step approach outlined here won’t guarantee strategy execution success, it will greatly improve the odds, perhaps pushing the topic down a notch on the list of CEO concerns.

Strategy execution may be difficult to apply, especially for new managers. Register for our crash course on how to get your management career off on the right foot.

Conference Board Survey of CEOs . Conference Board, 2008.

Franken, A. Edwards, C. Lambert, R. Executing Strategic Change: Understanding the Critical Management Elements That Lead to Success. California Management Review . Vol. 41, No. 3, Spring 2009

Bossidy, L. Charan, R. Execution: The Discipline of Getting Things Done . Crown Business, 2002.

Kaplan, R. Norton, D. The Execution Premium: Linking Strategy to Operations for Competitive Advantage . Harvard Business Press, 2008.

Kaplan, R. Norton, D. Strategy Maps . Converting Intangible Assets Into Tangible Business Outcomes Advantage, Harvard Business Press, 2004.

Porter, M. What Is Strategy? Harvard Business Review (November-December) 1996.

Neely, A. et al. The Performance Prism, Financial Times . 2002.

Online What is strategy execution

Trading strategy for nifty future

Trading strategy for nifty futureTrading Strategy For Nifty Future -24th Sept 2015 - All Eyes on 7834-7889

2015-09-24T08:24:55+00:00 24-Sep-15 08:24 am Comments Off

The goal is to get the right price, not the lowest price. A “low” price is useless if volatility gets you stopped out.

Yesterday, Boldly Recommended to our Subscribers :Buy NF at Opening bell

Yes, Writing Saying is very easy :In both u dont lose money. But when u make strategy, trade most difficult thing.

All Eyes on 7864 7889

101% Should Sustain above 7889 level for 15-20 minutes with volumes will take to 7924—7942

Not Crossing High of 7889,watch Support at 7834

Below 7834 if trades with volumes we see PANIC upto 7801-7990————7767 not ruled out.

4th Session :Next Wednesday Unexpected level.

18th Session :Unexpected level on card.

Big Move of 565 points.

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The S P CNX NIFTY index based F O Strategy

Creating contrary positions at the start of a trend:

Open Positions at the start of a bullish or bearish trend with long or short futures, and sell out-of-money call or put options in equal proportions as a hedge against the index futures.

( example. 10 Nifty futures against 10 options).

If the options delta exceeds 80%, book profits.

If trend reverses, reverse futures, leave the earlier short options open and sell out-of-money options in a ratio of 2:1. Be watchful of the delta of these options, and as soon as the delta exceed 55%, exit all positions.

( you now have 10 Nifty futures, 10 options from previous leg and 20 options from this leg).

On the next reversal if any, reverse futures again, leaving all options open, and sell equal proportion of out-of-money options.

( you now have 10 Nifty futures, 30 (call/put) options, and 20 options (put/call).

Remain alert to the delta of the option. As soon as the delta exceed 55%, exit all positions.

To understand better and create your FO strategy for any other index or stock,

get the book on:

To create your FO strategy for any other index or stock,

Archives of “Sensex / Nifty Future” Category

Trading Strategy For 13th Nov2015.NF-Slide upto 77497739 -7705 is possible.

2015-11-13T08:37:16+00:00 13-Nov-15 08:37 am Comment

One of the big mistakes traders make in low volume/low volatility environments is looking for the next big move, rather than planning for the lack of movement.

To accomplish that planning, traders either need to trade short term swings opportunistically (intraday swings) or extend their holding periods to seek larger moves that ride out the shorter swings.

Last Close. 7825

Now SGX Nifty at 7757

No Need to change levels all. On Diwali Mahurat Day..We had written this.

Break below 7780 level with volumes ..Today or on Friday will take to 77497739 level in panic.

3 Consecutive close below 7845 will take to 7709—————-7660 level in panic !

Today Hurdle at 7832————7842.

Yes, Decisive Crossover with volumes above 7842 (Today/Friday )will take to 78737883 level in hrs only.

After Breaking 3 7 DEMA on 28th Oct. It had never crossed these levels.

Now 3DEMA 7887 7 DEMA 7972 level.

Will it Break 7700 first or Will Cross 7900 level in next 2 sessions ?

101% More Details to our Subscribers - During Trading hrs.

Updated at 8:32/13th Nov/Baroda/India

Nifty Future. Muhurat Trading Strategy. Will It Cross 7842 Next Target 7900

2015-11-11T14:39:46+00:00 11-Nov-15 02:39 pm Comment

A major mistake made by many traders is they become so involved catching minor market swings they fail to see the major moves

Last Close. 7802

Break below 7780 level with volumes ..Today or on Friday will take to 77497739 level in panic.

3 Consecutive close below 7845 will take to 7709—————-7660 level in panic !

Today Hurdle at 7832————7842.

Yes, Decisive Crossover with volumes above 7842 (Today/Friday )will take to 78737883 level in hrs only.

After Breaking 3 7 DEMA on 28th Oct. It had never crossed these levels.

Now 3DEMA 7887 7 DEMA 7972 level.

Will it Break 7700 first or Will Cross 7900 level in next 3 sessions ?

More Details to our Subscribers. Updated at 14:38/11th Nov/Baroda/India

We Dont Care For Politics, PoliticiansOnly Chart. Look What Happened to NF ,8000 Call !

2015-11-09T17:02:57+00:00 09-Nov-15 05:02 pm Comment

RED ALERT-We Think in First 15-20 Sharp panic, Buy Nifty Future and relax till 1 pmsharp intraday rally will happen !

— Anirudh Sethi (anirudhsethi71) November 9, 2015

JACKPOT :Buy 8000 call of NF at 43..double in next 3 days. Only GODREJ Industries 10—100-1000 lots block deal at 412

LAXMANREKHA for Nifty Future at 7897 level. Yes If crosses and stays above 15-20 minutes will create fresh firework, Target :7962-7983

— Anirudh Sethi (anirudhsethi71) November 9, 2015

Trading Strategy For 04th Nov2015.NF-Hurdle & Target 8152-8164.Dont Panic at Lower levels

2015-11-04T08:15:29+00:00 04-Nov-15 08:15 am Comment

The first thing I heard when I got in the business, not from my mentor, was bulls make money, bears make money, and pigs get slaughtered. I’m here to tell you I was a pig. And I strongly believe the only way to make long-term returns in our business that are superior is by being a pig. I think diversification and all the stuff they’re teaching at business school today is probably the most misguided concept everywhere. And if you look at all the great investors that are as different as Warren Buffett, Carl Icahn, Ken Langone, they tend to be very, very concentrated bets. They see something, they bet it, and they bet the ranch on it. And that’s kind of the way my philosophy evolved, which was if you see – only maybe one or two times a year do you see something that really, really excites you… The mistake I’d say 98% of money managers and individuals make is they feel like they got to be playing in a bunch of stuff. And if you really see it, put all your eggs in one basket and then watch the basket very carefully.

Last Close. 8087

No Need to change levels everyday.

Above 8112 levelTarget intact of 8142—8152

Today Watch 8164,Once crosses with volumeswill kiss 8200

technical terms, this would help all new comers to stock market to understand and

learn the Nifty future derivative trading. Instead of long and big article few precise

points are mentioned.

1) What is Nifty and how trading is done?

a) Nifty (SP CNX Nifty) is the Index of Indian stock market on NSE (National Stock exchange) like Sensex on BSE (Bombay Stock Exchange)

b) Trading is done on Nifty and it is called future derivative contract or future contract.

The movement of Nifty derivative is based on Nifty index.

In stock market language - Nifty index is called as underlying of Nifty future contract because Nifty future contract is based on Nifty index movement.

c) Nifty Lot Size -

Nifty future derivative consist of a lot of 25 quantities of Nifty. So if you want to buy Nifty contract then you have to buy at least one lot of Nifty. The trading in Nifty contract is done in lots.

d) Trading cycle

NIFTY futures contracts have a maximum of 3-month trading cycle - the near month (one), the next month (two) and the far month (three). A new contract is introduced on the trading day following the expiry of the near month contract. The new contract will be introduced for a three month duration. This way, at any point in time, there will be 3 contracts available for trading in the market i. e. one near month, one mid month and one far month duration respectively

e) Expiry day

CNX Nifty futures contracts expire on the last Thursday of the expiry month. If the last Thursday is a trading holiday, the contracts expire on the previous trading day.

f) Based on your trading position your account will get adjusted on daily basis as per the closing price of Nifty derivative contract.

For Example -

If you buy one lot (25 quantity) of Nifty at 8000 and Nifty closes at 8050 then Rs 50 as profit then your total will be 25 qty x Rs

50 = Rs 1250.

G) You can buy and sell on a same day or hold till expiry of your future contract.

H) Trader has to square off the positions before or on expiry. If you do not square off then the contract expires on the expiry date and the

money gets adjusted in your account.

h) You can buy and sell Nifty derivative contract on any dayof any month means of current month or next month.

2) Advantages of trading in Nifty

a) Trader get margin from broker to trade on Nifty.

For example - Nifty derivative consist of 25 quantity of Nifty index so the cost of one lot will become Rs 200000 [25 qty of Nifty multiple by the price of Nifty index, which is 8000 current price of 20 Sept 2015.

Please note - You need to have only 15% amount of the entire cost to trade in Nifty future contract so you need only Rs 30,000 (approx). For latest margin amount please talk to your broker.

b) You can do day trading (Intraday trading) as well as carry forward (hold your nifty future contract) till the expiry period of your contract expiry date. You can buy expiry of 3 months Nifty contract.

c) You can trade both sides of the Nifty means if you feel market is going up then you can buy Nifty contract and if you feel market is going to fall then you can short sell Nifty and later buy it to cover up your positions.

d) Very Low brokerage rates. Low brokerage rates increases your profit percentage. Day trading brokerage rates are applied for trading in Nifty future contract.

e) High liquidity (volumes) - Very high volumes are traded in Nifty future contract which will make the trader to square off at any time and at any price.

3) Risk Involved in Nifty trading

Trading in Nifty future is a risky job. As good profits are taken in Nifty trading, losses are also quite possible.

Basically trading involves big risk compared to investing in stocks. Either you trade in Nifty future or in any other future contract or trade in stocks.

Trading requires lot of experience and market knowledge. Investing and trading are two different factors in stock market. Investing is not as risky as trading.

4) Techniques to get profits in day trading

Trading on daily basis requires market knowledge and experience and also some techniques.

Movement of stocks and indices in day trading is based on various domestics and international factors so traders need to be very aleart and quick in day trading. If you plan to take small profits and make multiple trades then the success rates are very high and your monthly profits will be good.

If you are looking for more in depth knowledge about future derivative trading and all other details about options and risk involved with examples then please visit

5. Details about Nifty and option trading

Disclaimer . Information presented on this site is a guide only. It may not necessarily be correct and is not intended to be taken as financial advice nor has it been prepared with regard to the individual investment needs and objectives or financial situation of any particular person. Stock quotes are believed to be accurate and correctly dated, but stockmarketindian does not warrant or guarantee their accuracy or date.

stockmarketindian takes no responsibility for any investment decisions based on recommendations provided on website.

Financial contents like Technical charts, historical charts and quotes are taken from NSE and Yahoo sites.

Note - All quotes are delayed by 15 minutes and unless specified.

Google Adsense Ads are posted on every page of the website so visitors clicking on Ads and going to those links and carrying any financial deal is not at all related to stockmarketindian and any financial deal should be done on their own sole responsibility.

Please read at stockmarketindian/disclaimer. php before using any material or advice given at stockmarketindian

Online Trading strategy for nifty future

Morgan stanley trade of the week is to sell eur

Morgan stanley trade of the week is to sell eurMorgan Stanley 'trade of the week' is to sell EUR/JPY

Morgan Stanley's G10 trade of the week idea is to sell EUR/JPY

ECB's Draghi has sent an important signal that the ECB would like a weaker EUR

MS economists expect the ECB to respond in December, cutting the deposit rate by 10bp, adding 05bn per month extra of purchases and extending the purchase programme to March 17

While the BOJ is keeping its purchase target constant last week signalled some diverging monetary policy between the two banks

"We believe that there could be a new paradigm in relation to US yields. Higher US bond yields could potentially lead to EM volatility and related repatriation flows. Since JPY tends to benefit from repatriation flows more than USD, it suggests a lower USDJPY, supporting our short EURJPY trade"

Online Morgan stanley trade of the week is to sell eur

Use matlab coder,compiler,and gpu cuda to rapidily build you trading strategy,implement,and depl

Use matlab coder,compiler,and gpu cuda to rapidily build you trading strategy,implement,and deplUse Matlab Coder, Compiler, and GPU CUDA to rapidily build you trading strategy, implement, and deploy

Over the years I posted Youtube videos and various ideas on my thoughts on how to rapidly build your trading

strategies using Matlab.

1. For HFT trading strategy: Options to have C or C++ call Matlab generated M scripts without Matlab Coder Toolbox

2. No extra funding for Interactive Brokers FIX CTCI solutions vs sockets through TWS Trader Workstation desktop application

3. Make Interactive Brokers API TWS client POSIX version for Linux and Windows, no Microsoft hooks or VIsual C++

5. Youtube video demo on Limitation of demo Matlab Compiler and Parallel Computing Toolboxes with GPU and CUDA

Online Use matlab coder,compiler,and gpu cuda to rapidily build you trading strategy,implement,and depl

Forex algorithms

Forex algorithmsGenetic Algorithm in FOREX Trading Systems

Using Genetic Algorithm to create profitable FOREX Trading Strategy. Genetic Algorithm in Cortex Neural Networks Software Feedforward Backpropagation Neural Network Application for genetic computations based Forex trading.

This example uses concepts and ideas of the previous article, so please read Neural Network Genetic Algorithm in FOREX Trading Systems first, though it is not mandatory.

About this text

First of all, please read the disclaimer. This is an example of using Cortex Neural Networks Software genetic algorithm functionality, not an example of how to do profitable trading. I am not your guru, neither should I be responsible for your losses.

Cortex Neural Networks Software has neural networks in it, and FFBP we discussed before is only one way of choosing a forex trading strategies . It is a good technique, powerful and when applied properly, very promicing. However, it has a problem - to teach tne Neural Network . we need to know the "desired output".

It is rather easy to do when we do function approximation, we just take the "real" value of a function, because we know what it should be.

When we do neural network forecasting . we use the technique (described in previous articles) of teaching the Neural Network on the history, again, if we predict, say, an exchange rate, we know (during the training) what the correct prediction is.

However, when we are building a trading system, we have no idea what the correct trading decision is, even if we know the exchange rate! As the matter of fact, we have many forex trading strategies we can use at any point of time, and we need to find a good one - how? What should we feed as the desired output of our Neural Net?

If you followed our previous article, you know, that we have cheated to deal with this problem. We teached the Neural Network to do exchange rate (or exchange rate based indicator) prediction, and then used this prediction to do trading. Then, outside the Neural Network part of the program, we made a decision on which Neural Network is the best one.

Genetic algorithms can deal with this problem directly, they CAN solve the problem stated as "find the best trading signals".

In this article we are going to use Cortex Neural Networks Software to create such a program.

Using Genetic Algorithm

Genetic Algorithms are very well developed, and very diverse. If you want to learn all about them, I suggest you use Wikipedia, as this article is only about what Cortex Neural Networks Software can do.

Having Cortex Neural Networks Software. we can create an Neural Network that takes some input, say, values of an indicator, and produces some output, say, trading signals (buy, sell, hold. ) and stop loss / take profit levels for positions to be opened.

Of course, if we seed this Neural Network 's weights at random, trading results will be terrible. However, let's say we created a dozen of such NNs. Then we can test performance of each of them, and choose the best one, the winner.

This was the "first generation" of NNs. To continue to the second generation, we need to allow our winner to "procreate", but to avoid getting identical copies, let's add some random noice to it's descentants' weights.

In the second generation, we have our first-generation winner and it's imperfect (mutated) copies. Let's do testing again. We will have another winner, which is BETTER then any other Neural Network in the generation.

And so on. We simply allow winners to breed, and eliminate losers, just like in real life evolution, and we will get our best-trading Neural Network . without any prior knowlege on what the trading system ( genetic algorithm ) should be like.

Neural Network Genetic Algorithm: Example 0

This is the first genetic algorithm example . and a very simple one. We are going to walk through it step by step, to learn all tricks that following examples will use.

The code has inline comments, so let's just focus on key moments.

First, we have created a neural network . It is using random weights, and was not yet teached.

Then, in cycle, we make 14 copies of it, using MUTATION_NN fumction. This function makes a copy of a source Neural Network . adding random values from 0 to (in our case) 0.1 to all weights.

We keep handles to resulting 15 NNs in an array, we can do it, as handle is just an integer number.

The reason we use 15 NNs has nothing to do with trading: Cortex Neural Networks Software can plot up to 15 lines on a chart simultaneously.

We can use different approaches to the testing. First, we can use the learning set, all of it at once. Second, we can test on, say, 12000 resords (out of 100000), and walk through the learning set, from beginning to the end. That will make learnigs different, as we will look for Neural Network 's that are profitable on any given part of data, not just on the entire set. The second approach can give us problems, if data change, from the beginning to the end. Then the network will evolve, obtaining ability to trade at the end of data set, and losing ability to trade at its beginning.

To solve that problem, we are going to take random 12000 records fragments from data, and feed it to the Neural Network .

is simply a endless cycle, as 100000 cycles will never be reached at our speed.

Below we add one child for each network, with slightly different weights. Note, that 0.1 for mutation tange is not the only choice, as the matter of fact, even this parameter can be optimized using genetic algorithm .

Newly created NNs are added after 15 existing ones. This way we have 30 NNs in an array, 15 old and 15 new. Then we are going to do the next cycle of testing, and to kill losers, from both generations.

To do testing, we apply Neural Network to our data, to produce outputs, and then call Test function, that uses these outputs to simulate trading. Results of trading are used to deside, which NNs are best.

Note the code:

We use an interval of nLearn records, from nStart to nStart + nLearn, where nStart is a random point within learning set.

The code below is a trick. The reason we use it is to illustrate the fact, that genetic algorithm can create genetic algorithm . but it will not necessarily will be the best one, and also, to suggest, that we can improve result, if we imply some limitations to the learning process.

It is possible, that our trading system works very well on long trades, and very poor on short, or vice versa. If, say, long trades are VERY good, this genetic algorithm may win, even with large losses on short trades.

To avoid it, we assign more weight to long trades in odd and to short trades in even cycles. This is just an example, there is no guarantee, that it will improve something. More about it below, in discussion about corrections. Technically, you don't have to do it, or can make it differently.

Add profit to a sorted array. It returns an insertion position, then we use this position to add Neural Network handle, learning and testing profits to non-sorted arrays. Now we have data for current Neural Network at the same array index as its profit.

The idea is to arrive to array of NNs, sorted by profitability. As array is sortes by profit, to remove 1/2 of networks, that are less profitable, we just need to remove NNs 0 to 14

Trading decisions are based on value of Neural Network signal, from this point of view the program is identical to examples from previous article.

FOREX Trading Strategy: Discussing example 0

First of all, let's take a look at charts. The first chart for profit during the first iteration is not good at all, as should be expected, the Neural Network loses money (image evolution_00_gen_0.png copied after first iteration from "images" folder):

The image for profit on cycle 15 is better, sometimes, genetic algorithm can learn really fast:

However, notice the saturation on a profit curve.

It is interesting also to look at the way individual profits change, keeping in mind, that curve number, say, 3 is not always for the same Neural Network . as they are being born and terminated all the time:

Also note, that out little forex automated trading system performs poor on short trades, and much better on longs, which may or may not be related to the fact, that dollar was falling compared to euro during that period. It also may have something to do with parameters of our indicator (maybe, we need different period for shorts) or the choice of indicators.

Here is the history after 92 and 248 cycles:

To our surprise, genetic algorithm failed completely. Let's try to figure out why, and how to help the situation.

First of all, isn't each generation supposed to be better than the previuos one? The answer is no, at least not within the model we used. If we took ENTIRE learning set at once, and used it repeatedly to teach our NNs, then yes, they will improve on each generation. But instead, we took random fragments (12000 records in time), and used them.

Two questions: why the system failed on random fragments of learning set, and why haven't we used entire learning set? Well. To answer the second question, I did. NNs performed greatly - on learning set. And they failed on testing set, for same reason it failes when we used FFPB learning. To put it differently, our NNs got overspecialized, they learned how to survive in the environment they are used to, but not outside it. This happens a lot in nature.

The approach we took instead was intended to compensate for that, by forcing NNs to perform good on any random fragment of the dataset, so that hopefully, they could also perform on an unfamiliar testing set. Instead, they failed both on testing and on learning set.

Imagine animals, living in a desert. A lot of sun, no snow at all. This is a metafor for rizing market, as for our NNs data play the role of environment. Animals learned to live in a desert.

Imagine animals, that live in a cold climate. Snow and no sun at all. Well, they adjusted.

However, in our experiment, we randomly placed our NNs in a desert, in snow, in the water, on the trees. by presenting them with different fragments of data (randomly rising, falling, flat. ). Animals died.

Or, to put it differently, we selected the best Neural Network for random data set 1, which, say, was for rising market. Then we presented, to the winners and their children, a falling market's data. NNs performed poorly, we took best of poor performers, perhaps, one of the mutant children, that lost ability to trade on rising market, but got some ability to deal with falling one.

Then we turned the table again, and again, we got best performer - but best among poor performers. We simply didn't give our NNs any chances to become universal.

There are techniques allowing genetic algorithm to learn new information without loosing performance on old information (after all, animals can live in summer and in winter, right? So evolution IS able to handle repeating changes). We may discuss these techniques later, though this article is more about using Cortex Neural Networks Software. than about building a successfull forex automated trading system .

Neural Network Genetic Algorithm: Example 1

Now it is time to talk about corrections. A simple genetic algorithm we created during the previous step has two major flaws. First, it failed to trade with profit. It is ok, we can try to use partially trained system (it was profitable at the beginning). The second flaw is more serious: we have no control over things, that this system does. For example, it may learn to be profitable, but with huge drawdowns.

It is a well known fact, that in real life, evolution can optimize more than one parameter simultaneously. For example, we can get an animal, that can run fast AND be resistant to cold. Why not to try doing the same in our forex automated trading system .

That's when we use corrections, which are nothing but the set of additional punishments. Say, our system trades with drawdown 0.5, while we want to confirm it to 0 - 0.3 interval. To "tell" the system that it made a mistake, we decrease its profit (one used to determine, which genetic algorithm won) to the degree, that is proportional to the size of DD. Then, the evolution algorithm takes care of the rest.

There are few more factors, that we want to take into consideration: we may want to have more or less equal number of buy and sell operations, we want to have more of profitable operations, then of failures, we may want the profit chart to be linear and so on.

In evolution_01.tsc we implement a simple set of corrections. First of all, we use some large number for an initial correction value. We multiply it to a small (usually, between 0 and 1) values, depending on the "punishment" we want to apply. Then we multiply our profit to this correction. As the result, profit is corrected, to reflect how much the genetic algorithm corresponds to our other criteria. Then we use the result to find a winner Neural Network .

FOREX Trading Strategy: Discussing example 1

Example 1 works much better, than example 0. During first 100 cycles, it learned a lot, and profit charts look reassuring. However, as in example 0, long trades are much more profitable, which most likely means that there is a problem in our approach. Nevertheless, the system found a balance between couple of contradictory initial conditions:

There is some positive dynamics both in learning set and, more important, in testing set.

As for further learning, at cycle 278 we can see, that our system got overtrained. It means, we still have progress on learning set:

But testing set shows weakness:

This is a common problem with NNs: when we teach it on learning set, it learns to deal with it, and sometimes, it learns too well - to the degree, when it looses performance on testing set.

To deal with that problem, a "traditional" solution is used: we keep looking for the Neural Network . that performs best on testing set, and save it, overwriting previous best one, every time new peak is reached. This is the same approach, we used in FFBP training, except, this time we have to do it ourselves (adding code, that looks for a best Neural Network on a testing set, and calling SAVE_NN, or exporting weights of Neural Network to a file). This way, when you stop your training, you'll have the best performer ON TESTING SET saved and waiting for you.

Note also, that it is not the max. profit you are after, but optimal performance, so consider using corrections, when looking for a best performer on a testing set.

Genetic Algorithm for FOREX Technical Analysis: Where now?

After you got your winner Neural Network . you can follow the steps, described in previous article, to export weights of that Neural Network . and then to use them in your real time trading platform, like Meta Trader, Trade Station and so on.

Alternatively, you can focus on other ways of optimizing the Neural Network . unlike with FFBP algorithm, here you can get avay from using learning and testing sets, and move sequential learning.

Download Cortex Order Cortex View Price List

OUR MISSION is to harness and make available to individual traders and investors the most powerful artificial intelligence solutions using the latest machine learning algorithms in order to develop stable and secure models for predicting forex price movements.

Human FOREX trader v superfast computers and algorithms: WHO WINS?

Even the so called expert advisers operating on popular platforms, utilising with elaborate sets of technical indicators in combination with tools for back testing of strategies are condemned to failure in the long run. There are two simple and primary reasons for this (1) lack of sophistication and (2) Insufficient computational power. The two are closely inter-linked, and with computational power often limited to just a desktop, however powerful it might be, it is impossible to run a strategy with the required level of sophistication to produce stable and long term returns. True artificial intelligence solutions lie beyond the reach of individual traders, investors and even smaller financial institutions.

In this environment to be a successful trader and overcome the restrictions of limited computational power and sophistication our FOREX TRADING ALGORITHM offers the key to your success . Contact us to find out how it can work for you.

Online Forex algorithms

Betfair horse racing trading strategies slow starters offer alow-risk proposition

Betfair horse racing trading strategies slow starters offer alow-risk propositionBetfair Horse Racing Trading Strategies: Slow starters offer a low-risk proposition

"For us the best thing is an over-reaction . Slow starting horses particularly in shorter races (7f or less) often provide this for us."

Published: 21 August 2014

If you've read the previous post about front-running horses you'll know although I'm no form student by any stretch of the imagination. I often look at basic information offered by Timeform to spot a horse's preferred way of running a race. On the exchange this represents an endless list of opportunities to make some cash, however nobody likes to risk too much so finding a way of returning a large amount for very small risk is understandably very popular .

For every action there is a reaction - for us the best thing is an over-reaction . Slow starting horses particularly in shorter races (7f or less) often provide this for us, as an example on Wednesday August 20 in a 7f race at Lingfield (14:20) Pinter ran with a starting price of [5.7]. Just about every time this horse runs it lethargically leaves the gate and tucks in behind the field for a held-up style of running, with the aim of producing a late effort, the result being the opposite of our front-running angle.

Often the price drifts, sometimes erratically depending on how slow the start is. If the other horses are to ensure the race is run at a strong pace the reaction is to be more severe. This is great for us as we have our first 'over-reaction' further into the race no attempt to gain ground means the price is more likely to drift.

At this point I know you're thinking that this is because the horse is losing, but for Pinter it's not true as it's just the preferred way to run the race, the great thing being an enhanced price is offered to the actual chance of winning. Pinter hit an in-play high of [720.0] before winning the race, even if the late charge had not resulted in a victory it certainly would have offered us an opportunity to trade out for a very large return on our initial stake offering a very large upside with a limited downside at risk.

It's up to you how you prefer to play it, often early on it's possible to make a fast profit (although not so large) whereas if it's left later in the race the risk of losing increases but the potential profits get bigger.

Obviously this strategy requires some judgement - although if you keep stakes very low at ?2 it's not all that easy to go broke. And with the aid of the tick offset tool in the GeeksToy trading software things are made far easier. You can set the tool so it will place your exit bet instantly after your entry bet is matched.

To make this strategy as painless as possible I would advise checking out the races prior to the start, you're looking for a horse that historically was 'held-up' or 'slowly away' in the description that also is believed to have a good chance of being relatively close in the finish. Pinter being the prime example.

Online Betfair horse racing trading strategies slow starters offer alow-risk proposition

Binary option queen-top5binary options brokers worldwide&tax havens and corporate strategies

Binary option queen-top5binary options brokers worldwide&tax havens and corporate strategiesBinary option queen - Top 5 Binary Options Brokers Worldwide & TAX HAVENS and Corporate Strategies - Essays on Offshore Investments

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Learning,training-developmentImplementing an Employee Training Development Program

Components of a successful employee learning experience

Based on adult learning principles, here is a checklist for a successful employee learning experience:

The goals of the employee training or development program are clear

The employees are involved in determining the knowledge, skills and abilities to be learned

The employees are participating in activities during the learning process

The work experiences and knowledge that employees bring to each learning situation are used as a resource

A practical and problem-centered approach based on real examples is used

New material is connected to the employee's past learning and work experience

The employees are given an opportunity to reinforce what they learn by practicing

The learning environment is informal, safe and supportive

The individual employee is shown respect

The learning opportunity promotes positive self-esteem

The employee training and development process

Learning happens all the time whether or not you are fully aware of it. Are you a person who forgets to save your work on your computer on a regular basis? If a power failure occurs and you loose some data, do you learn anything? If you say to yourself, I must remember to save more often, you have done some learning. This type of learning is called incidental learning; you have learned without really thinking about it or meaning to. On the other hand, intentional learning happens when you engage in activities with an attitude of what can I learn from this? Employee development requires you to approach everyday activity with the intention of learning from what is going on around you.

Who is responsible for employee training and development?

Employee training is the responsibility of the organization. Employee development is a shared responsibility of management and the individual employee. The responsibility of management is to provide the right resources and an environment that supports the growth and development needs of the individual employee.

For employee training and development to be successful, management should:

Provide a well-crafted job description - it is the foundation upon which employee training and development activities are built

Provide training required by employees to meet the basic competencies for the job. This is usually the supervisor's responsibility

Develop a good understanding of the knowledge, skills and abilities that the organization will need in the future. What are the long-term goals of the organization and what are the implications of these goals for employee development? Share this knowledge with staff

Look for learning opportunities in every-day activity. Was there an incident with a client that everyone could learn from? Is there a new government report with implications for the organization?

Explain the employee development process and encourage staff to develop individual development plans

Support staff when they identify learning activities that make them an asset to your organization both now and in the future

For employee development to be a success, the individual employee should:

Look for learning opportunities in everyday activities

Identify goals and activities for development and prepare an individual development plan

The individual development planning process

An individual development plan is prepared by the employee in partnership with his or her supervisor. The plan is based upon the needs of the employee, the position and the organization. A good individual development plan will be interesting, achievable, practical and realistic. It is implemented with the approval of the employee's supervisor.

Getting Your Organization Ready for Employee Training Development

Related HR Management Standard:

The need for training and development

Employee training and development are part of good management practices and good risk management strategies. The following issues and changes in an organization many indicate the need for employee training and development:

Employee's request

Employee survey results

Evaluation deficiencies

Individual development plan

Law and regulation changes

Need to develop new leaders

New employee

New equipment

New manager

New program

New technology


Safety issues

At the same time as the need for employee training and development is increasing, it can be argued that the time and money available in organizations for traditional forms of learning such as formal training courses has decreased. To meet this gap between the need for training and its accessibility, we've identified a variety of inexpensive methods for employee development that can offer longer leaves than the law requires. Or, your policy can stipulate that employees will be paid while they are on leave. By using these methods in a deliberate and thoughtful way, performance of your employees and your organization can be improved.

Benefits of employee training and development

In the CPRN report Job Quality in Non-profit Organizations . it is pointed out that development opportunities help to ensure that your organization is a desirable place to work. The report's forward states that employee training and development programs also have a positive impact on performance: Job quality affects worker morale, job satisfaction, and the scope workers have to apply their skills and abilities to the job - all key contributors to productivity performance.

Employee training and development programs also help with employee retention. In the book Employee Training and Development (see Links and Resources below), Noe states that:

Studies of what factors influence employee retention suggest that working with good colleagues, challenging job assignments and opportunities for career growth and development are among the top reasons for staying with a company.

Employee training and development programs prepare staff to successfully carry out the mission of the organization. As stated by Zummach (see Links and Resources below),

. nonprofits that invest in their own organizations, particularly in the area of employee development and training. find that they are stronger and better equipped to carry out their mission.

Benefits of employee training and development include:

Employees are better prepared to help the organization achieve its goals

Staff are more productive

Employees are more motivated

Well trained staff require less supervision

A pool of employees are ready to replace others who leave

Staff that engage in continuous learning are better able to meet the challenges of changes in the organization

Staff are able to manage/work on new programs

Your organization will be more successful at attracting and retaining employees

Creating a learning environment in your organization

A positive environment for learning is always critical for success, whether it is the environment of a classroom or the environment of your organization. The learning environment provided by an organization is a function of the organizational culture. Organizational culture means the values, attitudes and beliefs reflected in the mission, goals, and practices of the organization.

The Board of Directors and senior staff of your organization set the tone for the organization's culture. Do their decisions and actions view learning as a positive way to improve individual performance and the performance of the organization? Are these positive outlooks reflected in the value statements, policies and structures that guide the operation of the organization?

Here are some ways organizations that value learning provide a supportive learning environment:

Recognize that learning is part of everything the organization does

Opportunities to learn happen all the time. Organizational cultures that support learning recognize learning as an ongoing process, not an event. A new piece of legislation may be used as a learning tool for all staff. A proposed special event may become a learning opportunity for an employee who has expressed an interest in event management.

Support the expectation of learning with resources for learning

An organization shows that it values learning by including employee training and development in the annual budgeting process. Items included in the annual budget reflect the priorities of the organization.

Encourage learning at all levels

Opportunities to learn are made available for everyone in the organization from the Board of Directors to the most junior staff.

Recognize that mistakes are learning opportunities

One way an organization shows that it values learning is in its approach to mistakes.

Failure is critical to the learning process and must be considered in the context of the individual's role, potential, and future success. When we fail, we might react in one of three ways: learn from the mistake, continue to fail, become reluctant to try again. In today's workplace environment, leaders must develop a culture that removes the punishing effects of failure to help people to take risks, be creative, and to grow. Laurie Hillis (see Links and Resources below).

It is important to encourage people to learn from mistakes rather than being afraid to admit their mistakes for fear of disciplinary action.

Have a policy on employee training and development

A policy on employee training and development shows that the organization values learning. Professional development policies usually include guidance on:

How often employees are expected to take formal training - once a year, once every two year, etc.

The types of development programs that are acceptable

When and how employees will be reimbursed for off-the-job programs

Provide time for learning

Time for learning in the workplace is important for the success of an employee development program. This means giving employees time to learn without the interruptions of every-day activity.

Allow for practice of new skills on-the-job

Learning does not end when the activity is over. Opportunities to use the knowledge and skills they have learned on-the-job will ensure that people retain what they have learned.

Online Learning,training-development

How to test your day trading strategy

How to test your day trading strategyHow to test your day trading strategy

It is necessary to prepare a good day trading strategy to be able to make money by online electronic daytrading. Testing is an important part in the process of creating any profitable intra-day trading strategy.

Every market strategy must be tested before it can be used as part of a profitable daytrading system. This testing can be done by day trading simulation or by doing virtual stock trades.

Do you plan to trade one stock or multiple stocks in your strategies?

The first issue we have to know is specification if our online electronic day trading will use only one or fa ew firmly preselected instruments. Do you plan to trade one stock like some index ETF like SPY or QQQ or any particular ticker suitable for daytrading? Another option is that our strategies will trade stocks that will be selected discretionarily or by some market screener and the list of these stocks could be different every day or week.

Automatic day trading simulation backtesting

When we plan to trade only one instrument then there are more options for testing. Qualities of our strategies could be tested by backtesting and also by other methods described below.

Backtesting is based on the principle that we can check if our online stock trades worked in the past. If our trades are based on some formula that can be defined, then it is possible to define strict rules for entries and exits. These rules could be put into some software automatic day trading simulator. This type of simulator must have enough data about price movements in the past. If we want to backtest daytrading strategy then the simulator must also have historical intraday data in its database.

Then we define the period for testing purposes, first and last day, and run the test. The day trading simulator goes through the defined period, applies our rules to price and simulates trades. Results are recorded and published after the simulation finishes.

Different software packages have different types of simulation integrated. There is a very good backtesting function in Amibroker, the analysis software. Here is an example of AmiBrokers analysis window.

Another good option is Esignal with its Strategy Analyzer. The eSignal Strategy Analyzer has six tabbed sections and more than 250 values useful for strategy performance analysis. Multiple modes of graph presentation and the ability to create personal settings for displaying the values of the report and analyzing the strategy make it ideal for customizing the strategy to meet your individual needs. Visually enhanced graphs and added functionality make back testing and strategy adjustments easy to accomplish.

Manual daytrading simulation backtesting

Another option for testing any daytrading rules is to do virtual trades. Such virtual trade is done manually by personal monitoring of price and decision that all rules are fulfilled and trade can be executed (entry or exit).

It is possible to use historical data available in testing/charting software and use a feature like Bar Replay. With this feature, you can step through your trading day bar-by-bar to assess your strategies and adjust accordingly. This feature is available in AmiBroker and also in Esignal.

The Esignal feature has a fast forward and reverse capability, as well as the ability to step through the data a bar at a time, using your choice of playback intervals

Data about any virtual trade could be recorded manually by writing into Excel or similar spreadsheet software. It is also possible to open some paper trading account for day trading simulation. Then all trades are done in this day trading simulator and every virtual trade is recorded automatically.

When the testing period finishes we have to download recorded data about virtual stock trades into some good journal software where this data can be analyzed.

Forward testing with day trading simulator

It is also possible to test any stock day trading strategy using real time data. To use current day and coming days and make virtual trades in a daytrading simulator when needed by using your daytrading rules.

Again we have to record data manually or automatically with trading journal software and make an evaluation.

This real time strategy testing is also important to do after previous backtesting as the next step before live trading with real money.

Online How to test your day trading strategy

Online currency trading firm in kenya for seminar

Online currency trading firm in kenya for seminarOnline currency trading firm in Kenya for seminar

easy-forex statement below.

easy-forex highlights safe, responsible online currency trading in first African tour

Nairobi, 11 September 2013: Pioneer online currency trading group, easy-forex is hosting its first educational workshop in Kenya on Friday, 13 September, as part of an extended African seminar tour.

With the growing interest in online investment, easy-forex recognised the need for heightened education, training and the mentoring of traders in order to promote responsible and successful online trading, particularly in emerging economies across the African continent.

The three-hour workshop session will be hosted by Alex Holmes, easy-forex director of sales for Africa and Europe, and attendance is free to all easy-forex clients.

Workshop content covers the fundamentals of online trading, such as understanding how the forex market works, the opportunities presented by trading in currencies, commodities and precious metals and the interpretation of trading charts.

The workshop content underscores easy-forex’ emphasis on learning good trading habits. Clients are encouraged to develop and commit to a trading plan that suits their individual trading style. Details will also be shared on how to apply technical and fundamental analysis to trading, and how to balance risk through options trading.

The easy-forex African Seminar tour kicked off in Cape Town on 10 September, from where it moved to Durban and Johannesburg. The East African leg includes workshops in Nairobi and in Uganda on 13 and 14 September respectively.

As one of the longest-running global online currency trading groups, easy-forex is taking a lead in ongoing trader training and support in this highly competitive and rapidly expanding industry.

Simplification remains at the core of the easy-forex offering, says Chief Marketing Officer, Hillik Nissani; “We want to demonstrate and teach people that trading can be easy and fun. We work hard to provide quality education and support throughout our client’s trading journey. Our seminar tour in Africa is testament to our commitment to promote responsible trading.”

Each client is assigned a dedicated personal account service manager to guide and educate them dependent on their needs and level of experience. Once a trader is ready to step up their trading, they get access to a personal dealer. Clients can also tap into an extended knowledge-base captured in a series of eBooks and training videos and get practical tips from market research reports and commentary.

A large and active online community on Facebook, Twitter, Linked In and YouTube provide followers with direct access to best practice solutions, tips and shared successes.

Nissani continues, “Once traders feel empowered, trading starts to become really exciting. I encourage both novice and advanced traders to attend one of our seminars to see how we can assist them to become successful traders – and have fun while doing so.”

Online Online currency trading firm in kenya for seminar

High-leverage training strategy asystematic approach

High-leverage training strategy asystematic approachAchieving Much More with the Same Effort


Use leverage to achieve more.

"Give me a lever long enough and a place to stand, and I can move the Earth." Archimedes

To lift a heavy object, you have a choice: use leverage or not. You can try to lift the object directly risking injury or you can use a lever, such as a jack or a long plank of wood, to transfer some of the weight, and then lift the object that way.

Which approach is wiser? Will you succeed without using leverage? Maybe. But you can lift so much more with leverage, and do it so much more easily!

So what has this got to do with your life and career? The answer is "a lot". By applying the concept of leverage to business and career success, you can, with a little thought, accomplish very much more than you can without it. Without leverage, you may work very hard, but your rewards are limited by the hours you put in. With leverage, you can break this connection and, in time, achieve very much more.

We're not referring to financial leverage here. Financial leverage, using "other people's money" to grow your business, can be a successful growth strategy. However, it's outside the scope of this article.

Levers of Success

So how can you apply leverage to your career? And how can you achieve much more, while-if you choose to-reducing the number of hours that you work?

Is Systems Thinking Appropriate?

While systems thinking is an approach that can provide a very rational view of the situation, as well as the identification of approaches that are highly likely to produce the desired result, it is an approach that requires a substantial investment of effort. The following are some of the signs that indicate a systems thinking approach is most likely warranted.

There are multiple perspectives on just what the situation is, and how to deal with it.

Things seem to oscillate endlessly.

A previously applied fix seems to overshoot the goal

A previously applied fix has created problems elsewhere

Over time there is a tendency to settle for less

After a fix is applied the problem returns in time

The same fix is used repeatedly

There is a tendency to allow an established standard to slip

Growth slows over time

Partners for growth become adversaries

Limitations experienced are believed to result from insufficient capacity

There is more than one limit to growth

Limited resources are shared by others

Growth leads to decline elsewhere

These are the most often experienced situations indicating a systems thinking approach is appropriate. These indicators are actually an interrelated set of systems archetypes, which are described in theWay of Systems .

A systems thinking approach is unwarranted whenever the situation contains no balancing or reinforcing feedback. That is, when the action and the result has no affect on the actors, which is actually very seldom the case.

Develop Patterns of Behavior

To really understand the evolution of the situation it is appropriate to collect historical data and plot the patterns of behavior over time. While this may be a tedious step in the process it is essential to have patterns to use as a reference for validating the following steps.

Evolve the Underlying Structure

Before attempting to deal with a situation it is appropriate to develop an understanding of why the system is behaving the way it is. The underlying structure provides a view of the interactions between the elements of the system which are responsible for producing the patterns of behavior. Change Management: The Columbo Approach depicts the difficulty associated with the dynamic equilibrium in existing systems. If there are multiple perspectives on what structure is responsible for producing the patterns of behavior each of them must be documented as they may all be appropriate. Be sure to include only the relevant relationships so the model doesn't become overly complicated. Also note that once the underlying structure is developed is may become apparent that additional data should be collected to complete the historical patterns of behavior.

Simulate the Underlying Structure

As far as I can tell the only way to ensure that the structure developed adequately describes the situation is to simulate it. The problem with systems that contain more than a couple elements is that the behavior of resources which accumulate or decline over time is often beyond our ability to intuit. The intent of simulation is to verify that the structure developed actually produces the behavior over time trends that were produced from the historical data. If it does then there is value in the structure developed. If the simulation doesn't produce the historical patterns of behavior it is most likely that there is a problem with the assumptions embedded in the structure or the structure itself.

My personal preference is never to use a tool more complex that then situation dictates. As such, the choice of a simulation tool should be guided by the complexity of the structure to be simulated. My current order of choice is:

Vensim PLE - Because it's uncomplicated and the price is right.

myStrategy - Because it's also uncomplicated and the price is reasonable

ithink - Because it's very capable and more comprehensive than the previous two.

Vensim - Because it's extremely powerful though quite usable.

Extend - When I need to do a discrete simulation or a substantial amount of abstraction.

The documentation provided with each of these software packages is quite simply marvelous.

If the initial structure was developed using systems thinking diagrams then Translating Systems Thinking Diagrams to Stock Flow Diagrams might be of use in developing the version of the structure to be simulated.

Identify the Leverage Points

Leverage points are those influences within a system where small changes can effect a substantial change in the system itself. At times the leverage points may be obvious, though at times they only become apparent though sensitivity analysis. Sensitivity analysis being a process where specific changes are made to certain influences within the model with all other components held constant to determine the impact on other elements of the structure. It is this study of the system that promotes the development of our understanding which is so critical to the following steps.

Develop an Alternate Structure

If I desire the patterns of behavior to be different than they are then I have to alter the structure such that it will produce the desired patterns of behavior in the future. What is most appropriate is to look for are the leverage points within the structure where the least amount of effort will produce the greatest desired result.

If the current underlying structure happens to be one of the well defined systems archetypes then the leverage points are already defined and there are well defined strategies for dealing with each of them, which can save you the effort of attempting to develop a strategy. The strategies for dealing with defined archetypes may be found in theWay of Systems .

Simulate the Alternate Structure

Once the alternative structure is developed it must be simulated to determine if it will in fact produce the desired behaviors over time. The simulation also provides an identification of all the touch points that should be monitored over time to ensure the system is on track to produce the desired results.

Develop an Adoption Approach

The next step is to develop a plan for the transition from the current structure to the new structure. This is essentially a project management task, though my preference is to perform the transition in the area(s) that will provide the greatest benefits most quickly. This will tend to encourage and reassure those involved that the transition is going to produce the desired result. Note that the alternate structure actually identifies the appropriate points to monitor during the transition to ensure that the transition is on plan.


Systems thinking is a powerful approach for understanding the nature of why situations are the way they are, and how to go about improving results. Systems thinking is not an easy approach for it requires a substantial investment of effort, and thought, though the results can be more than worth the investment.

Online High-leverage training strategy asystematic approach

Nifty future intraday trading software is working for nse bse mcx with high accuracy with very clear

Nifty future intraday trading software is working for nse bse mcx with high accuracy with very clearNIFTY FUTURE Intraday Trading Software is Working For NSE BSE MCX WITH HIGH ACCURACY With VERY CLEAR TIPS Bse of Technical Analysis Software

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Dailyfx free forex charts netdania

Dailyfx free forex charts netdaniaNetDania ChartStation - Forex, Gold, Silver Indices Charting - How to backup/save your NetDania Setup

The NetDania Chartstation is a very useful free facility.

The latest version now allows much more customisation:

Your setup is stored in cookies. If you lose the cookies you lose everything you've set up.

Here is what I've found out:

1. Firefox 3 no longer stores cookies in simple files. Backup/editing is possible with an extension, but every time Firefox is upgraded the extensions can be unusable, so this is not ideal.

2. Google Chrome stores all the cookies in one unreadable file. So that's not easy either.

3. The regrettable conclusion is that Internet Explorer, with its plain text file individual cookies is the easiest solution.

This is how I did it:

1. Go to NetDania Chartstaion using IE:

2. Start by going to Settings -> Settings, and set the default for new windows eg colour, timescale etc.

3. Create all the 10 minutes windows in the right order, and then change the colours of those I don't want the default colour.

4. Select Window -> Tile Vertically.

5. Save the workspace as "10mins".

6. Change the timescale for all the windows and then save as another workspace (don't save the current one). Repeat.

7. Now there are a variety of timescales to look at all with the same coloured charts.

8. Close the browser and go to: C:Documents and SettingsSteveCookies

9. Copy all the Steve*netdania*.txt files

10. If you want the same setup on another computer, copy the files, run the browser to netdania, then close it again. Then edit the new cookie file and put the old userid into it.

The file to edit is the one that starts like this:

You can get the current userid from Help -> About in chartstation.

With this method you can:

Dailyfx free forex charts netdania

Dailyfx free forex charts netdania

Author: Michi Date: 20.07.2015

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Top 10 Favorites on DailyFX Popular Forex Trading Website Gets Revamped

DailyFX (dailyfx) FXCM’s free news Web site, had a complete site overhaul and the new fresh, easier to navigate layout was launched last week. DailyFX is constantly expanding and improving its offerings.


Oct. 26, 2009 - PRLog -- Top 10 Favorites on DailyFX

Popular Forex Trading Website Gets Revamped

New York, October 26, 2009 ? DailyFX (dailyfx) FXCM’s free news Web site, had a complete site overhaul and the new fresh, easier to navigate layout was launched last week. DailyFX is constantly expanding and improving its offerings, and has released a brand new version of the website. They’ve kept all the same great articles and resources that have made the site so popular, added some new ones, and made everything much easier to use.

Top 10 Favorites on DailyFX

1) Economic Calendar: An in-depth look on major event risk for major economies and currencies, which one can sort by Currency, Date, and Importance. Furthermore, the most important individual events all have detailed write-ups, complete with an indicator on typical market influence. After the event, the DailyFX team updates the numbers and often writes detailed insight on the report and comments on implications for affected currencies and broader trends. Traders can print this calendar out in PDF, XLS, and CSV format—making it convenient for many traders. dailyfx/ calendar/

2) Analyst Picks | Daily, published throughout the trading day DailyFX will share their favorite trades. On Mondays, its "Pick of the Week" – Tuesday, they cover the EUR, Wednesday is the JPY, Thursday is GBP, and CHF, and Friday is AUD, CAD, and NZD pairs. dailyfx/ analyst_picks

3) Free Charts: Traders can access several different free charting packages and learn about more advanced options. The most popular are the Powercharts, Netdania, and FXTrek, while FXCM traders can also download our Marketscope platform to be used natively with the FX Trading Station. Each charting package offers its own unique advantages and features. dailyfx/ charts/

4) DailyFX Forum: DailyFX analysts are actively involved in moderating threads and posting in the forum to ensure high quality and dynamic dialogue. The Forum offers open membership to anyone interested in forex markets, including clients of other forex brokers dailyfxforum

5) FXCM Speculative Sentiment Index | Weekly, published on Thursday

Given that FXCM is one of the largest non-bank forex dealers we believe that our SSI boasts access to one of the biggest and likely one of most representative samples of the broader small-investor Forex market. In our weekly SSI report, we give DailyFX readers a look at historical movements in the SSI and commensurate movements in price—providing a sentiment-based Forex forecast. dailyfx/ technical_analysis/ sentiment/

6) Market Brief | Daily, published at the start of each session, covering major Euro session occurrences and most importantly — the overlap between European and US trading sessions. The early US session and late European session is historically the most volatile time of day for major currency pairs, and knowing what to expect out of US open events is critical to everyday trading. dailyfx/ forex_market_ news/daily_briefings

7) Daily Technicals | Daily, published at 12 noon (EST)

Discussing individual technical outlook for the seven major US dollar crosses. Senior Strategist Jamie Saettele uses Elliott Wave analysis to give forecasts on major currencies. For the non-Elliotticians, DailyFX also offer an early morning Daily Classical report by Technical Strategist Joel Kruger, which uses more traditional technical methods to given relevant forecasts on those same currency pairs.

dailyfx/ technical_analysis/ elliott_wave/ and dailyfx/ technical_analysis

8) Daily Fundamentals | Daily, published at 6 pm (EST)

The wrap-up of all major happenings through the preceding 24 hours of price action. The most-thorough summary and fundamental outlook of the day, it has detailed economic calendars with individual write-ups of the day’s occurrences. DailyFX recommends no trader go without reading the end-of-day fundamentals report. dailyfx/ forex_market_ news/daily_briefings/

9) Weekly Forecast | Weekly, published Friday at 6 pm (EST)

After market close Friday afternoon this weekly forecast covers the major fundamental events of the preceding week and outlook for the subsequent one. This is a detailed rundown of what to expect out of all 7 major US dollar pairs. dailyfx/ forex_market_ news/forecasts/

10) Monthly Forecast | Monthly

Both technical and fundamental forecasts available for the Month’s trading outlook. dailyfx/ forex_market_ news/forecasts/


Mobile Alerts: Now you can start receiving market-moving economic data on your mobile phone. dailyfx/ calendar/mobile_ alerts/

Rollover Calendar: Know beforehand how many days of rollover will be applied to any particular trading day on any trading pair, and when a national holiday will affect rollover. dailyfx/ calendar/rollover_ calendar/

Trading the News LIVE: Now trade news events live with the DailyFX Analysts. An Analyst will answer your questions and give up-to-the-minute commentary on news events as they happen. forexforums. dailyfx/ trading-news - live-coverage - dailyfx-analysts/

Learn how to navigate around the new DailyFX to find all of your favorite articles and some new exciting features: VIDEO: dailyfx/ forex/video/ guest_commentary/ 2009-10-19-1910- Tour_the_New_ DailyFX_Site. html

Let us know what you think of the new site by emailing us your feedback and suggestions to feedbackdailyfx.

About DailyFX

• DailyFX is one of the world’s leading news and information sources for the currency trading community.

• Wide international audience: Over 7 million page views a month.

• Up-to - the minute news: From 20 to 30 articles and reports every day on the latest changes in the currency market.

• Mobile Alerts: Now you can start receiving market-moving economic data on your mobile phone.

• Timely technical analyses: Close examination of promising chart formations.

• Up-to - date analysis of fundamental influences: In-depth analysis of recent price moves, predictions of likely market moves and explanations of economic and political factors driving the market.

• Economic Calendar: Complete release schedule of news events coming out of the G-10 countries, with sort and filter capabilities to rank each by importance and impact on specific currencies.

• Forum: The DailyFX Forum is a serious online forum that avoids the “market noise” and irrelevant personal commentary that plague many forex blogs and forums. DailyFX strives to keep the DailyFX Forum the place where real traders go to talk about serious trading.

• Free charts: Free forex charts for beginning, intermediate and expert traders, complete with live currency quotes

• Live rates: Live currency rates around the clock.

Leveraged foreign exchange trading carries a high level of risk, and may not be suitable for all investors. The possibility exists that you could sustain a loss of some or all of your initial investment and therefore you should not invest money that you cannot afford to lose.

More Information:

Jaclyn Sales

Public Relations Coordinator

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The handbook of pairs trading strategies using equities,options,&futures

The handbook of pairs trading strategies using equities,options,&futuresThe Handbook of Pairs Trading: Strategies Using Equities, Options, & Futures

Synopses & Reviews

Publisher Comments

Pairs trading?and other market-neutral strategies?have been around since the organization of listed markets. Once used only by large institutional investors and hedge funds, this approach has recently been adopted by many individual traders looking to take money out of the markets.

In The Handbook of Pairs Trading, financial professional Douglas Ehrman combines his extensive knowledge and experience within this field to provide you with the tools and techniques necessary to successfully begin managing your own pairs trading portfolio.

Divided into five parts, The Handbook of Pairs Trading explores pairs trading from a variety of angles, each with the joint goal of illustrating both the general tenets of the strategy and presenting the particular approach that Ehrman believes to be superior to all others. In the first three parts, Ehrman explores the elements that make up the trading of equity pairs and the requisite skills that accompany that endeavor. You'll receive a brief history of this discipline, and then learn about some of the most important features of pairs trading, including market neutrality, arbitrage, and technical analysis. After exploring each of these three major components independently, Ehrman spends time pulling them all together?through Unified Pairs Trading Theory?so you can begin to integrate pairs trading into your own investment or trading style.

While pairs trading is easiest to understand when considering equities, the discussion of options, futures, and currencies in the final two parts gives you an expanded collection of tools by which to manage your portfolio. Here, Ehrman explores the application of Unified Pairs Trading Theory to these alternate asset classes and securities types, and takes you step by step through a series of trade examples across various asset classes?to both highlight the nuances of each and to solidify your understanding of the theory.

The Handbook of Pairs Trading clearly explains the theory and practice of this important discipline, and breaks down its strategy so you can gain a firm understanding of the underlying dynamics of pairs trading. Filled with in-depth insight and expert advice, The Handbook of Pairs Trading is a comprehensive resource for those looking to implement this proven and profitable trading strategy.

The Complete Book of Pairs Trading explains both the theory and practice of pairs trading. It discusses how pairs trading is a subset of a market neutral approach – an investment philosophy which involves buying and selling related securities in an attempt to profit from the changing price relationship. The author breaks down the strategy into its component parts, so that the reader gains a bottom-up understanding of the underlying market dynamics of pairs trading, why it is consistently profitable, and how an investor can apply the strategies in their own trading. The book will cover pairs trading involving stocks, single stock futures, and options on stocks and will provide a comprehensive discussion of pairs trading strategies.

The Handbook of Pairs Trading explains both the theory and practice of this discipline. The author breaks down the strategy into its component parts so that the reader can gain a firm understanding of the underlying market dynamics of pairs trading; why it is consistently profitable; and how an investor can apply the strategies in their own trading. This guide covers pairs trading involving stocks, options on stocks, and futures contracts, and explains how it allows readers to profit from the changing price relationship of securities. In addition to its comprehensive discussion on the theories involved, this guide also includes concrete, practical examples that will help readers both assimilate the information and put it into practice.

Praise for The Handbook of PAIRS TRADING

"The Handbook of Pairs Trading gives you the understanding necessary to unlock opportunities that often present themselves in the stock market but are usually only recognized by some of the most successful technical traders on Wall Street. Utilization of Doug's system has been instrumental in building our model at Alchemy Research and aiding in the profitability of our clients."

—Steven A. Chananya Managing Partner and Institutional Sales Alchemy Research, Gotham Equities, D&S Capital

"Doug has outlined a clear roadmap on pairs trading, which can be used as a resource tool for both novices and experienced professionals alike. His attention to detail indicates a clear understanding and strong and controlled approach to the sophisticated trading approach that this book explains. I found the approach to be elegant and entertaining as he married the technical text-type material with the philosophical interludes introducing various chapters."

—James F. Hamilton independent market observer and former CBOE market-maker

"I enjoyed Doug's Sherlock Holmes approach as he unraveled each concept and strategy. The Handbook is a valuable resource for the investor, trader, and fund manager while the implementation of these strategies is a necessity in today's market conditions."

—Rob Friesen CEO, PairCo, LLC

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Training plan template army

Training plan template armyArmy Fitness

Rocking 2 mi Running Plan

The Army 2 mile run is a fantastic distance. Non runners are able to quickly reduce their time, while intermediate and expert runners are able to compete in a fast paced challenging run. This running plan is designed for beginner runners trying to pass their PT test rather than for advanced runners.

You can incorporate this plan into your normal work out, or do this as a standalone workout plan. If you are struggling with the overall PT test, I recommend using this plan along with the Pushup and Situp training plan

The first rule in beginning running is to do no harm. Dont try intervals; dont try serious hills and stop when it hurts. Take it slow, increase your mileage a bit each week and youll to great on the PRT. The last thing you want is to injure yourself weeks before the PT test.

If starting at week one is too easy, pick a moderate week and start there.

This chapter addresses how leaders plan training based upon the assessment. Figure 3-1 expands the training planning process illustrated in the training management cycle. The phases will be discussed in detail as follows:

Long-range planning, which results in the battalion commander's long range calendar.

Short-range planning, which results in the battalion commander's--

--Quarterly training guidance (AC) or yearly training guidance (RC).

--Quarterly training calendar (AC) or yearly training calendar (RC).

--Quarterly training briefing (AC) or yearly training briefing (RC).

--Near-term planning which results in publication of weekly (AC) or monthly (RC) training schedules.

Figure 3-1. Training planning process.


The assessment begins the training planning process. Commanders use their subordinates, key staff members, and NCO leaders to assess the training level on mission essential tasks. Commanders rely on subordinate leaders' feedback to determine their units' training proficiency level. They analyze all available training evaluations, such as ARTEP external evaluations, combat training centers (CTC) take home packages, and annual training reports. Commanders use these evaluations, personal observation, and other feedback to identify the subtasks for each mission essential task which require further training.

In-depth assessment determines a strategy to improve training proficiency on specific weaknesses and plan sustainment training on demonstrated strengths. Assessment links the evaluation of training executed to the planning of upcoming training.


At battalion level, long-range planning starts with unit assessment and is the basis for the long range training calendar. Resources, such as major training areas, ammunition, and fuel, are allocated and shortfalls, identified. The long-range plan synchronizes supporting units and agencies so that training events can be properly executed (Figure 3-2 ).


Long-range planning is based on unit assessment. This assessment identifies training strengths and weaknesses, allowing the commander to plan training which sustains unit strengths and improves weaknesses.

Unit assessment is made by the commander. It is based on his firsthand observations and input from all leaders (officer and NCO). It is the base upon which a training strategy is developed. Unit assessment is--

Developed using evaluations, reports, leader books, or records.

A continuous process; however, formal assessment is normally only conducted at the start of planning phases and after major training events.

Used to set or update unit goals and objectives.

Influenced by future events; for example, personnel turnover, new equipment fielding, or force structure changes.

Training strategy is a concept used to attain desired levels of training proficiency on mission essential tasks. The commander's strategy is based on his assessment of his unit and higher headquarters' command training guidance (CTG). It determines training events and activities to improve or sustain proficiency on each mission essential task. This training strategy supports unit goals and objectives that provide a common direction for the unit's training program.

The commander's training strategy is continuously refined throughout the planning process. Training strategies--

Ensure training is focused on METL and subordinate leader development.

Ensure combined arms is incorporated in all training.

Determine who, what, when, and where to train.

Determine the logical sequence to execute the training.

Determine types of training exercises to be used (see Appendix C ). For example, commanders with an inexperienced battle staff plan more map exercises (MAPEXs), fire coordination exercises (FCXs), and command post exercises (CPXs). The command field exercise (CFX) is excellent for training leaders and staffs with complete command, control, communications, and logistical systems.

Determine frequencies for a given task; for example, train Movement to Contact quarterly during FTXs and Set Up the Tactical Operations Center (TOC) once a month.

Coordinate all training events. CS and CSS commanders must consider unlike units and physical dispersion.

Match the available resources to the training requirements.

Result in commander's training guidance.

These elements of training strategy apply to both Active and Reserve Component units. The RC, in many instances, is required to conduct additional coordination between their wartime and peacetime chains of command. For example, a transportation battalion and an airborne MI company may report through a support group to a US Army Reserve Command (ARCOM) headquarters in peacetime. Yet they are aligned with two different wartime chains of command.

With limited time to train, RC commanders must sequence training of METL tasks throughout the long-range training cycle. Appendix C discusses training exercises that maximize planning time.


Senior commanders publish long-range planning calendars and CTG to give battalion and subordinate commanders adequate time to properly plan training (Figures 3-3 and 3-4 ). Senior commanders provide resources and protect training from distracters.

Figure 3-3. Active Component.

Figure 3-4. Reserve Component.

Division commanders often provide suggested frequency for training events and other activities. Figure 3-5 is an example of an AC division commander's guidance matrix. It can be used as a tool to conduct long-range planning. RC commanders could develop a similar matrix based on training requirements and higher headquarters requirements.

Weekly NCO training time is included on the example matrix. Some training time during the week should be devoted to the small-unit leader (such as a squad leader or a vehicle commander) to train his unit. This enhances readiness and cohesion; it also allows the junior NCO to learn and exercise the Army's training management system at the lowest level. The key is to train the trainer so that he can train his soldiers. This requires the NCO to identify essential soldier and small-unit and team tasks (drills) that support unit METL and then--

To assess strengths and weaknesses.

To formulate a plan to correct deficiencies and sustain strengths.

To execute the training to standard.


Commanders organize training time during long-range planning using time management systems. Time management systems are designed to protect training time for subordinate units. Various types of time management systems are used throughout the Army. Some systems consist of three cycles: units involved in prime time training, units on alert status, and units providing support. Other systems have two cycles: prime time training, and support. The two-cycle system is better suited for the majority of CS and CSS units. Slice units' time management systems should be aligned with the supported maneuver unit. Regardless of the system, its purpose is to provide uninterrupted training time to subordinate commanders.

Taskers from higher headquarters or the installation are managed to protect units in a training cycle. Units being fenced from outside support taskings thus have the time to train collective tasks and to conduct internally directed training exercises. After a period of time, determined by the commander, units that have been fenced from support taskers become the supporting units; units that have been receiving the support taskings are provided uninterrupted time to train.

Time management is especially important in the RC. RC commanders use a time management system to ensure the maximum amount of time is devoted to training essential soldier, leader, and collective tasks. The peacetime chain of command must assist subordinate commanders by consolidating scheduled training distracters, such as human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) testing, panographic x-rays, or inspections, during one or two IDT periods during the year. This impacts least on training.

One way to implement a time management system during IDT is to schedule activities in two - or four-hour blocks concurrently or sequentially on one day. Each squad or platoon is scheduled during a block to accomplish the requirement. The remainder of the unit is conducting training on mission-oriented tasks. RC commanders should provide higher headquarters preferred annual dates to conduct externally directed administrative requirements to minimize impact upon training.

Commanders at all levels can use time management systems. A battalion commander whose unit is in the support period can still provide training time for subordinates. He may direct that during the first week of the support period, Charlie Company will not receive support taskers until Alpha and Bravo Companies have been tasked to the limit of their support capability. During the next week, Bravo Company is the last company to be tasked. The last company to be tasked for support normally will have some time when the other companies are handling all taskers. This provides an opportunity to train soldier and small-unit collective tasks although the battalion is in a support cycle. By managing in this manner, the commander has developed and implemented a time management system. Figure 3-6 lists the characteristics of a three-cycle system known as Green-Amber-Red.

There are training opportunities during every period of the time management system. Specific periods lend themselves to certain types of events. The following shows training events conducted during the Green-Amber-Red time management system:

Post support--red.



Holiday half-day--red.

Weapons qualification--amber.

Combined arms live fire exercise (CALFEX)--green.

National training center (NTC)--green.

Figure 3-6. Green-Amber-Red Time Management System.


Battalion commanders publish their long range guidance in the form of long-range planning calendars. They follow the timeliness in Figures 3-3 and 3-4. Although written training guidance is not required, it may be used to emphasize key training events or higher headquarters' training guidance. Subordinate leaders provide input to the battalion long-range planning calendar.

The battalion long-range planning calendar is a graphic depiction of upcoming training. It provides direction and coordinates resource requirements. Supporting and supported units should exchange planning calendars to enhance coordination.

The Standard Army Training System (SATS) is designed to assist in formatting and producing planning calendars. The following four steps are suggested for preparing the long-range planning calendar. The example depicts only the second quarter of the long-range planning calendar. AC and RC units should modify the four steps to fit the needs of the command. RC units must post AT and IDT dates first.

Step 1. Post the time management system. Posting the time management system first highlights prime-time training periods available to the unit, and support periods. Commanders then focus their resource and exercise planning to take advantage of prime-time training.

NOTE: Holiday periods to include host nation holidays must be posted.

Step 2. Post required training events on the calendar. These are requirements that are directed by higher headquarters. These events provide excellent training opportunities for the battalion commander and subordinate leaders. They must take full advantage of these events to select training objectives to be accomplished. The dates of these events should be annotated. If exact dates are unknown, block window periods. Examples of required training events are--


CTC training rotations.

External evaluations.

Gunnery periods.

Security reaction force duty.

Reserve Officers' Training Corps (ROTC) support.

OPFOR support and training.

RC support (for AC units).

Step 3. Schedule other requirements. Identify other requirements that impact on training. Reduce training distracters by properly identifying required events early in the planning process. Some examples are--

Announced inspections, such as technical validation inspections (TVIs), nuclear surety inspections (NSIs), and command inspection program (CIP) inspections.

New equipment fielding to include new equipment training (NET).

Community and installation support events; for example, parades and displays.

Directed administrative requirements (RC), such as panographic x-rays and HIV screening.

Step 4. Schedule unit-controlled exercises and other training. On the basis of his strategy, the commander schedules events which will improve or sustain METL proficiency in conjunction with higher headquarters' directed training requirements. For example, the battalion commander could schedule a TEWT, a CPX, an FCX, and STXs prior to a brigade FTX.

The long-range planning calendar is staffed with outside agencies that can impact on training. It is coordinated with subordinate and higher commanders, installation commanders, and supporting slice units.

This ensures that supporting slice units and activities are prepared to support the battalion's training plan. Timely coordination will assist in the training integration of the battalion slice.


Short-range planning refines the long-range calendar (Figure 3-7 ). It defines in greater detail the broad guidance on training events and other activities in the long-range planning calendar and CTG (see Appendix A ). It begins with the commander's training assessment and results in--

Quarterly training guidance (QTG) for AC and yearly training guidance (YTG) for RC.

Quarterly training calendar (QTC) for AC and yearly training calendar (YTC) for RC.

Quarterly training briefing (QTB) for AC and yearly training briefing (YTB) for RC.


Short-range planning is based on the long range unit assessment and on a detailed training assessment of the unit's current METL proficiency. It focuses on training deficiencies which impact on the unit's ability to perform its wartime mission. A training assessment is--

Required for each METL task, platoon and squad collective task, soldier task, and, at battalion and higher headquarters, each battle task.

A snapshot of the unit's current soldier, leader, and collective task proficiency.

A comparison of task proficiency with Army standards.

Based on a review of training evaluations; for example, annual training evaluations, CTC take-home packages, and CTC lessons learned (Appendix D ).

Used to determine QTG or YTG.

Step 1. Post the time management system. Posting the time management system first highlights prime-time training periods available to the unit, and support periods. Commanders then focus their resource and exercise planning to take advantage of prime time training.

NOTE: Holiday periods to include host nation holidays must be posted.

Step 2. Post required training events on the calendar. These are requirements that are directed by higher headquarters. These events provide excellent training opportunities for the battalion commander and subordinate leaders. They must take full advantage of these events to select training objectives to be accomplished. The dates of these events should be annotated. If exact dates are unknown, block window periods.


CTC training rotations.

External evaluations.

Gunnery periods.

Security reaction force duty.

Reserve Officers' Training Corps (ROTC) support.

OPFOR support and training.

RC support (for AC units).

Step 3. Schedule other requirements. Identify other requirements that impact on training. Reduce training distracters by properly identifying required events early in the planning process. Some examples are--

Announced inspections, such as technical validation inspections (TVIs), nuclear surety inspections (NSIs), and command inspection program (CIP) inspections.

New equipment fielding to include new equipment training (NET).

Community and installation support events; for example, parades and displays.

Directed administrative requirements (RC), such as panographic x-rays and HIV screening.

Step 4. Schedule unit-controlled exercises and other training. On the basis of his strategy, the commander schedules events which will improve or sustain METL proficiency in conjunction with higher headquarters' directed-training requirements. For example, the battalion commander could schedule a TEWT, a CPX, and FCX, and STXs prior to a brigade FTX.

The long-range planning calendar is staffed with outside agencies that can impact on training. It is coordinated with subordinate and higher commanders, installation commanders, and supporting slice units.

This ensures that supporting slice units and activities are prepared to support the battalion's training plan. Timely coordination will assist in the training integration of the battalion slice.

The CSM, 1SGs, PSGs, squad leaders, and other key NCOs provide input on section, squad, crew, and soldier proficiency on essential soldier tasks for the commander's assessment. Likewise, all leaders provide input to the commander's assessment of leader proficiency. They provide planning recommendations on integrating selected essential leader and soldier tasks into collective mission essential tasks.

NCOs may use a leader book (discussed in Appendix B ) and battle rosters to assess section, squad, crew and soldier tasks. Battle rosters provide a way to record key systems crew data. Figures 3-8 , 3-9. 3-10. and 3-11 illustrate sample formats that may be used. Specific information and format for battle rosters depend on the unit's mission requirements. Battle rosters--

May be maintained formally or informally.

Are maintained at battalion level and below.

Track key weapon and support systems, such as tanks, attack helicopters, howitzers, radars, trucks, and tube launched, optically tracked, wire-guided (TOW) missiles.

Track crew data; for example, stability, manning levels, and qualification status.

Designate qualified back-up crew members.

Identify soldiers to enable them to train as a designated crew.

The commander's assessment of training proficiency on METL tasks is rated as either "T" (trained), "P" (needs practice), or "U" (untrained):

"T" (trained) means that the unit can successfully perform the task to standard. Only sustainment training is needed. The leader judges task performance to be free of significant shortcomings. Practice on "T" tasks is designed to keep soldiers from losing proficiency.

"P" (needs practice) means that the unit can perform the task with some shortcomings. The shortcomings are not severe enough to require complete retraining. Only refresher training is required.

"U" (untrained) means that the unit cannot perform the task to standard. The leader prepares a comprehensive strategy to train all supporting tasks not executed to standard.

Figure 3-8. Combat arms battle roster.

Commanders may use SATS (when available) or locally developed worksheets to record their training assessment. One method is to use the BOS as a guide. Those BOS that do not apply to the task would be left blank on the worksheet. (Sample extracts for Task Force 1-77 and Team A are at Figures 3-12 and 3-13. Extracts for the 52d Engineer Battalion and the 1st Forward Support Battalion are at Figures 3-14 and 3-15 ).

Figure 3-12. Extract from TF 1-77 commander's training assessment.

Figure 3-13. Extract from Team A.

Figure 3-14. Extract from 52d Engineer.

Figure 3-15. Extract from 1st FSB commander's training assessment.

Figure 3-16. Extract Commanders Assessment by subunit of METL task Defend.

Figure 3-16 is a sample of the commander's assessment by subordinate units of the mission essential task Defend. The TF 1-77 commander assessed it as "P" in Figure 3-12 using the BOS. Battle tasks or supporting tasks are recorded down the left side; subunit assessment, across the top; and specific deficiencies, in the right column.

This in-depth commander's assessment recognizes that a deficiency in one company may not be a deficiency in another company. It allows the commander to tailor his training to specific subordinate unit weaknesses and develop an effective training plan to correct them.


Risk assessment is the thought process of making operations safer without compromising the mission. Commanders must continuously perform a risk assessment of conditions under which training is conducted to prevent the unnecessary loss of soldiers and equipment. The degree of risk varies with the conditions at the time of training. For example, have the soldiers done the training before? Will the training be done for the first time at night? Are the soldiers fatigued? In reality, risk management is smart decision making.

Training must be tough, realistic, and safe. Commanders must consider the following points as they integrate risk assessment into their training:

Accept no unnecessary risks.

Make risk decisions at the proper level.

Accept risks if mission benefits outweigh the costs.

It is important to remember that the commander is the safety officer, but all soldiers and leaders are responsible for safe training. All leaders must--

Identify the risks using METT-T factors.

Assess possible loss, cost, and probability.

Make decisions and develop controls to reduce risks.

Implement controls by integrating them into plans, orders, SOPs, training performance standards, and rehearsals.

Supervise and enforce at all times safety controls and standards.


Commander's guidance is his written expression of training strategy that conveys the battalion commander's training objectives and priorities and highlights training events. The commander's training strategy provides the detail from which training schedules can be developed. It also lays out the sequence of training to be accomplished and includes the who, what, when, and where to train. See Appendix A for an example battalion QTG. Commanders at separate company level and above publish the QTG and YTG to allow sufficient time for subordinate commanders to conduct near-term planning (Figures 3-17 and 3-18 ). Subordinate leaders provide planning recommendations for inclusion in the commander's written guidance.

Topics normally addressed in the QTG and YTG are--

Commander's training assessment of METL proficiency.

Training priorities based on assessment.

Integration of slice training. (Train as you fight.)

Impact of time management systems on scheduled training.

Integration of soldier, leader, and collective training (multiechelon training).

Allocation of resources.

Impact of new equipment and NET.

Evaluations, inspections, and feedback.

Integration of maintenance training. (Train to maintain.)

Trainer preparation time (pre-execution checks to ensure safe and realistic training). (Train the trainer.)

Designation of units which will portray the OPFOR during planned exercises.

Figure 3-17. AC short-range planning cycle.

RC commanders may publish YTG in the form of a training circular or a memorandum. When different type subordinate units are involved YTG may focus on mandatory requirements; for example, IDT dates, AT dates, weapons qualification, HIV testing, or records review.

The battalion commander allocates training time by matching METL tasks with programmed events. For example, the TF commander plans a TF TEWT and company team MAPEX to take full advantage of the scheduled brigade CPX prior to the TF FTX (Figure 3-19 ).

This planning process provides a structure for improving and sustaining proficiency on mission essential soldier, leader, and collective tasks. Leaders must emphasize sustainment after the task has been performed to standard. They must allocate sufficient time to retrain and repeat critical tasks often enough to sustain proficiency.


Commanders provide guidance on the use of multiechelon training to plan and refine training events. Multiechelon training maximizes training opportunities at the decisive time and place. Multiechelon training must occur during all collective training. Specific tasks for soldiers and leaders must be planned and evaluated at each echelon. The battalion commander determines which tasks the battalion will train based on his assessment of proficiency. Each subordinate leader conducts a similar assessment and determines soldier, leader, and collective tasks to be trained. Generally, tasks selected for training by subordinate leaders support the training objectives of the commander directing the event.

Lane training is an excellent way to execute multiechelon training using external support and evaluation. It enables a unit to train repetitively to standard with a tough, competent OPFOR employing appropriate MILES and OCs. However, lane training is resource-intensive, to include ammunition, pyrotechnics, OPFOR, training areas, TADSS (Appendix E ), MILES-related equipment, support unit assets, and evaluators.

Regardless of the echelon which directs a training event, all subordinate leaders must view it as a training opportunity. Commanders determine which METL tasks they can train within the conduct of the higher unit's training event. Samples of multiechelon events are Figures 3-20. 3-21. and 3-22.

Figure 3-20. Sample signal battalion multiechelon exercise.

Figure 3-21. Sample supply and service multiechelon exercise.

Figure 3-22. Sample task force multiechelon exercise.


Short-range planning calendars are published along with the QTG and YTG, graphically depicting the schedule of events. Calendars should be posted where soldiers can see them. Figure 3-23 is a sample AC signal battalion QTC in the SATS format. Figure 3-24 is a sample RC main support battalion YTC. Although company commanders are not required to prepare short range planning calendars, they may do so to use as a management tool.

Figure 3-23. Sample Active Component QTC.

Figure 3-24. Sample Reserve Componet YTC.


AC commanders brief the QTB to the commanders two levels above. Battalion commanders brief the division commander and company commanders brief the brigade commander. Battalion commanders in separate brigades and regiments present the QTB to corps major subordinate commanders. The YTB for RC units is normally presented to the next higher peacetime commander. Separate RC battalion commanders and company commanders may also brief the next higher wartime commander. Some RC units may not be able to conduct in-person briefings. In those cases, commanders must use other means such as messages or mail.

The briefings are designed to discuss past, present, and future training expectations. They result in a training contract or agreement between the senior and subordinate commander. This contract or agreement consists of two parts. First, upon his approval of the subordinate's plan, the senior commander agrees to provide resources and protect the subordinate unit from unprogrammed training distracters. Second, the subordinate commander agrees to execute the approved training to standard.

The QTB is conducted prior to the lock-in window (ideally about six weeks before execution of next quarter's training in AC units) after drafting the QTG and QTC. The YTB is conducted prior to the start of the fiscal year in RC units, following drafting of the YTG and YTC. After approval by the next-higher commander, the training guidance and calendar are published. The following topics as a minimum should be briefed:

Unit's METL assessment.

Training assessment (to include assessment of slice elements).

Training briefed, but not conducted, from last QTB or YTB.

Commander's strategy to train METL tasks.

Next quarter's or year's training.

Assessment of soldier and leader training.

Linkage of soldier, leader, and collective task training.

Resource management and restrictions.

Long-range training update.

Lessons learned.

The CSM and 1SG normally brief after their commander. They provide an analysis of the unit's soldier training proficiency and discuss the unit's proposed soldier training and education plans. Special emphasis must be placed on low-density MOSs. Areas of discussion should include--

An assessment of the unit's battle focused soldier and leader training program.

Soldier training proficiency feedback received during the previous short-range planning period.

A description of METL-derived soldier tasks to be emphasized during the upcoming period (such as marksmanship program).

A description of soldier and collective tasks linkages.

The unit's education, Army Physical Fitness Test (APFT), and overweight programs.

The senior commander determines the format and content of the briefing. (See Appendix F for sample.) However, the format should be flexible enough to allow subordinate commanders, CSMs, and 1SGs to highlight their strengths, weaknesses, initiatives, and priorities.

The division and brigade commanders must ensure that the slice leaders attend the battalion QTB to integrate training plans. Participants could include division staff, DISCOM, FSB commanders, division artillery (DIVARTY), direct support (DS) field artillery commanders, DS intelligence commander, and separate battalion commanders. The battalion commander ensures that the following prepare, attend, and participate in the briefing:

Battalion CSM.

All subordinate company commanders and their 1SGs.

Battalion staff (executive officer, S1, S2, S3, S4, battalion maintenance officer (BMO), signal officer, and chaplain, or their respective NCO counterparts).

Specialty platoon leaders (mortar, scouts, medical, signal, and support).

Slice leaders (engineer, air defense (AD), FSO, MI GSR, and ALO).

Others as deemed appropriate by the commander.

The company commander ensures that the 1SG, platoon leaders, and platoon sergeants attend the company training briefing. He also coordinates with battalion to ensure his habitually associated slice leaders attend. This may be difficult for RC units.

The QTB or YTB highlights the senior commander's leader development program. Subordinate commanders and leaders can then see how their METL and training plans fit into the battle focused training programs of their senior commanders and peers.

The briefing creates confidence throughout the command by ensuring that leaders at all levels understand the intent of their senior commanders. Commanders can then make effective, independent training decisions to meet that intent as they execute the approved training plan. This level of mutual understanding can only be developed through close and professional interaction.

Battalion and company commanders use the briefing as a training management review process. The briefing helps the unit--

Review training strategy, training events, strengths, and weaknesses.

Discuss previously coordinated training events and associated activities.

Explain how the unit's training program will help the unit to attain the higher commander's goals and objectives.

Highlight problem areas for discussion.

Clarify command responsibilities for allocating resources. (Additionally, senior commanders recommend ways to more efficiently use available resources.)

Eliminate training distracters.

The commanders' contract or agreement locks in resources to enable battalion and subordinate commanders to begin near-term planning.


Near-term planning defines specific actions required to execute the short-range plan. It is the final phase of planning prior to the execution of training. In near-term planning, commanders--

Conduct training meetings to coordinate and finalize all training events, activities, and resources.

Provide specific guidance to trainers and OCs.

Prepare OPFOR plan and training objectives.

Prepare T&EOs.

Ensure slice units have been integrated into the unit's training.

Determine time for pre-execution checks.

Prepare detailed training schedules.

Near-term planning covers a six-to eight week period prior to the execution of training for AC units (Figure 3-25 ), and a four-month period prior to execution of training for RC units (Figure 3-26 ).

Figure 3-25. AC near-term planning cycle.

Figure 3-26. RC near-term planning cycle.


Training meetings are non-negotiable at battalion and company level. They will be held. Training meetings provide guidance for forming training schedules.

The payoff for well-structured, well-organized, and recurring training meetings is training that is exciting and demanding and is directly related to the unit's mission. Figure 3-27 lists important points about training meetings.

The primary focus of training meetings at battalion level is training management issues for the next six weeks. Coordination meetings should be held to resolve resource issues prior to the battalion training meeting. At company level, training meetings focus on the specifics of training to be conducted.

Meetings are also held at platoon and squad level. Essential soldier, leader, and collective training needs must be identified and sent up the chain of command. Likewise, information passed out at the company training meeting must reach every soldier through the platoon chain of command. The training schedule provides this detailed information.

Suggested Participants

This section recommends participants for battalion and company training meetings. At battalion level, participants may include--

Battalion commander.

Command sergeant major.

Battalion executive officer.

Company commanders and first sergeants.

Specialty platoon leaders (medical, support, scouts, mortar, signal as required).

Slice leaders (FSO, engineer, AD, GSR, and MST).

Operations officer from the FSB or main support battalion (MSB);

Battalion staff (S1, S2, S3, and S4).

Special staff (chaplain, chemical officer, BMO, and physician's assistant).

Battalion operations sergeant.

Figure 3-27. Points about training meetings.

When appropriate, RC commanders may want to include participants from the readiness group and AC partnership unit. When geographical dispersion precludes the company attending battalion training meetings, essential training information must be exchanged. Units should consider mail or other means to exchange critical information.

At company level, participants include the following:

Company commander.

First sergeant.

Executive officer.

Platoon leaders and platoon sergeants.

Supply sergeant.

NBC NCO or specialist.

Motor sergeant (as applicable).

Slice team leaders (medical, FIST, engineer, and others, as applicable).

Other key leaders who are designated by the commander.

Suggested Agenda

Training meetings at each echelon review past training. Further, they refine and plan training for the next six weeks.

At battalion level, the following agenda may be used:

Review of QTC or YTC.

Past training (briefed by company commanders), to include--

--Assess training conducted since the last meeting.

--Review reasons for training planned, but not conducted.

--Update the current status of training proficiency.

Near-term training, to include--

--Discuss new guidance received from higher commanders.

--Lock in training scheduled for next four to six weeks (next three months for RC).

--Review and complete pre-execution checks (document training distracters from higher headquarters).

--Issue commander's guidance for training scheduled six to eight weeks out (four months out for RC).

--Review preparations for multiechelon training.

--Review the short-range plan.

--Review projected resources.

At company training meetings, the agenda may be as follows:

Past training (briefed by platoon leaders and sergeants), to include--

--Assess training conducted since the last meeting (collective and soldier tasks).

--Review reasons for training planned, but not conducted.

--Determine the current status of training proficiency.

Near-term training, to include--

--Apply new guidelines from higher commanders, especially new or unscheduled requirements.

--Review pre-execution checks for training scheduled for next four to six weeks (next three months for RC).

--Ensure platoon leader and sergeant recommendations are included in training scheduled six to eight weeks out (four months out for RC).

--Identify and prepare opportunity training.

--Identify key soldier changes and resource needs.

Figure 3-28 depicts an example agenda and discussion from a company training meeting.


Near-term planning conducted at the training meeting results in detailed training schedules. The training schedule is the unit's primary management tool to ensure training is conducted on time and by qualified trainers with the necessary resources.

Draft training schedules and pre-execution checks must be initiated at least six to eight weeks (four months for RC) prior to the training. This ensures resources are coordinated and external support is requested. For AC, training schedules are published four to six weeks prior to execution; for RC, three months prior. Pre-execution checks and execution of training may be more difficult for the RC than for the AC. Geographical dispersion, remoteness from support installations, and lack of facilities and TADSS demand extra effort to accomplish training. For example, RC units may travel four hours from Kansas City, KS, to Fort Riley, KS, to use qualification ranges. Or trainers may travel two hours from Charleston, SC, to Fort Jackson, SC, to obtain TADSS for a weekend drill.

Once the battalion commander approves and the company commander signs the training schedule, it is locked in and constitutes an official order. It can only be changed by the approving authority; for example, for the company, it is normally the battalion commander. Higher headquarters must then protect units from unprogrammed events, activities, and other distracters.

Leaders must ensure daily training is conducted to standard and adheres to the training schedule. CSMs and 1SGs are key to making this happen. Soldiers have a legal responsibility to attend scheduled training.

Commanders establish procedures to minimize changes to the training schedules. Responsibilities of commanders are normally established as follows:

Subordinate leaders recommend the sequence of training and allocation of time, resources, and TTP during the company training meeting. The company commander drafts the training schedule based on this input.

The battalion commander approves the training schedule and the company commander signs it. The battalion commander provides necessary administrative support for publishing.

Figure 3-28. Sample training meeting agenda.

The brigade commander normally reviews each training schedule published in his command and visits selected training.

The division commander reviews selected training highlights prepared by the division staff. These provide information on scheduled training that he may decide to visit and assess.

SATS provides commanders an excellent standardized format for training schedules. For those units which do not have SATS, the format should remain the same. Training schedules should specify--

The day and time training starts and ends. (The correct amount of time must be allocated for scheduled training and additional training required to correct deficiencies.)

Soldiers to be trained (specific enough to ensure each soldier knows where he is to be).

Subject to be trained (soldier, leader, and collective tasks).

Location of training (range, grid location, or MTA).

Trainers, by name (primary and assistant).

Training references (for example, FM 22-5, ARTEP 71-2-MTP, to include chapter and task number, page and paragraph number, if applicable).

Uniform and equipment required.

Comments and remarks concerning uniform, weapons, equipment, references, and safety precautions. Opportunity training topics should also be added.

Figure 3-29 provides suggested weekly steps for AC company training schedule development. The RC process involves the same steps spread over a four-month period. Units designated as OPFOR will also use the same process to prepare their soldiers and leaders to portray a doctrinally correct threat.

Near-term planning culminates when the unit executes the training planned on the training schedule. Sample training schedules for AC and RC companies are at Figure 3-30 and Figure 3-31.

Figure 3-29. Training schedule development.

Figure 3-30. Sample AC weekly training schedule-infantry company.

Figure 3-31. Sample RC monthly training schedule.


Pre-execution checks are the informal planning and coordination conducted prior to training execution. They are developed to systematically prepare soldiers, trainers, and resources to ensure training execution starts properly. These checks are developed and responsibility for them fixed during the short-range planning phase. They become increasingly detailed during the near-term phase. Pre-execution checks provide the attention to detail needed to use resources efficiently. Figure 3-32 shows a sample pre-execution checklist.

Figure 3-32. Sample pre-execution checks.


Formal planning for training culminates with the publication of the training schedule. Informal planning and detailed coordination (preexecution checks) continue until the training is performed.

To conduct effective, meaningful training for soldiers, leaders, and units, thorough preparation is essential. Well-prepared trainers, soldiers, and support personnel are ready to participate and their facilities, equipment, and materials are ready to use.

Proper preparation gives trainers confidence in their ability to train. They must rehearse their preparations and review the tasks and subtasks to be covered during their training. To prepare trainers to conduct performance-oriented training, commanders and leaders must--

Provide training guidance, resources, and references.

Provide preparation time so that the trainer can--

--Review references, such as ARTEP 71-2-MTP, soldier's manuals, FMs, and TMs to understand tasks, conditions, and standards.

--Prepare a T&EO.

--Gather and prepare training support items, equipment, and supplies such as MILES equipment, other TADSS, and Class III and IX items.

--Conduct a reconnaissance of training site.

--Prepare the soldiers for training.

Schedule rehearsals for the trainer.

Conduct rehearsals to--

--Identify weak points in the training plan.

--Teach effective training techniques.

--Coach the trainer until he feels comfortable.

--Ensure all safety and environmental considerations are met.

--Ask pertinent questions to determine if the leader is technically and tactically proficient.

--Determine how the trainer will evaluate the soldiers' or unit's performance at the end of training for compliance with the training objective. Have the trainer demonstrate the evaluation procedure, if appropriate.

--Assess subordinate trainer competencies and provide developmental feedback to them throughout the training preparation and execution process.

--Give them confidence in their ability to train.

Prepare T&EO to--

--Guide soldier, leader, and collective training.

--Provide summary information on training objectives (soldier, leader, and unit) which support mission essential tasks.

--Provide information on resource requirements.

--Provide generic conditions. Leaders must adjust to METT-T.

Leaders use MTPs, MQS manuals, soldier'smanuals, drill books, and similar publications to develop the T&EO. Whenever possible, they use the published T&EO. An example T&EO from ARTEP 71-2-MTP is at Figure 3-33.

To conduct effective, meaningful training for soldiers, leaders, and units, thorough preparation is essential. Leaders themselves must be able to perform the task before trying to teach others. Proper preparation gives them confidence in their ability to train. After proper planning and preparation are complete, soldiers, leaders, and units are ready to execute training to standard.

Figure 3-33. Example battalion task force T&EO.

Online Training plan template army

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Trading strategy gold

Trading strategy goldMichael Stokes

Trading Strategy: Gold vs. Gold Stocks

Feb. 5, 2009 5:26 AM

Last month I shared a strategy that used the ratio between oil stocks and the price of oil itself to trade the oil sector (read part I and part II ).

Keeping with that theme, in this post Ill look at using the ratio between gold stocks and gold to trade very short-term moves in gold. Ive been wrestling with this observation for a while, and Im sharing the basic concept here because I think the strategy is not ready for primetime (more on this later).

First, let's look at the ratio of gold (represented by the streetTRACKS Gold Shares ETF (NYSEARCA:GLD )) over the Gold Sector Index (XAU) from 2005:

click to enlarge

Over the last 4+ years, the two have traded in a fairly narrow range versus the other, but in mid-2008 the ratio exploded as investors embraced the “safe” (good for gold) and abandoned all things equity-related (bad for gold stocks).

Note: Im using the ETF GLD to represent physical gold, and the index ^XAU to represent the sector, because I think those two are the most familiar to readers, but the observations in this post have more or less held for other vehicles such as futures (gold) and the MKT VECT GOLD MNRS ETF (NYSEARCA:GDX ) (gold sector).

The ratio of gold vs the gold sector has exhibited a fairly strong contrarian tendency. The following graph shows the results of two strategies, the first (green) going long gold at todays close if GLD underperformed XAU for the day, and the second (red) going long if GLD outperformed XAU, frictionless from 2005 to present.

click to enlarge


The observation hasnt been foolproof (note late 2005, early 2006, late 2007, and early 2008), but generally speaking, gold has been consistently stronger tomorrow when yesterday it underperformed gold stocks (and vice-versa).

For the number-lovers:

click to enlarge

This strategy is exploiting a very small daily advantage (similar for example to adaptive daily follow-through ), and therein lays a problem.

Most of the strategies that I talk about on this blog could be traded using leveraged mutual funds (not to be confused with leveraged ETFs). These are the only thing that I trade. Because they incur no transaction fees or slippage, most of the tests Ive performed on this blog could have been duplicated, for all intents and purposes, as well in the real world.

But here, this is not the case. To the best of my knowledge, there are no mutual funds suitable for active trading that track gold (the gold sector yes, but not gold itself). Trading this strategy with ETFs/futures would bring trading frictions that would close an already very fine advantage.

Im struggling now with a way to improve upon this advantage enough to make it tradable. I share it here in hopes that Ill generate a spark amongst fellow quantish folks who frequent the MarketSci Blog.

How to Day Trade Spot Gold Futures with Accuracy

March 23rd, 2010 at 1:09 pm

Day Trading Spot Gold Futures is a touchy subject among traders. You either hate it and think it cannot be day traded for consistent gains or your love it finding its movements very accurate. As most of you know I love trading gold

I get my fair share of emails from individuals who think trading gold is a complete scam because of manipulation and crazy price action and I completely agree with this group of people. But the entire market is manipulated… so we all just have to deal with it or stop trading and I am not going to do that.

My focus is on price action and volume allowing me to think with a level head and manage my money one candle stick bar at a time.

Spot Gold Futures Day Trade Video

So here is a short video covering a recent day trade for spot gold futures. Notice in the video I use the gold futures chart for analyzing the market and how I traded with CFD’s during the late night.

The reason I traded CFD’s is simply because you can trade any size position with CFD’s big or small and I like small positions during overnight trades when I am sleeping. Also you get crazy 100-200x leverage trading CFD’s. So I can risk a very small amount of money but have big potential if a trade goes in my favor so for this small move in gold I was able to capture the gains with little risk.

It is important to note that when I have a buy or sell signal in gold, silver, oil, the indexes etc… any related investment can be traded. For example if I have a buy signal for gold the you can trade gold futures, gold CFD’s. gold ETF’s etc…. they all move together at the same time. You pick which investment you are comfortable wil.

Anyways, day trading spot gold is my sweet spot (Pardon the pun) in the market and with my new trader service launching April 6th were I provide every trade I do whether its an ETF, Futures or CFD play members will be able to trade directly beside me in the chatroom which has a live audio squawk box. The service will be very educational as you not only see what and when im trading but can ask me questions and read my weekly educational trading reports explaining closed out trades.

Link to article if you cannot view it: Click Here

Gold Trading Conclusion:

I hope this short video helps you understand that taking every trade the market seems to be giving you does not always need to be taken. The average trader thinks that I am extremely aggressive as I day trade, swing trade and do so some long term dividend plays etc… but really I would consider myself VERY CONSERVATIVE.

I pass on about 70% of the setups I see and wait for something that has ALL the stars aligned before putting my money to work. The market is designed to chew up and spit out gamblers before they even know what hit them. And this is why I site back and watch the blood bath on a daily basis only sticking my hand in when it looks clear.

You will not see me bet the house on any given trade. All I am looking for is a low risk setup. If there is an edge I will take the opportunity to make money whether it’s a quick $50 or a $1500 a day trade setup.

If you would like to receive my Free Weekly ETF Trading Report to your inbox please visit my website: GoldAndOilGuy

Get Notified about my New Trading Service

Chris Vermeulen

This entry was posted on Tuesday, March 23rd, 2010 at 1:09 pm and is filed under Daily Market Trades. Gold ETF Analysis. Trading Education. You can follow any responses to this entry through the RSS 2.0 feed. Both comments and pings are currently closed.

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The XAU/USD instrument – a gold trading strategy

Details Published: 06.12.2013 06:04 Written by Jeremy Stanley Category: Trading strategies Hits: 2518

The Internet trading pays much attention to an instrument called XAU/USD, in other words, gold. At the first sight the gold trading does not differ from any currency pair trading. But it is not right. This strategy has a number of distinctive factors which should be considered, as they play a role in the gold trading strategy itself. Even if you look at the price chart for this precious metal, you will notice that it there are much less volatile fluctuations on it. Gold is moving more directly and has less "noisy" movements in large time frames. Of course there is an explanation, but we will reach it further.

In order to apply the gold trading strategy effectively, one should understand and know the factors that may affect on the strategy itself.

1. The most important thing here – is the fact that gold is tightly linked to the economic situation in states. If there is a destabilization of the markets, which develops into a crisis, or at least into a recession, investors immediately begin investing in gold. Consequently, precious metal usually increases in price during the crisis.

2. It should be noted here that the presence of a relatively large spread and typical long-term of this instrument requires a considerable deposit, and this requirement makes it impossible for many traders to work with this instrument.

3. This spot-quotation is typically used with the aim of currency pairs such as EUR/USD and USD/JPY. These instruments precisely reflect the moving trend of gold.

The square shows the gold prices movements during the beginning of the U. S. mortgage crisis and the crisis in 2008.

Thus, if we compare this financial instrument with any of the major currency pairs, the difference between them will be obvious. Mostly more "serious" traders work with gold and ordinary traders there are less common. Central banks of countries are largest participants of the gold market. Therefore, this factor must be taken into account as well when one constructs gold trading strategies.

Below a simple trading system is presented for the following reasons: as only traders or investors, so to speak, of a larger "caliber", work with this pair, thus in comparison with other instruments, gold more truthfully reflects the ratio of the price movement towards volume. Everyone knows that the volume indicator shows the ticks not money. Consequently, the amount of not significant ticks will be considerably less, and it will give us a clearer reflection of the information about the gold market.

The picture clearly illustrates what the volume indicator shows. When it moves laterally the downward trend of the volume becomes clearer. Even the little amount of candles in a yellow square, and the index of the volume indicator shoes that it is better to prepared for a change of direction. Please note that the MACD in that case also sends a beginning of bearish movement signal. However, despite of this, one should wait for more obvious downward trend signs. And only when the price crosses the moving average downwards, one can search for the signals for opening sell orders at shorter intervals of time.

Having examined week or even day interval it is possible to seek moments to open orders in the direction of the downward movement. The volume index also shows grouping green or red lines and this fact indicates a possible change in the direction of price movement. But, despite of this, there is an opportunity to open sell orders when the price crosses the moving average. Basically, you can use pending order. Stops should be placed outside of the local levels of support/resistance.

Thus, the strategy of gold trading has no difference with any other strategy. All indicators and time intervals are the same. The only outstanding feature of this pair is that it requires more capital from the trader. High spread, high volatility and as a result, a greater amount of the deposit, make the trader work precisely with the gold trading strategy in a more rigid framework. And if a mistake on one of the currency pair’s transactions can lead to considerable losses, in the gold trading, the same error may become the last. Source: Dewinforex

A Gold trading strategy

Gold responds to the fundamentals we just described earlier. If you have the fundamentals at work, you can use the technicals to determine where to make your entries.

A Gold Trading Strategy

Trading gold can be dangerously exciting. Exciting because you can make money beyond your wildest imagination if you know what you are doing, and dangerous because this instrument has no qualms decimating the accounts of a trader who tries to trade it without the relevant knowledge and experience.

The truth however is that gold can be traded by the experienced and not-too-experienced traders, and this is how to go about it.

For the Experienced Traders

If you are experienced, you can trade the XAU/USD (gold/USD) contract/mini-contract on the financial markets. In order to do this, you need to understand the peculiar behaviour of gold. Gold is a wealth asset. Unlike silver which is priced for its wide industrial and pharmaceutical usage, gold is used predominantly for the purpose of wealth accumulation and preservation. Some historical figures such as King Solomon, King Mansa Musa of Mali and others like them were reputed to be very rich because of the amount of gold at their disposal. Mansa Musa was reputed to have made his famed Mecca pilgrimage with 60,000 pounds of gold.

The value of gold never really depreciates, and that is why when currencies are failing (or being sold off in the markets because of bad economic news emanating from a particular zone), we see a new kind of gold rush as traders rush into this safe haven currency. Trading gold online needs a lot of cash. You cannot trade gold effectively with a $500 account. You need at least $10,000 to trade the mini-contract as the asset is volatile and margin requirements are higher than in forex. In addition, the contract size is far higher than in forex.

Gold responds to the fundamentals we just described earlier. If you have the fundamentals at work, you can use the technicals to determine where to make your entries.

A very clear trade opportunity presented itself on June 24, 2011. At this time, Greece and Europe were making traders very uneasy with all manner of bad economic news, triggering a gold rush (fundamentals).

The combination of the bullish harami and the buy triggers from the ADX and Parabolic SAR indicators, occurring together was a very strong bullish entry signal supporting the fundamentals.

This is a move that would have earned the trader with a standard lot position on this trade, $42,000!

Well, such trading is for the big boys. If you have the money, you can dine at their table.

For the Inexperienced

If you are not too experienced and do not have too much money to trade with, then you can head over to the binary options market, use the same strategy to determine the expected price behaviour of the asset and play any of the following binary option trade types:

Touch trade (in Touch/No Touch) with an upside price barrier.

No Touch trade with a downside price barrier.

Rise trade (in Rise/Fall).

Out trade (in the In/Out)

In the binary options market, you can star trading with as low as $100 and even though you would not make anything close to the guys who use real money to trade, you could get at least 4 different types of payouts. Even if you got 80% profits from each trade, that would amount to a payout of 320%. This is not a bad start and is by far better than just letting the gold rush pass you by without getting anything from it.

The following article was provided to us by Adam at BuyGold. co. uk.

Online Trading strategy gold

Planning atraining session

Planning atraining sessionPlanning a Training Session

Organizing Key Concepts for Learning



A training session plan is a road map of your lesson.

Imagine that you've just led a training session. Unfortunately, it didn't go as well as you'd hoped.

First, you forgot to cover some important points in your presentation. Then, you ran out of time to answer questions, because you had to change your session "on the fly" to cover the points you'd missed.

All in all, you're not sure that people learned what they needed to know, and you wish you'd had a clearer plan for the session.

In this article, we'll look at how to plan a training session effectively.

What is a Training Session Plan?

A training session plan also called a learning plan is an organized description of the activities and resources you'll use to guide a group toward a specific learning objective.

It details the subject matter that you'll teach, how long each section should take, the methods of instruction for each topic covered, and the measures you'll use to check that people have learned what you needed them to learn.

It can be as simple as a brief outline, or more complex, with scripts, prompts, and lists of questions that you plan to ask.

Why Use a Training Session Plan?

It takes time to plan a good training session. However, you and your trainees will benefit from this preparation.

As you plan, you visualize each step of the class. This helps you ensure that you've thought about everything that you need to say, and that you present information in a logical order. You'll also be able to prepare for points that people might find difficult to understand.

After your session, you can use your plan to work out what went well and what didn't so that you can adapt it for future lessons.

Last, a training session plan will be invaluable for a substitute instructor, if you can't make it to class.

How to Develop a Session Plan

To develop a session plan, it's useful to use a standard training plan template. This helps you organize material consistently over sessions, and avoid duplicating topics.

You can download a lesson plan template here. Then, to plan your session, follow the steps below.

Step 1: Define Learning Objectives

Your first step is to specify what you want your trainees to learn, and determine how you will measure this.

Think about these questions:

What are the most important concepts or skills that trainees need to understand by the end of the class?

Why are these concepts and skills important?

How will you know that they have understood these correctly?

You can use the ABCD Learning Objectives Model to set a training objective that comprehensively addresses your learners' needs.

This helps you understand your A udience, define the B ehavior needed at the end of the session, specify the C onditions under which knowledge will be used, and determine the D egree of knowledge needed.

You should only have one or two learning objectives for each class. If you have more, you are likely to have too much information to cover, and trainees may feel overwhelmed with information.

Step 2: Clarify Key Topics and Related Concepts

Your class will focus on a few central ideas or skills, but you'll need to explain related concepts to reach your learning objectives.

List your key topics and their related concepts, and then group them together for example, using an Affinity Diagram to show how they're connected.

Step 3: Organize Material

Once you have a general idea of what you need to cover, draft a lesson outline. List all of the points that you need to cover, in the order in which you'll cover them.

Use the 5 E Learning Cycle to link information to trainees' existing skills and knowledge. This will help them put it into a personal context, which, in turn, will help them retain it better.

Now, insert the information from your outline into your training plan template. Check back against your initial brainstorming document to make sure that you've covered everything that you need to say. Also, compare your template with your objectives for the session, to make sure that you'll achieve them.

Step 4: Plan Presentation Techniques

Now think about how you will teach this material to your students. It's best to use several different presentation approaches to keep students engaged, and to appeal to people with different learning styles . (This is very important, because learning styles vary widely.)

Finding This Article Useful?

Consider using these activities in your training session:

Lectures are ideal for introducing a topic. Keep lectures to 30 minutes or less, and summarize the important points at the beginning and end. You may want to use a guest speaker if the topic is highly specialized.

Demonstrations work best when you need to show the steps in a process or task. Learners can try the task out for themselves, or you can demonstrate it in front of the group.

Discussions and debates are useful after a lecture, because they allow trainees to ask questions about the concepts that they have just learned. Consider handing out a list of questions or topics to prompt a discussion.

Online learning is helpful when trainees need to gain practical experience of IT skills, if they need to access video or audio material, or if quizzes and self-test activities will be useful.

Role play involves trainees acting out a new skill in a simulated environment, and learning from feedback from other participants.

Small group teaching helps learners clarify their understanding of the new information. They can explain it to one another in their own words, and answer questions.

Case studies can help learners put new information into context. As they process the information and relate it to a situation that's relevant to them, they create mental connections that will help them recall the information later.

Once you've decided which training methods to use, note them in your template.

Step 5: Include Evaluation

Now, think about when you'll check that students have understood key points. Build in learning checks and question-and-answer sessions, and include these in your template.

Also, consider how you will evaluate the session. You may want to use a formal measurement approach aligned with Kirkpatrick's Four-Level Training Evaluation Model . or you may want to create a simple on - or off-line questionnaire that will help you tell if the session has been successful.

Step 6: Focus on Timing

Finally, think about the timing of your session. Some concepts or skills will take more time to master than others, so identify these up front, and allow students extra time to absorb or practice the material.

Record the time that you will allocate for each concept or section on your training plan, and make sure that you've allowed plenty of time to focus on the core concepts if you don't have enough time, you'll need to run additional sessions, or narrow your learning objectives and reduce the number of topics that you plan to cover.

You can use the same steps to create a plan for an online training session.

However, you'll want to allow extra time for learners to log in to the training platform, ask questions about it, and resolve any technical problems.

Youll also need to include extra opportunities to check for comprehension, because it can be harder to see if students have fully understood the lesson when you're not in the same room as them. Ask frequent open-ended questions to confirm understanding.

Example Training Session Plan

Learning Objective: To teach new team members in a call center how to handle challenging customer calls more effectively.

Online Planning atraining session

Trading house

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Online Trading house

Trading the world

Trading the worldTrading the World

The FX market never closes. When doors are shutting for the day in New York, different doors are opening in Sydney for the start of a brand new day. And the machine known as the FX market does not stop. It just keeps on trading, allowing me to jump on for the ride at any point I might see fit.

And even though its the same FX market regardless of what time the trader is observing; it doesnt necessarily mean that everything will be the same. As a matter of fact each major geographic market center can exhibit vastly unique traits and tendencies that may allow me to more effectively execute my strategies.

In this article, we are going to touch on each of these sessions as we had investigated in the previously released articles ‘ Trading Tokyo , ‘ Trading the London Session , and ‘ Trading the US Session .

The trading week begins with liquidity coming in from Wellington, New Zealand starting the ‘ Asian-trading session .

We looked at this period of the day in more depth in the article ‘ Trading Tokyo . This was the period of time that had been determined to be ‘ The Best Time of the Day to Trade Forex in the DailyFX Traits of Successful Traders research series.

In ‘ The Best Time of the Day to Trade Forex , Quantitative Strategist David Rodriguez presents the logic that because of these smaller hourly moves and the fact that support or resistance may hold with a greater degree of consistency, trading ranges and range-based strategies could be the operative mannerism of execution.

Example of a range-based strategy using only Price Action

At 3:00 AM ET, liquidity will begin increasing as London starts furnishing prices in the FX market. We explored this trading session in much more depth in the article ‘ Trading the London Session .

London is still very much considered the ‘heart of the FX market with the largest portion of liquidity coming from this area.

The onslaught of liquidity coming in from London can greatly increase the ‘average hourly move of major currency pairs such as EURUSD. The chart below illustrates this statistic based on the time of day; notice the increase that takes place as the Asian-trading session comes to a close at 2 AM ET.

This topic of addressing volatility with breakout strategies is a key c omponent of the DailyFX Traits of Successful Traders research series. In Part 3, ‘ Here is How to Trade Forex Majors l ike EURUSD During Active Hours , David Rodriguez suggests:

‘Breakout strategies tend to do relatively well in volatile environments, so if you plan to trade during these times, look to trade breakouts.

The US Session is often considered to be the most dynamic, as it can take on flavors of the London session early in the day but trade more similar to Asia towards the end of the session. We investigated this in more depth in the article ‘ Trading the US Session .

Once again, analyzing the average hourly moves can give us a good idea for the type of volatility that can be witnessed during this trading session. On this example, Ive added a line right at Noon ET so that we can see how greatly volatility can decrease once London ‘goes offline.

As London begins closing at 11 AM ET, volatility begins declining quite a bit; so much so that it can alter the way that traders want to approach this portion of the US session.

As we outlined in ‘ Trading the US Session , traders can look to trade breakouts to address the rampant volatility of the earlier portion of the day, range-based approaches can be used to address the less volatile, more quiet latter-portion of the day.

Noticing the Differences between Sessions

For short-term traders, it can be absolutely advantageous to have a good feel for the different characteristics of trading the ‘Asian session as opposed to the ‘London session.

For instance, a trader looking to ‘scalp on AUDUSD might be caught off guard if, at 3AM ET when the London market opens - price makes a break-away move against their position. Simply knowing that London was soon opening their books for the day, the trader could surmise that additional volatility may enter the picture and they can then properly plan their trade.

For traders that do want to get more comfortable with the various trading sessions, the ‘ Trade Sessions indicator on Trading Station 2 is a big help. This is a custom indicator that any trader using the platform can add simply by visiting the previous link in this article, and applying the methodology walked through in ‘ How to Install Custom Indicators on Trading Station . Doing so will bring a nice accompaniment to our charts, as seen below:

Created with Trading Station 2/ Tradesessions indicator

--- Written by James B. Stanley

To contact James Stanley, please email InstructorDailyFX. You can follow James on Twitter JStanleyFX.

To join James Stanleys distribution list, please click here .

Online Trading the world

On-balance volume trading strategy for fading dumb money

On-balance volume trading strategy for fading dumb moneyOn-Balance Volume Trading Strategy For Fading Dumb Money

Whats the second most important market data after price?

One of the key tenet of Dow Theory is that volume confirms the trend. Volume increases when the market moves along with the true market trend. Volume decreases when the market is moving against the trend.

Joseph Granville recognized how important volume is for confirming trends and created the on-balance volume indicator. Joseph Granvilles track record was controversial but his influence of the stock market was extraordinary for a technical analyst. There was a time when Joseph Granville could send the market plummeting by issuing a bearish outlook. Read this Bloomberg article on him .

The on-balance volume indicator is a cumulative sum of volume. If the bar closes up, add the volume of that bar to the indicator. If the bar closes down, minus the volume of that bar.

The value of on-balance volume is irrelevant as it depends on when you started calculating the indicator. Its direction is the key to effective analysis. Most of the time, the on-balance volume matches price movement. When they diverge, look out for opportunities to fade dumb money that does not have the support of volume.

On-Balance Volume Trading Rules

In our on-balance volume (OBV) trading strategy, we use the OBV indicator to fade the weak hands on trend pullbacks with the help of a weighted moving average.

Long Strategy

233-period WMA of price is sloping up

233-period WMA of OBV is sloping up

Slope of price WMA turns negative but slope of OBV WMA stays positive (divergence)

Go long when price WMA turns positive again

Short Strategy

233-period WMA of price is sloping down

233-period WMA of OBV is sloping down

Slope of price WMA turns positive but slope of OBV WMA stays negative (divergence)

Go long when price WMA turns negative again

On-Balance Volume Trading Examples

Winning Trade Long Trade

This is a daily chart of CVS Caremark Corporation (CVS on NYSE). The lower panel below the blue line shows the OBV indicator. Both panels have a 233-period WMA. The background color of the panels shows if the WMA slope is positive or negative.

Both WMAs had positive slope. Volume confirmed trend.

Price fell to test a previous swing high and went sideways.

The slope of the price WMA turned negative (note red background), but the slope of OBV WMA stayed positive. It showed that the price pullback did not have the support of volume. The dumb money was pushing their luck. Once the price WMA slope reverted to positive, we bought into a strong bullish move.

Look at the black circle on the chart. The test of the same support level showed another pullback that did not have volume support. Another winning trade from our on-balance volume trading strategy.

Losing Trade Short Trade

This daily chart of Walgreen Company (WAG on NYSE) shows a flat market.

Both WMAs turned down to confirm the downwards trend.

Price rose up sharply and turned the WMA slope positive. The slope of the OBV WMA stayed negative and implied that smart money did not take part in that upwards swing. Following the trading rules, we shorted at the red arrow as the WMA turned down. However, price moved against us with another strong bullish move.

WAG caught prices within a trading range, and many more bad OBV signals emerged. The WMA was almost flat in this chart.

The retracement mentioned in Point 2 lasted unusually long and was a warning sign that the downwards trend was not longer intact.

This example also highlighted the dangers of using this on-volume balance trading strategy mechanically.

Review On-Balance Volume Trading Strategy

In formulating this on-balance volume trading strategy, I used weighted moving averages to help us pinpoint divergences before zooming in for detailed analysis. The rules are effective for picking up potential weak movements to fade.

However, our trade trigger certainly has room for improvement. Our current trade trigger of entering when both WMAs move in the same direction again requires larger stops. Our usual stop placement at the other end of the signal bar is not effective. Place stop at the last swing high/low to avoid whipsaws. Consider using reversal patterns for trade triggers.

The look-back period of 233 is my standard parameter for long-term analysis. It works well on daily time-frames. However, for intraday time-frames, you might want to experiment with shorter periods.

As shown in the first example, in trending markets, this on-balance volume trading strategy coupled with support/resistance levels is a reliable trading approach. Furthermore, the on-balance volume indicator provides another dimension of the market to help us confirm trends.

To avoid bad trades, do not take signals in ranging markets. If the WMA slopes are fluctuating up and down, the market is probably in a trading range. Also, if the WMA slope divergence (Trading Rule 3) lasts too long, do not take the ensuing signal.

Learn more about this classic volume indicator with Joseph Granvilles New Key to Stock Market Profits .

Online On-balance volume trading strategy for fading dumb money

Forex indicators an important tool in optimizing trading strategy

Forex indicators an important tool in optimizing trading strategyForex Indicators: an important tool in optimizing trading strategy

Forex indicators are data points that indicate the direction in which a currency will move. Forex indicators are used extensively by investors to optimize their trading strategies. These indicators are used across timeframes and currency pairs. The right mix of a variety of indicators may help one formulate an effective trading strategy that succeeds in a dynamic and fast-moving currency market.

Forex Indicators: types

Broadly speaking, Forex indicators can be classified into two categories:

Leading technical indicators: These suggest the probability of what is likely to happen in the Forex market with respect to the direction in which a particular currency pair is headed or where a currency pair price would reach.

Lagging technical indicators: These indicators keep traders abreast of what has already happened in the Forex market. These indicators are useful in identifying whether the market is moving sideways or is trending up or down.

Forex Indicator Tool: the ones to look out for

Some of the key Forex indicators are:

Simple Moving Averages (SMA): This indicator tells a trader the average price for a particular time period, for example five minutes, 20 minutes, one day, etc. Each of the chosen periods has the same weight.

Exponential Moving Average (EMA): The averages, under this indictor, are calculated with the recent Forex rates carrying a higher weight in the entire average. This is done in order to obtain a more accurate indication of trend direction.

Relative Strength Index (RSI): It is a price-following oscillator that has a range of 0-100. One of the more frequently used methods of analyzing the RSI is to find a divergence at which the currency price touches a new high, but the RSI is not able to surpass the previous high. This diversion points towards an impending reversal.

Moving Average Convergence/Divergence (MACD): This involves the plotting of two momentum lines. The MACD line is the difference between two exponential moving averages and the trigger/signal line, which is basically an exponential moving average of the difference.

Stochastic Oscillator: This indicates overbought or oversold conditions on a range of 0%-100%. The indicator is based on the occurrence that, in an uptrend, the closing prices for particular periods are concentrated in the top segment of the period’s range. Conversely, in a downtrend, the closing prices are concentrated in the lower segment of the period’s range.

Although this is not an exhaustive read of all the possible Forex Indicator Tool that a trader needs to keep track of, these are some of the main ones that would help formulate better trading strategies.

Online Forex indicators an important tool in optimizing trading strategy

Tradebragger videos

Tradebragger videosFree Fibonacci Trading Strategy Rockwell Trading

Free Fibonacci Trading Strategy #8211; Rockwell Trading


Free Fibonacci Trading Strategy from rockwelltrading - This is a recording of a webinar in which Markus Heitkoetter explains a powerful Fibonacci trading strategy. Markus shows you many trading examples and you will learn when to enter, where to place your stop loss and when to take profits. youtube/watch? v=TPfH4v0ImV8

Day Trading Crude Oil Futures With A Consistent Winning Strategy Part 1 August 7 2015

Uploaded by Theresa Diaz on November 1, 2015 at 6:11 pm

Day Trading Crude Oil Futures With A Consistent Winning Strategy Part 1 August 7 2015

Watch this video on How I day trade crude oil futures on a daily basis for consistently make 10 cents per trade.

In this example trade of a trade I took that combines price action daytrading analysis strategy with no indicators, you'll see how I was able to predict the suggested target objective.

Day Trading Trading Course

Forex Gold Futures Trading Strategies | Closing the Gap: Futures Edition

Forex amp; Gold Futures Trading Strategies | Closing the Gap: Futures Edition

Understand the mechanics of Forex trading with Gold Futures for more profitable trade ideas!

See more videos from the Closing the Gap: Futures Edition Series: ow. ly/PrwiZ

Typically when trading Currency futures, we trade it alongside the US Dollar. Today, however, tastytrade looks at pairs trading Forex with Gold (/GC). This video explains the necessary steps to trade gold futures in conjunction with currency futures, including how to calculate the proper notional value and ratio between your underlyings. Then, check out some easy, profitable trading strategies to execute based on your assumption!

The gap between the self-directed and institutional trader in the world of Futures gets closer as Tom and Tony go head-to-head with one of the Futures market industry's best institutional traders. We bring professional strategies to individual investors.

You can watch a new Closing the Gap: Futures Edition episode live and check out all previous episodes everyday at ow. ly/EoyGW!

======== tastytrade ========

Finally a financial network for traders, built by traders. Hosted by Tom Sosnoff and Tony Battista, tastytrade is a real financial network with 8 hours of live programming five days a week during market hours. From pop culture to advanced investment strategies, tastytrade has a broad spectrum of content for viewers of all kinds! Tune in and learn how to trade options successfully and make the most of your investments! Plus, access our visual trading platform, dough, to learn the basics of options trading and manage your portfolio! With hours of tutorial videos and unique tools on a simple, easy-to-use trading interface, dough is here to make learning how to trade options fun!

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Option Trading Strategy Certified Option Trading Strategies

Option Trading Strategy #8211; Certified Option Trading Strategies

Certified DeriVative Master (CDM) - Option Market Distance Learning Course

CDM program focus on basic as well as advanced strategies and learn how to control risk and generate income with options. Whether the market is up, down or sideways, you can use options trading to come out ahead. The Advanced Options course will give you even more strategies to use to manage risk and help you reach your financial goals. You'll learn several conservative strategies that can be applied in different ways. This course will take your option trading skills to a higher level, step by step.

Course Structure:

Module 3. Option Tools for Analysis

Module 4. Trading Strategies for Futures

Module 5. Importance of Derivative Indicators

Module 6. Option Trading Strategies

Module 7. Advance Trading Strategies

Is this course for you?

If you want a practical overview of option trading or if you want to learn and manage how with small capital one can effectively trade in stock market with decent return or If you are interested in building on your knowledge options analysis in deep and develop market timing strategy based on sound technical analysis this is the course for you.

What will you learn?

» Understand the value of technical analysis in your trading.

» Learn to predict the future price movement would be able to identify the false breakout or stop loss moves.

» Learn to generate cash flow with high probability strategies.

» Learn to identify range bound and trending market.

» Learn trading strategy for intraday and positional trading for decent return.

» Find out which strategies work best in which market conditions based on price time volatility.

» Discover the benefits of vertical-based strategies such as Iron Condors and Butterflies.

» Create Diagonals by combining the best of vertical and Time-based strategies.

» Learn the use of Delta neutral strategy in relation with theta factor.

» Learn to use time in your favor with Calendar Spreads.

» Importance of Volatility and volatility based trading.

» Create your own rules and a trading strategy that aligns with your skill level, capital investment and discipline.

8 Things You Need to Know About Chinas Stock Market Crisis | China Uncensored

Swing Trading Strategies Options Strategies Options Trading Simulator High Frequency Trading

Uploaded by Jennifer Miller on October 3, 2015 at 6:15 pm

Swing Trading Strategies #8211; Options Strategies #8211; Options Trading Simulator #8211; High Frequency Trading



Options Trading Simulator - High Frequency Trading - Swing Trading Strategies - Options Strategies

The Most Important Forex Tips For Successful Trading

A secondary income can allow you to loosen the purse strings. Relief from economic stress is a common need for many in this day and age. Here's some valuable information if you are thinking about getting into the forex market to help with your financial concerns.

youtube/watch? v=A_mvRxoV2-s

Forex depends on the economy more than other markets. It is important to understand basic concepts when starting forex, including account deficits, interest rates, and fiscal policy. Without a firm grasp of these economic factors, your trades can turn disastrous.

Good Forex traders have to know how to keep their emotions in check. Emotions will cause impulse decisions and increase your risk level. There is no doubt that emotions will play some part in your trading decisions, but keep things as rational as possible for best results.

While you may find a lot of great advice about Forex trading, both online and from other traders, it is important that you follow your intuition. It is vital that you listen to other people's advice but be sure to make the decisions yourself when it comes to your investment.

youtube/watch? v=A_mvRxoV2-s

One common misconception is that the stop losses a trader sets can be seen by the market. The thinking is that the price is then manipulated to fall under the stop loss, guaranteeing a loss, then manipulated back up. This is entirely false. It is very risky to trade without setting a stop loss, so don't believe everything you hear.

Many new Forex participants become excited about the prospect of trading and rush into it. A majority of traders can give only a few hours of their undivided attention to trading. Take breaks when trading, remember that it will still be going on when you return.

Forex can be used to help supplement another income or even become the primary income. Whether or not you can be prosperous at trading depends on how much time and effort you put into it. In order to achieve this success, you must focus on learning how to properly trade.

en. wikipedia/wiki/Foreign_exchange_market

en. wikipedia/wiki/Options_strategies

en. wikipedia/wiki/Stock_market

8 Things You Need to Know About Chinas Stock Market Crisis | China Uncensored

Swing Trading Strategies Options Strategies Options Trading Simulator High Frequency Trading

Uploaded by Judith Reed on September 4, 2015 at 3:15 am

Swing Trading Strategies #8211; Options Strategies #8211; Options Trading Simulator #8211; High Frequency Trading

Swing Trading Videos



Options Trading Simulator - High Frequency Trading - Swing Trading Strategies - Options Strategies

The Most Important Forex Tips For Successful Trading

A secondary income can allow you to loosen the purse strings. Relief from economic stress is a common need for many in this day and age. Here's some valuable information if you are thinking about getting into the forex market to help with your financial concerns.

youtube/watch? v=A_mvRxoV2-s

Forex depends on the economy more than other markets. It is important to understand basic concepts when starting forex, including account deficits, interest rates, and fiscal policy. Without a firm grasp of these economic factors, your trades can turn disastrous.

Good Forex traders have to know how to keep their emotions in check. Emotions will cause impulse decisions and increase your risk level. There is no doubt that emotions will play some part in your trading decisions, but keep things as rational as possible for best results.

While you may find a lot of great advice about Forex trading, both online and from other traders, it is important that you follow your intuition. It is vital that you listen to other people's advice but be sure to make the decisions yourself when it comes to your investment.

youtube/watch? v=A_mvRxoV2-s

One common misconception is that the stop losses a trader sets can be seen by the market. The thinking is that the price is then manipulated to fall under the stop loss, guaranteeing a loss, then manipulated back up. This is entirely false. It is very risky to trade without setting a stop loss, so don't believe everything you hear.

Many new Forex participants become excited about the prospect of trading and rush into it. A majority of traders can give only a few hours of their undivided attention to trading. Take breaks when trading, remember that it will still be going on when you return.

Forex can be used to help supplement another income or even become the primary income. Whether or not you can be prosperous at trading depends on how much time and effort you put into it. In order to achieve this success, you must focus on learning how to properly trade.

en. wikipedia/wiki/Foreign_exchange_market

en. wikipedia/wiki/Options_strategies

en. wikipedia/wiki/Stock_market

Online Tradebragger videos

Online trading academy new york reviews best binary options brokers2015

Online trading academy new york reviews best binary options brokers2015Online trading academy new york reviews Best Binary Options Brokers 2015 creditechcorp

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Mid-georgia mid-pack training

Mid-georgia mid-pack trainingSunday, October 18, 2009

2010 Annual Training Plan

Here's my plan for 2010. Those of you familiar with various popular training approaches will recognize this training philosophy and structure as Joe Friel's. I used a Friel plan in 2006, but that doesn't really count because I didn't start training for cycling exclusively until April 2006. So this will be my first full year on an Friel-based structure.

The most significant changes from my 2008 and 2009 plans are:

A greater emphasis on macroperiodization -- base1, base2, et cetera as shown below.

Online Mid-georgia mid-pack training

Predicting next month sbiggest gainers using finviz

Predicting next month sbiggest gainers using finvizPredicting Next Month's Biggest Gainers Using Finviz - Navigation

When the broad market, reflected by an index such as the SP 500, is in rally mode, investors want to capitalize. Picking potential big gainers can be tough, but using a few strategies and some Finviz tools, we can isolate a handful of stocks which are likely to outperform over the next month.

When to Look for Big Gainers

The odds of picking big gainers are greatly increased during a bull market. As the market is rising, there will be stocks which are stronger than the market, and being able to profit is theoretically easier than when the overall market is in decline. Focus on finding big gainers and capitalizing when the trend is up. Stock picking in down market is more difficult, and therefore looking for safety is a better option. (For related reading, see Digging Deeper Into Bull And Bear Markets. )

Use the steps below to find strong stocks in a bull market. Figure one shows an example of the SP as it is risingmaking higher highs and higher lows. This is the type of environment we want to capitalize on.

Figure 1 - Rising SP 500. Source: Finviz Futures Charts

Finviz Steps to Find Strong Stocks

When the market is in an uptrend we are looking for stocks which are likely to outperform the market over the next month. This is accomplished by narrowing down the realm of stocks by using a few simple tools available on Finviz. From there, we will manually go through the small list of stocks to find the ones which are likely to move favorably and also suit our individual preferences.

Sector Analysis Using Finviz

One of the easiest ways to narrow down the world of stocks is view stocks by sectors or groups . At any given time, one sector will be a strong and another will be weak, therefore, by looking at sector performance over different time frames we can see which sectors are performing well overall. These are the sectors we want to focus on when looking for stocks which are likely to perform well over the next month. (For related reading, see An Introduction To Sector Mutual Funds. )

Finviz provides a great visual tool for this, available under the "Groups" heading. Select the Bar Chart view to get a snapshot of sector performance over multiple time frames.

Figure 2 - Groups Tab. Source: Finviz

We want to look for the sector which appears near the top of the list, for performance, on the 1 Week, 1 Month and 3 Month time frames.

Look at the top three sectors using the 1 Week Performance bar chart. Then view the 1 Month and 3 Month performance. Pick the sector which appears most often near the top of the list on all three time frames.

Figure 3 shows sector performance over the last week, month and three month time frames. Notice the Services sector is ranked at the top on the weekly, second on the monthly and third on the three-month time frame. Consumer Goods is also doing well across the time frames, but in this case, Services is our top ranked performer. Therefore, Services is the sector we will focus on in our next step.

Online Predicting next month sbiggest gainers using finviz

Manila bulletin

Manila bulletinOnline trading at PSE surged in 2013

July 13, 2014

The number of online accounts in the Philippine stock market grew by a record of 65.3 percent to 129,255 in 2013, according to the annual Stock Market Investor Profile study of the Philippine Stock Exchange.

The PSE said in a statement that a total of 14 trading participants providing online trading services took part in the survey.

Of all the online accounts in the PSE, 99.6 percent or 128,727 accounts were retail accounts while the rest were institutional accounts. Local accounts comprised 98.3 percent or 127,085 of the total online accounts while the remaining 1.7 percent or 2,170 were foreign accounts.

Trading activity from online investors also grew in 2013 with their share to total number of trades in the stock market growing to 29.3 percent in 2013 from 28.2 percent in 2012.

In terms of value traded, online trading turnover went up by 23.9 percent in 2013 representing 6.1 percent of total regular market trades.

Meanwhile, the total number of stock market accounts, which counts both online and traditional or broker facilitated accounts, went up by 11.4 percent to 585,562 accounts from 525,850 in 2012.

Retail investors accounted for 96.2 percent of the total accounts while 3.8 percent were institutional accounts. The accounts were 98.5 percent local and 1.5 percent foreign.

“We are very encouraged by the results of the study. It shows that more Filipinos are starting to see the value of investing in the stock market,” said PSE president Hans B. Sicat.

He added that “this also means that more Filipinos have been able to participate in the impressive run of the market and the overall growth of the economy.”

According to Sicat, “our data on online account and trading activity show the growing preference for online platform by investors. We are optimistic that this number will continue to grow especially as more brokers offer online trading.”

In April 2012, the PSE launched PSETradex, the online trading platform that it offers to trading participants who wish to provide online trading facilities to its clients. Since its introduction, a total of six brokers have gone live with their online trading services.

“While we are pleased to see growth in our investor base, we are a long way from our target of having as many Filipinos invest. On our end, we will continue to provide venues for investors to keep learning about the stock market through our conferences, free seminars and our PSE Academy website,” noted Sicat.

Online Manila bulletin

Online trading investment simulator

Online trading investment simulatorWelcome to Smartstocks

Smartstocks is a free virtual stock market simulation game. You can trade real stocks using virtual money the same way you would trade real stocks using actual money with a genuine online brokerage account.

You will learn how to trade online and invest in the stock market without risking your hard earned money. You can test your new investment strategy before trying it out for real. Track the return of multiple online accounts in one place. Best of all, SmartStocks's fantasy stock market game is absolutely free.

You will receive $1 million of virtual money to invest as you see fit. Every 5 minutes rankings are calculated based upon the percentage increase or decrease of each user's portfolio. You can applaud the top 25 and poke fun at the bottom 25 traders.

Create a group for you and all of your friends to compete against each other. Each group member will be ranked according to their portfolio returns for the according to their portfolio return on their initial $1 million dollars. You can restrict membership to your group by selecting a password or making the group available by invitation only.

Wharton Learning Lab

OTIS, the Online Trading and Investment Simulator, allows students to buy and sell securities using real-world market data without risking real money. This hands-on learning environment allows students to apply the concepts and test the strategies they learn in class, while giving instructors complete control over the parameters of trading and access into their students' portfolios. View a demo of OTIS. For more information, visit OTIS. OTIS is available with any Addison-Wesley Finance title. OTIS is automatically included with Fundamentals of Investing, Eleventh Edition, by Lawrence J. Gitman and Michael D. Joehnk.

Online trading investment simulator

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Why trade index options shenzhen stock exchange trading calendar online trading academy bangalore

Why trade index options shenzhen stock exchange trading calendar online trading academy bangaloreWhy trade index options shenzhen stock exchange trading calendar online trading academy bangalore

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End user awareness training

End user awareness trainingCrop topic image

Join the Community! Creating your account only takes a few minutes.

I have been asked to come up with an end user training meeting to go over some key points to educate them on.

Some of what I have so far is:

Perform a Knowbe4 phishing security test and educate against phishing. (this was recently an issue that involved a cryptolocker)

File and Email management and best practices

Workstation updating/rebooting

I work for a software development and support company with about 50 employees. So my end users aren't as ID10T as they are in a lot of other places I have worked in the past. However I do want to get them as up to par as an end user should be. I will have about a half an hour and a powerpoint I will create for this. IF you guys can give me any other pointers on topics, powerpoint slides, or any other best practices you would go over with you end users it would be much appreciated.

Thanks in advance Spiceheads.

Online End user awareness training

Trading strategy atr

Trading strategy atrRecommended:

How To Use ATR (Average True Range) In Trading Systems

Fri, 06/26/2009 - 08:20 — IndicatorForex

The Average True Range is an indicator developed by Welles Wilder and published in his famous book 'New Concepts in Technical Analysis'. It is used to calculate the average size of bar, in points. The word 'True' is added to the name because the indicator also takes into account Gaps and Limit moves, when calculating Average Range.

Absolutely NO THINKING is needed, just buy when Blue and sell when Red.

Calculation of the Indicator

For each bar, True Range is defined as the maximum of the three:

1. Difference between High and Low.

2. Difference between High and previous Close.

3. Difference between Low and previous Close.

Than, a Moving Average (normally of 14 period) is calculated on the True Range, making it the Average True Range.

How to Use in Trading Systems

Identifying Bottoms and Tops

The ATR can be very useful in identifying potential bottoms and tops in markets. Using the assumption that bottoms and tops occur on light volume (and hence lead to reversal), a common way of interpreting the ATR is by looking for low readings. Periods where the ATR is in his local minimum indicate that price has reached a top or a bottom, and is prone to reversal.

Globalize Trading Systems to Adapt To Changing Market Volatility

Many novice trading systems are using solid number, hard coded in their systems, as parameters. For example: 15 pips for Stop Loss, 30 pips for Take Profit, etc. This is a wrong attitude of creating Trading Systems, because pairs and commodities constantly change in volatility and volume.

The ATR indicator can be used instead of solid number, to make the Trading System take into account the changing volatility of the commodity. For example: Instead of 15 pips for Stop Loss - 30% of the current Average True Range. Instead of 30 pips for Stop Loss - 60% of the current Average True Range. This way, in case market volatility changes dramatically, the Stop loss and Take Profit will auto-adjust themselves and your Trading System will continue to profit.

This is also very important issue to making the system global - to work on as many pairs and commodities. Using the ATR instead of using constant numbers can make your system work on many more pairs and commodities, thus increasing potential profits.

Trailing Stop Loss

The ATR can also be used for Trailing Stop Loss - a famous trailing stop loss mechanism called the 'Chandelier' stop loss uses the ATR to determine the amount of pips to trail stop. This way in case the currency pair becomes volatile the trailing stop adjusts itself and prevents early exit - and loss. This is also known as the Chandelier Trailing Stop, which is a well-known strategy for trailing stops in Trading Systems.

The ATR can be very powerful addition to your Trading System. Learn to use it and your trading systems will improve.

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ADX, RSI ATR strategy

Hey I thought I'd share a strategy that has worked fairly well for me so far. Basically it uses a 14 period ADX and a 5 and 21 period RSI as its signals for entry. The system is based on the 1H GBPJPY but it might work with other pairs and time-frames.

Buy Signals

21 5 period RSI breaking thru 30 from below

ADX > 20 and rising +DI rising above - DI

Close when 21 day RSI falls thru 70 having been above previously

the ATR is used to set the stop loss which I set at 2-3 times the ATR value. This helps to keep you being stopped out of otherwise profitable trades. The last trade is half a lot and the green lines represent the stop losses for those trades. The first trade shows nicely how the ATR stop loss keeps us in a nice profitable trade. The entries are usually pretty accurate but the exits could do with some work. Any thoughts?

Online Trading strategy atr

How does leverage work in the forex market

How does leverage work in the forex marketHow does leverage work in the forex market?

The concept of leverage is used by both investors and companies. Investors use leverage to significantly increase the returns that can be provided on an investment. They lever their investments by using various instruments that include options. futures and margin accounts. Companies can use leverage to finance their assets. In other words, instead of issuing stock to raise capital, companies can use debt financing to invest in business operations in an attempt to increase shareholder value. (For more insight, see What do people mean when they say that debt is a relatively cheaper form of finance than equity? )

In forex. investors use leverage to profit from the fluctuations in exchange rates between two different countries. The leverage that is achievable in the forex market is one of the highest that investors can obtain. Leverage is a loan that is provided to an investor by the broker that is handling his or her forex account. When an investor decides to invest in the forex market, he or she must first open up a margin account with a broker. Usually, the amount of leverage provided is either 50:1, 100:1 or 200:1, depending on the broker and the size of the position the investor is trading. Standard trading is done on 100,000 units of currency, so for a trade of this size, the leverage provided is usually 50:1 or 100:1. Leverage of 200:1 is usually used for positions of $50,000 or less.

To trade $100,000 of currency, with a margin of 1%, an investor will only have to deposit $1,000 into his or her margin account. The leverage provided on a trade like this is 100:1. Leverage of this size is significantly larger than the 2:1 leverage commonly provided on equities and the 15:1 leverage provided by the futures market. Although 100:1 leverage may seem extremely risky, the risk is significantly less when you consider that currency prices usually change by less than 1% during intraday trading. If currencies fluctuated as much as equities, brokers would not be able to provide as much leverage.

Although the ability to earn significant profits by using leverage is substantial, leverage can also work against investors. For example, if the currency underlying one of your trades moves in the opposite direction of what you believed would happen, leverage will greatly amplify the potential losses. To avoid such a catastrophe, forex traders usually implement a strict trading style that includes the use of stop and limit orders .

To learn more, see Getting Started In Forex . A Primer On The Forex Market and Getting Started In Foreign Exchange Futures .

Online How does leverage work in the forex market

Forex signals-unlocking the best forex signals

Forex signals-unlocking the best forex signalsForex Signals Unlocking The Best Forex Signals

What exactly are Forex Signals and how Forex Signals Provider could help you with your Forex Trading? In Forex trading, Forex Signals. or Forex Signal Services are actually services provided by either an independent or group of Forex Experts for their respective subscribers. Forex Signals are generally delivered in terms potential or exact entries and exit points via SMS, emails or directly to your MT4 Forex Trading Platform. While conventional Forex Signals are delivered by means of SMS and Emails, some of the best Forex Signal Services have advanced their Forex Signals delivered directly to your MT4 Trading Platforms, and thus eliminating some major inconveniences that are commonly encountered by Signals subscribers.

Forex Signals Services often provide their Forex Signals based on their privately developed Forex Trading Strategies, and in most cases traded by these Forex experts themselves. While there are plenty of profitable Forex Trading Strategies available on the market, it must be emphasized that the same Forex Trading Strategy may not work for everyone. Hence the quest to discovering these Forex Trading Strategies and building your own best Forex System would be a great challenge and tough process. This is exactly where our Forex Signals service comes into picture and assisted over a thousand of happy Forex Traders.

At Forex Vice, our Forex Signals are delivered via SMS and/or directly into your MT4 Forex Trading Platform. Many customers have preferred the conveniences that were offered by our Mimic Software – whereby our Forex Signals are delivered to and executed automatically in their MT4 platform. With Mimic Software, our customers are also able to choose between whether to execute our Forex Signals automatically, or simply alerting them regarding the Forex trading signals, so that they could make their respective trading decisions manually based on each Forex Signal they received. On top of that, Forex Vice customers are also given the freedom to choose between the currency pairs they would love to trade based on our Forex Trading Signals. Additionally, the Market Hours for any trades to be executed is also fully customizable to suit our clients preferences.

While Forex Signals delivered directly to your MT4 trading platform may sound attractive to most, there are Forex traders that do not have the luxury of leaving their PC, Internet connection and MT4 switched on throughout the week.

We fully understand this need by some of the Forex traders and thus, we are offering our SMS Package – with Forex Signals sent to your Mobile Phones! We have been asked countless times whether or not our Forex Signals are supporting their respective countries or mobile networks, and would like to make this clear that we support mobile networks from all countries.

Forex Trading Strategies of Your Forex Signals Providers

When Subscribing to any Forex Signals Service, subscribers must understand what kind of Forex Trading Strategies are employed behind the Forex Signals they received. Generally, there are two school of thoughts in the Forex trading community – Technical Analysis vs Fundamental Analysis.

For traders practicing day trading, technical analysis plays a major role in your trading pursuits. Fibonacci, Price Action, Daily Trends, Pivots – to name a few – are some key criteria to determine whether a trade should be opened or closed.

On the other hand, fundamental analysis exerts much more prominence on longer term trading. The Geopolitical efforts, Macro Economies, Economic Releases are some of the things that we keep track of and consistently reviewed when developing our Forex trading decisions.

We strongly believe that in order to succeed with Forex Trading, we need to incorporate both aspects of Fundamental and Technical into our trading – and its the exact same success that our customers share with our Forex Signals.

Incorporating Forex Signals As The Best Forex System

What is a Forex System to be exact? There are many traders who confused the terms Forex Trading Strategies with Forex System. While both could be used interchangeably, a Forex Trading Strategy refers to the a set of rules a trader abides to, generally consisting of entries and exits conditions and money management. A Forex System on the other hand, is a collection of Forex Trading Strategies that a trader would employ in the face of changing market conditions.

There have been traders who succeeded with a single Forex Trading Strategy, but with a complete – or your own Best Forex System, itd be much easier for you to capture more profits in the dynamic Forex market.

What happens when the market is ranging? What would you do when the market is trending? Or perhaps, whats your plan when the market has formed a certain candle patterns?

Our Forex Signals have the answers to all these challenging market conditions, and thus making our Forex Signals one of the most important aspects in your Forex trading regardless of your trading system.

Forex Signal Service

Our Forex Signal Service has made on average over 500 pips to our clients since 2009 and has been nominated as one of the best Forex Signals services by a prominent Forex Signals Review magazine. It is our mission to provide the best Forex Trading Signals to our subscribers, and we have served and continue to serve over a thousand of satisfied customers. Join us today and dont get left behind by the ever-changing market conditions!

Online Forex signals-unlocking the best forex signals

Pivot trading strategies pdf strategies for binary options trading

Pivot trading strategies pdf strategies for binary options tradingPivot trading strategies pdf. Strategies for binary options trading. ryfab. se

Pivot trading strategies pdf o2 iphone 4s online stock checker

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Reliable reach affiliate and pure leverageForex brokers in california

Forex Brokers - Reviews, Lists, Rankings, Ratings & Comparisons of Over 400 Online Forex Brokerages Here is a list of brokers who offer Managed trading account to customers. Managed Forex account are good for traders who prefer to have their funds managed by an. ECN Forex Brokers. A list of ECN Forex brokers that provide Forex traders with a direct access to the other Forex market participants — retail and institutional.

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Forex broker nfa

NFA registered Forex brokers - the list of NFA regulated brokers with detailed information, including spread and execution type and trading platform. Forex Broker NFA good standing. Alpari Forex Introduction Program - Become a Forex Broker September 30, 2013 ? pm National Futures Association NFA is the industrywide, self-regulatory organization for the U. S. futures industry. NFA strives every day to safeguard market.

I am sorry to say but you will not find a NFA regulated broker that offers 0 leverage. Unless you register with one of their branches outside. Top 10 Forex brokers recommended for US traders by TradersAsset. Futures Trading Commission CTFC and the National Futures Association NFA. Large, independently compiled Forex broker listings, detailing minimum. CFTC, NFA, 1001, as low as 1.4 pips, 500, VT Trader 2.0, View Forex Broker Details.

NFA registered Forex brokers - serious forex brokers for serious traders. Find here a detailed list of all the NFA regulated brokers. The NFA oversees and protects investors from fraudulent futures and. Regulated Forex Brokers Jul 4, 2015. We prefer brokers who are regulated by the following CFTC / NFA in the United States; FCA in the United Kingdom; ASIC in Australia.

Jan 15, 2015. All US forex brokers including the introducing brokers must be registered with the National Futures Association NFA, the self-regulating.

Low spread forex broker list

Forex Broker Broker Type Min. Spreads Min. Deposit $ Min. Position Max. Leverage Apply; Capital One Forex ECN, STP 0.2 100 0.1 00 Apply XM STP, MM 1.0 Information about low spread forex broker. Compare online brokers by commissions, fees, account minimums and other special features. Choose from the many money. Forex Brokers with Low Spread. For some traders, getting the minimum spread possible is the most important requirement to their Forex broker. Tight spread minimizes.

Get a top list and reviews of low spread forex brokers. Also learn what to look out for when choosing a forex broker offering the lowest spreads. In this article you will get know to the best forex trading platforms, which have ever been created sine Forex itself was made by developers. After seeing the. Forex brokers with the lowest spreads compare fixed lowest spreads vs variable lowest Forex broker spreads.

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Forex trading system

Forex trading systemForex Trading System

Our FX platform is based on the award-winning MetaTrader (MT4) technology, the standard platform in the foreign exchange industry. All trading functions can be performed from the main screen, including placing a trade, modifying an existing order, position management, and margin analysis as well as the implementation of automated trading strategies called EAs (expert advisors).

Under our STP (Straight Through Processing) Technology, our MT4 platform can execute trades in under 1 second, providing a quality of execution unmatched by many brokerage firms in the industry.

Below, you will see a screenshot of the main screen of the actual trading system. Below the image, there are links to the most important sections or functions of the software, such as how to place an order and close an open position. After you request a simulator and install the platform, a more in depth user guide can be accessed from within your trading terminal.

How to Trade on the MT4 Platform Quick Start

To be Able to run our FX trading platform with free charts and automated trading tools as efficiently as possible, we recommend to use a Windows computer or any Mac running Boot Camp, VmWare Fusion, or Paralells. We also recommend that you register for our free training to shorten the learning curve when it comes to trading currencies.

Platform Software/Hardware Requirements

Platform Download and Installation Instructions

Account Opening Instructions

Forex Trading System

You need a Forex trading system if you want to become a serious trader. You can try and learn how to trade on your own but it usually costs more in the long run because of all the losses and there are things you will not pick up on your own.

There are many trading systems both where you do the trading and those that are automated Forex trading systems.

The Forex autopilot systems usually only work when the market is moving in the manor in which the system was programmed. When the market changes the automated forex system will lose all that it made and more.

The best Forex system is the manual system that teaches you how to trade .

There are day trading systems, long term, and swing trading systems. There are simple forex trading systems and some that are complicated. Just because something is simple does not mean that it is wimpy. The Forex currency market is hard enough without getting a complicated system.

You can get a Forex trading system course where you get all the material in hard copy and you can get forex online systems where you can get access to the material any time and place you might be. We like the online approach best.

The best Forex trading system should have exact entry and exit signals as well as risk and money management instruction. It should not cost so much that you don’t have any money left to trade.

The best Forex system will also have an alert system to bring more trades to you based on the manual instruction you have already learned. You just get more of what you need in a short period of time.

Sometimes you can get a free Forex trading system when you purchase an alert or coaching package. Check it out but get some kind of a forex currency trading system with Alerts and stick with that system once you find out that it is for you. If it is not for you look for one that you can stick with. Don’t make your trading career one of jumping form one course to another.

Hope this helps and good luck in your trading.

Identifying Binary Options Signals

Trying to figure out all of the new forex lingo as it comes out can be a challenge, but don’t get discouraged — there is always time to learn something new! You just need to tune into guides like this. The only thing that you need to know here is that when it comes to forex options, you need to keep your eyes open. Charting still applies, and understanding the underlying markets that you’re trading are going to matter as well. You will need to understand that binary options simply mean that you are working with forex options contracts that must be executed once set. You are only limited to two different choices there.

What about the alerts that drive the binary options contracts? Ah, that brings us to binary options signals. They are derived only after analysis of the underlying asset to be traded has been completed.

Binary options signals are a new phenomenon in the forex world, so there’s always new information coming out. What you will want to do here is make sure that you’re working with a good binary options signals company that can give you the freshest information on your own terms. Every trader knows that time is something that’s incredibly liquid in the forex world. You have to know when to seize it and when to move on to other opportunities.

Looking up reviews is going to help you really figure out what to use and what to avoid. Just like you need to do your homework before you look up a broker, you need to do the same amount of homework before you pick binary options signals. Even though other people would disagree, they are really not created equal.

Nobody can really hold your hand in the world of forex — this is an investing world like none other, so you have to make sure that you do the legwork for yourself. Even if you are looking at reviews, you still need to process things in the back of your head. Is everything working towards your goals? If so, proceed. But if something doesn’t match up with what you need, it shouldn’t be anywhere near your portfolio period.

The bottom line is that it’s your money to invest as you please, but you always have to think about risk no matter what investment comes into play. This is even more the case when it comes to forex — good luck!

Three Types of Forex Accounts

The goals that an investor has when they decide to trade in foreign currency will determine the type of forex account that they open. Most investors choose between three different accounts; a forex mini account, a managed forex account or a full forex account.

Forex mini account

A forex mini account is one which is typically opened by investors who want to participate in the foreign exchange market more actively but do not yet have the knowledge, experience or the money to do so. Mini accounts are generally opened for a fraction of the standard price, making them more affordable for someone who might be leery of investing so much money in a full account, especially when their lack of currency investment experience could set them up for losses early on. Trading can be conducted on a much smaller scale with a mini account, enabling the new forex investor to take smaller positions on currencies. They can also be used to experiment with different trading strategies until the investor finds one that suits them. Additionally, forex mini accounts give investors the same access to various forex tools, including trading platforms, charts, and more.

Managed forex account

A managed forex account is one in which the forex trader hires a money manager to oversee their account. They may opt for this type of account because they do not have the time each day to commit to supervising an account that would be trading on such a liquid and fast-paced market as foreign exchange. Investors may also choose a managed account simply because they want their money to be handled by a trained professional with a proven track record of successful currency investments. This does not mean that the investor does not retain control of their account. On the contrary, they will dictate to the money manager the terms by which their investments should be made. The money manager will then make no decision outside of the investor’s guidelines, pursuing the same investments that the investor themselves would make. Many money managers are available for hire who specialise in certain currency investments and strategies, allowing the investor to tailor their managed account even further to their liking.

Full forex account

The full forex account, or standard forex account, is the most basic and common type of forex account that one could have. The investor is in control of their money and each investment is initiated by the investor themselves. They can take advice from various sources when necessary, but unlike a managed forex account, a full account will not be manipulated by anyone but the account holder. Also, a full forex account requires the standard starting investment, which contrasts with a mini account that allows users to start small. A full forex account is what those with a mini account are working up to, and it is the account that most currency investors open when they are transitioning out of a managed account, where they invest part-time and in to full-time forex investing.

Some Stock Market Lessons

Understanding how the stock market works and having a trading strategy is only useful if you stick to it. If you invest in a stock market lesson to learn some good stock market strategies then you need to keep to the plan if you want to succeed. However many stock market investors let their emotions take hold of them and they forget the strategies they learnt from the stock market lessons that they have paid good money for. They become emotionally engrossed in a trade, so they ignore all the rules and warning signs.

Many investors forget their plans and strategies and either simply watch as their portfolio values drop and they will still hold their positions or then in a moment of panic decide to sell at the lowest point in the market realising the largest possible loss. Or they may fear missing out on a big gain, or be so deep in loss that they could not possibly sell at that point. Even if you believe that all positions will recover from their losses, and the truth is that not all of them will, this is a terrible way to trade. It shows a lack of understanding about how the stock market works and it does not matter what stock market lessons you subscribe to. If you do not have the right investing psychology, you are going to continually make donations to the market.

Any stock market lesson should teach you that when you first form your plan for a trade, you should consider what stock price you think it is likely to reach. Often this is called a target price, which often gives the beginner investor the wrong impression. A target price is not necessarily the stock price that has to be reached. Depending on your strategy often a stock price does not have to do anything. If you treat your target price as a goal, it can lead to many problems. Your target price should only be used as a guideline. In a strategy like the share renting strategy it can actually can be advantageous for the stock price not to move much.

The target price helps you figure out your risk to reward ratio, and it gives you an exit signal in your trade. Many advise that setting a 30% profit and 20% loss is the point where a trade should be exited. At the least, it should give you a point where you should reassess the ability of the trade to continue following a particular trend. Remember your trade may never reach your target price. Many factors can interfere with the stock market and a stock price, and you may have set your target higher than you should have.

A good stock market lesson is to understand that there are a number of factors that can influence a stock price and force you to close your position sooner than you may have planned. Your stock market lesson education should cover all of these possibilities, but here are some reasons that should always prompt you to close or reassess a position:

1. The end of a trend. Remember that the trend is your friend and all trends end some time, and you should be prepared for this. Continue reading →

Ways in which you can benefit from Forex Trading

Forex trading has become quite common as many people are involved in trading to earn more and more money. There are many benefits forex trading offers to the traders.

A look at forex benefits by new traders

When new traders enter the market, they are not completely aware of the various benefits trading provides them. So, it is important that they come to know of the complete details so that they are not misguided and can take full advantage of the various features and benefits at forex trading.

Exciting benefits currency trade offers

Round the clock trade

The main benefit of trading currency with forex is that it is possible to trade any time of the day or even at night. This is one feature which gives flexibility to people and they are able to trade during late hours as well.

Liquidity efficiency

Since the trade has infinite sellers and buyers, the traders can even sell when their trade is getting close to the market price that is last. Also it is a known fact that the currency market is referred as the most liquid market among all. The trading volume in a currency market is almost 50 times more than the New York exchange market.

You should also know that there are simply innumerable factors affecting the currency that the probability of anyone or even if we say a group affecting the rate of currency is one in a zillion i. e. close to never.

Transactions at low cost

When making transactions for currency, there is absolutely no commission or any kind of transaction fee that is needed. In case of a forex trade, the only cost a person incurs is with the spread when taking a position.

Another cost in case of forex trade is slippage, this need to be paid when the traders are entering in the market at price lower than they wanted.

Because of the low transaction costs in the trade market due to the cheap slippage and volatility, many traders are trading at low cost.

Profiting even when currency goes down

Unlike in the share market, where a share goes down you have to sell it off and have no other option, but in currency trading even when a currency goes down you can trade it and profit when you its price is going down. So, in this case it is not a total loss situation.

The benefit with leverage

Since traders can take leverage in high ratios, this becomes a great feature for new as well as old traders in which people can take leverage up to 50:1. Also this is a great feature as there are not many ways in which one can get funds of this level.

This has made it easy for people who have opened up with small trading account to borrow more money.

Forex trading has become quite common as many people are involved in trading to earn more and more money. There are many benefits forex trading offers to the traders.

Forex Software: How to Buy Forex Software

Forex software is available today for very reasonable prices. However, you should learn how to buy forex software so you still find incredible bargains on quality trading systems.

Some simple buying tips for forex traders include the following:

• Of course, one sign that you are making the right choice on particular software is that it is highly regarded both on the Internet as well as off the Internet. If you choose a quality system to start with you will fare better than if you make a hasty decision otherwise.

• It is highly recommended that you make your selection based on multiple factors. For instance, there is foreign exchange robot software out there that can make your selections automatically. Certain automated tools make trades for you based on many different factors such as target market, household income, economic condition, or Internet proximity.

• Another suggestion is to buy forex software that is user-friendly. One in particular that I had recently learned about is the Ivybots. While it may not work for everyone, I myself am tempted to invest in it.

• Consider the return of investment expected and proven as you make your selection of automated and projection programs designed to help you trade. In the year 2008, the program mentioned above (Ivybot) generated an overall return, so the advertiser says, at least-of about 523%

• Finding a program that is very easy to install also helps tremendously. If you can find one that allows you to download it or plug it in for immediate installation and use that is the easiest. You do not need to be a computer whiz to use certain programs.

• Premium customer service provided by a caring customer service staff is always very helpful. This is often provided with some of today’s most popular and useful day trading software.

• If you are new to the currency exchange world, it may help you to sign up with automated services where you can deposit low sums of money. This will help you get started as you learn how to trade. Even better yet, it helps to find forex software that allows you to “practice” before “going live.”

• As you shop, you should also check with the regulations department close to where you live. This will ensure you trade within guidelines set by your local or national government. This should keep you from making illegal decisions while on the market.

Forex Software Trading Review: Forex News Software

One type of forex software keeps you updated on current trading activity. The function of computer programs such as Forex News Software is similar to the ticker tapes and news reports you see on Television or other video sources.

Forex News Software Components

Squawk box This is the scrolling headlines similar to what you would see on some Internet video or television source. It is an instant update provided in real time to help you make the wisest trading moves possible. You receive new information up to eight times per hour, at a minimum of five times per hour.

Order board This includes information based on hearsay pertaining to Fortune 500 companies transactions. It also shows activity based on major hedge funds. This is a great tool for finding out where the stops are on significant and sizeable investments or potential trading moves.

Daily features You can go here before making any trade. Reports here give a summary of previous activity. Likewise, they also help you keep on the lookout during current trading sessions. You can learn what is going on in all markets around the world-in North American, European, and Asian markets.

Trading outlook This portion of Forex News Software helps you keep track of activity on seven major currencies. Therefore, you can keep track of transactions made involving the Yen, Euro, Swiss Franc, and British Pound. You can analyze the movements amongst these to help you make wiser trading choices.

Tech Levels Analysis Information you need which helps you more closely analyze 13 different currencies is lined up here. You can study various statistical aspects of trading such as moving averages, fibonachi retracement levels, RSI, and support/resistance.

Options - You can keep up with options quite nicely using this portion of the Forex News Software. Risk reversal pricing, volatility levels, and strategies are analyzed here. There is also a market commentary provided pertaining to trading activity, levels, and interests.

Global calendar and data bank Quite a bit of information is provided here. You can find data pertaining to interest rates, economic numbers (stats), meeting dates and times, decision makers, and more.

M A Flows This section of a very useful computerized system helps you track various global economies. You can find out where in the world the condition of the economy is the best as well as where it is the worst. You can also analyze flows of funds that circulate around the world.

Strategy Reports These are generated on a daily or weekly basis. In them is provided coverage on numerous strategy variations such as those pertaining to stops and limits. You also can refer to these for information on a variety of other market moves.

Pros and Cons

This is a very detailed service. However, it may be costly for some people. There is a free trial available to those who want to try it out before using it.

Purpose and Benefits of Online Forex Trading Software

Online Forex trading software has been created to make the exchange of foreign currency easier. Oftentimes, users of various online and computer-downloadable tool increase chance of making a profit.

The Purpose

Traditionally the practice of making Forex trades at times required use of very technical mathematical equations. This often placed limits on the type of people who could profit. However, this has changed especially since the use of the Internet.

Nowadays, many aspects of foreign currency statistics and calculations are automated. Since most of the complex figures are automatically generated, more people can participate in this financial market more readily.

The benefits of online and computer-based Forex trading software are many. Just take a look at the most important ones:

You can more quickly identify times in which you should make a move that could lead to a greater profit. You can also become more confident in making the right trades.

Various automated tools help you make more accurate calculations. This helps you plan your next move while you more accurately manage risk.

Sometimes you are even able to trade while you are away from your computer. A specific type of software called a “robot” or “bot” for short is what executes automated trades for you.

You are able to concentrate on more than one currency pair. While doing so, you can make predictions on trades based on varying conditions.

If you are just getting started with exchanging foreign currency, you have the option to practice. This is a function provided by some of the most reputable Forex online trading software developers and distributors.

You become accustomed to analyzing trades that will result in higher profit at minimal risk. This is all accomplished by way of proper support.

Certain tools help you keep updated by the minute (or even second). This is accomplished as you install functions on a browser as a toolbar or perhaps you download software that connects to the Internet and tracks current market prices and trends.


Some of the most helpful online Forex trading software and tools include risk and profit calculators, prediction statistics, and practice market tools. Research these to help you maximize your profits, and get your hands on every foreign exchange tutorial you can find. Of course, you are advised along the way to take certain precautions. One of these is to make sure you deal with brokers you trust.

How Does Forex Day Trading Work?

Forex day trading is one of the most promising opportunities for earning income in the Forex market today. Day trading systems focus primarily on what is happening in the market today not in days, weeks or even months to come.

The Forex market is the largest and most available financial market worldwide. Day trading systems lets a trader chose the best time to trade in the market. It also requires less money to be used to start out with. Many brokers allow accounts to be opened with $250 or less making it easier to be used by more people.

The primary function of day traders is to obtain the price swing. Each trading day in the Forex day system, the volume is determined by the different times when the separate markets are open and coincide with each other.

The Forex currency trading amount stays at a high level but it generally peaks or reaches its highest point when European and American markets open simultaneously. This usually occurs between one and four pm mountain time.

Day trading happens when a trader busy a large amount of a foreign currency at a time and sells it as soon as the price rises for that day.

Because this type of transaction involves a large amount of risk it is not for everyone. For instance, if you cannot afford to lose the money you should not risk it as it is often likely that your losses could be great. Day trading is often more beneficial to those who aren’t totally dependent on the amount of money they are risking making it less of a risk overall. Even with this knowledge day trading systems can be quite promising and a large percentage of Forex trades are made in the form of day trades.

Before you move into the world of Forex day trading it is important that you understand the system as well as the basic fundamentals of the Forex techniques that are utilized.

Once you have learned these things you can then learn how to make trades on your own and not be dependent on anyone else. By doing this it will give you a greater sense of accomplishment because you will have the knowledge that whatever profits you turned you did so on your own by making your own decisions and taking your own risks. It is important to remember that day trading when done right can be quite profitable.

How To Choose the Right Forex Trading Software

Forex trading software is becoming more popular among traders as time goes by. One reason for this is the software’s ability to continue working even if you are not. There are several forex software programs available but it is important to choose the one that is right for you.

There are three important things to remember when choosing the right forex software for your trading needs. These three things include:

Good Security Measures

Proper Customer Support

Easy to Understand and Operate

These are the three most important things to remember when trying to determine which forex software you want to use.

When choosing forex trading software it is important to pick one that uses good safety measures. This should be one of the first things you consider when making the decision of which one to use.

Customer Support

This is also a very important aspect of a good forex trading software program. This is especially important for beginners as you are most likely going to have lots of questions until you learn your way around the market and gain a little experience. For this reason it is important to choose software that has unlimited and constant customer support to answer those questions.

Easy to Understand

It is equally important to use software that is easy to understand and operate. Because most people are just learning this market it is going to be pointless to spend money on a good forex trading software program if it is too complicated for you to use and understand. If you don’t understand what is going on you will lose money quickly and in large amounts.

Although there are many forex software programs available it is important to know which ones are the most effective as well as the easiest to understand and operate. One such software program is Forex Tracer.

Forex Tracer has the ability to continue trading by automation making it effective even when you can’t be right there to monitor ever move that is made. This makes it easy to continually earn money and further increase your profits over manual trading alone.

It is recommended that you use the program on a trial basis for a few days before making a purchase to ensure that you understand how it works and that it is the right program for your trading needs. This goes a long way in determining your success rate.

MetaTrader 4 & 5 Online Forex Trading Software Review

I’ve been in the process of seeking out online Forex trading software. In the process, I stumbled upon information about MetaTrader 4 5.

MetaTrader 4

This software is made up of six main parts: The server, manager, administrator, data center, and client terminal, as well as mobile terminal.

Function - The main role of this software is to help serve over 10,000 traders with all of them working at the same time. This system is also designed to process many different financial symbols. Each main component of this program along with its convenient mobile trading and automated trading functions makes it perfect for financial markets.

MetaTrader 5 (2010 Release)

It is an advanced trading terminal that may have some benefit to you, depending upon your trading objectives. Keep in mind that this particular software may be more advanced, and meant more for seasoned investors and brokers.

Function - Meta Trader 5 is designed to help organize brokerage services. Therefore, all futures, currency, equity, and CFD market info is keep in tact. This is done so that you as a broker can offer your client great services.

Using this program, you can allow your clients to trade in multiple platforms. All this is done from one main account.

Note: This program is currently in the beta testing stage. The official release of it is in 2010. If you want to experience the beta testing software, you can download it via the MetaQuotes website.

Pros and Cons

The MetaTrader 4 as well as the upcoming 5th version are designed to be user-friendly. Yet, they have a very professional purpose. Furthermore, it is considered a highly flexible trading platform.

It has the power to enable all aspects of trading quite easily and efficiently. This software offers support in many different languages.

It seems to be one that has a positive report within the trading community as well. Some people have found it quite reliable. However, it may not be for everyone.

Consumer Responses

Consumers confirm that it is very easy to use. Non-advanced investors and traders can even use it. However, one user mentioned not receiving any support from the broker or developer. On the contrary, another user mentions not having any problems at all.

In spite of not a total 100% satisfaction rating, this product seems to work well overall. The discrepancies in users may be in using the beta tested version versus the live full version.

Forex Trading System

2.1. What is a Forex Trading System?

Forex trading system is the subsystem of the forex trading plan which controls when and at which price you open and close your trades. A trading system operates on the signals generated by technical analysis and/or fundamental analysis. The signals are processed to determine if the trader should buy or sell a particular currency pair or should close the existing position(s). Any currency trading system prevents information overload by filtering the universe of technical and/or fundamental signals in such a way that only the most reliable (successful in the past) signals or signal combinations are acted upon.

There are two types of trading systems - the discretionary and the mechanical . Discretionary trading systems require the trader to use his or her own judgement to determine the importance of each of the technical or fundamental signals (whose number is potentially unlimited) that he or she receives. Mechanical trading systems operate on a fixed number of technical or fundamental signals without the participation of the trader. Discretionary trading systems require the constant application of creativity (flexibility of approach) from the trader in the interpretation of the changing market conditions. Mechanical trading systems require the creativity from the trader only in the forex system development phase .

Discretionary forex trading systems are best used by professional forex traders with a lot of experience (internalized practical market knowledge) against which they can determine the validity of any signal that they receive. These traders typically remember a large number of different signal patterns from the past (just like the master chessmen) that they can compare to the current market conditions, to make their analysis more objective. In essence, they use themselves (i. e. their brain) as their trading system - often very successfully - because human mind has the greatest pattern recognition power on the planet.

Beginning currency traders are advised to start by following professionally created mechanical forex trading systems. Most of these systems are sold in the form of the forex signals that are usually developed by seasoned traders who have found a way to systematize their knowledge of the markets into a working strategy. At the same time, the beginning traders can work on building their own knowledge base of the forex market through the quality forex books. bank reports and newswires on this subject - so that they can too, with time, create mechanical trading systems from their own insights and intuitions (using the forex charting packages which allow to do this).

Starting without a proven mechanical forex trading system (that has positive mathematical expectation ) drastically reduces the chances of preserving the capital. This is because any intuition or a hunch that the traders experience as a result of some newly gained knowledge of the forex market is likely to be overridden by one of the two emotional derivatives of their life-long programming towards the money - the greed and the fear. In other words, without strict adherence to an existing mechanical trading system the beginning trader will eventually succumb to his or her emotions. As a matter of fact, the only way the traders can learn discipline in the early phases of their trading careers is by closely following the signals generated by a proven mechanical forex trading system.

Note: Neural Network Packages (e. g. NeuroShell) emulate the process of human learning and can be used to accumualte the knowledge of the past technical and/or fundamental signal patterns (just like the mind of professional forex traders does) for the purpose of the future currency price forecasting.

Quote: A mechanical approach to the markets can be successful and this is backed up by the fact that approximately 80% of the $30 billion in the managed futures industry is traded by exact systematic methods , from the The Ultimate Trading Guide by John R. Hill, George Pruitt, and Lundy Hill.

2.2. Components of a Forex Trading System.

A typical forex trading system consists of two subsystems - the entry system and the exit system . These systems can operate on a different or the same set of inputs. The inputs can be technical or fundamental signals. A system consists of a number of rules which interpret the signals that it receives. The entry system evaluates the signals to determine if and at which level the positions should be opened. The exit system evaluates the signals to determine if and at which level the open positions should be closed.

The purpose of an entry system is to find market points which allow to open positions with high potential reward and low potential risk (high reward-to-risk ratio). The risk is defined as the pip distance from the entry price to the next support or resistance level lying opposite to the entry direction (above entry for sell and below entry for buy). The reward is defined as the pip distance from the entry price to the next support or resistance level lying in the direction of the entry (above entry for buy and below entry for sell). It is generally advised that the traders accept only the trades with the reward-to-risk ratio of over 2 (e. g. risk=60 pips, reward=130 pips). However, depending on the accuracy of a trading system (i. e. the percentage of the winning trades of all the past trades) this requirement might be shifted to a lower or a higher value without sacrificing the profitability of the system. This is because the true measure of the long term profitability of a forex trading system is neither the average per-trade reward-to-risk ratio nor the accuracy of the system but the combination of these two measures which is calculated as the mathematical expectation of a trading system. In the absence of the accuracy measure of a trading system (as is the case with some discretionary trading systems) - the trader should strive to find entries with the highest possible reward-to-risk ratio.

Note . Elliott wave analysis allows to find entries with extremely high reward-to-risk ratios (e. g. just check some of reports on MTPredictor's site ). It is worth noting that MTPredictor automatically calculates the reward-to-risk ratios and helps to find optimum entry points based on these ratios. Some Elliot wave software developers (e. g. Advanced Get ) also supply their subscribers with detailed Elliott wave trading plans .

The purpose of an exit system is to protect the capital base and the unrealized profits . The capital base is protected by ensuring that the trades are exited with a fixed loss when the reasons for holding them are no longer valid. This is done by triggering a stop-loss order on your forex brokerage account when the price crosses the level which defined your risk at the entry. If you are a discretionary trader, forcing yourself to place the slop-loss on each trade and to stick to it no matter what will make you very selective about your entries - which should increase your profitability. The unrealized profits are protected either by a take-profit order which is triggered on your brokerage account when the price reaches the level which defined your profit at the entry or with the help of the trailing stop-loss which gradually locks in more profits as the price moves in your favour. In fact, the trailing stop-loss exit can be more suitable than the fixed take-profit exit if you wish to profit from the extending character of some impulse waves. In such a case the trailing stop-loss can be placed just a few pips opposite to the trendline which defines impulse wave. There is one more type of exit which can be used to protect the trader from missing trading opportunities - the time exit . A time exit is triggered if a trade hasn't reached either its stop-loss or take-profit level in the specified period of time. Exiting such trades minimizes the chances that the capital will be tied up when better opportunities appear on the other currency pairs.

Note: Most forex newswires (e. g. Marketnews) are a great source of real-time information on the location of the major support and resistance levels and clusters of large orders that are watched by professional forex traders and which can be used to manually update the position of your trailing stop-loss.

2.3. Development of a Currency Trading System.

Creating a mechanical forex trading system involves a number of steps: 1) Selecting the inputs for the trading system - technical analysis or fundamental analysis tools which will generate the signals for the system; 2) Developing the rule-set which will operate on these signals; 3) Optimizing the parameters of the analysis tools used to produce the signals; 4) Backtesting and forwardtesting the system over historical price data. Each of these steps is covered in more detail below:

2.3.1. Selecting the Inputs for the Trading System

It is important to base your selection of inputs to the system on a sound premise about the way the currency markets operate. As an example, you can use 200-day moving average to determine if the market is in a long-term up or down trend because a large proportion of professional forex traders use this technical tool to measure market trendiness. It is also better to combine technical analysis tools of different type and scale because this increases the chances of finding high-probability entry points (those that are likely to be followed by sharp currency price moves in your favour), which should, in turn, contribute to the overall system accuracy.

If you use technical tools only on the higher time-frame charts like the daily or the weekly charts this will increase the duration of the trades and the time periods out of the market - because the signals will take longer to form. Either of these outcomes can have detrimental impact on the trader and investor morale during the inevitable losing streaks as is shown by our forex trading simulator (Please note: The size of this page is 0,6 Mbs and it requires that you have Flash installed and Javascript enabled in your browser). which can last longer than they are naturally prepared to wait. This makes it important to focus on lower time-frame charts (e. g. hourly charts) for signal generation which will lead to shorter trade durations and, consequently, to quicker recoveries from the drawdowns . Shorter trade durations can also help to the trader to overcome the temptation to overtrade because he or she can expect to see the next entry signal in the next couple of days - not in the next couple of weeks.

Quote: Your freedom to choose your time-frame is too valuable to lose. Investors and margined speculators, on the other hand, can choose their own time-frames. This is one of their positional advantages, to use a favourite notion of Larry Hite*. one of the founders of Mint Investment Corp* - one of the largest of the futures fund operators. Investors and speculators can choose. Obviously it makes sense to choose time frames which match any natural rhythms that can be discerned in the currency markets . John Percival in his book The Way of the Dollar .

Note: If you are using the Elliott Wave analysis your average holding period will depend on the degree of the impulse or corrective waves that you are trading.

Deciding which fundamental factors are best for your forex trading system (e. g. as inputs to your neural network ) can be very difficult because the effect of various economic indicators on the currency prices changes with time. In other words, the strength of correlation between the price of a currency pair and the fundamental factors relevant to it is not fixed (even with interest rate differentials ). In contrast, the relationship between the price patterns (especially the classical price patterns ) and trader psychology (the driving force behind most important price moves) remains fairly stable over the years . This is the reason why the forex traders are encouraged to devote most of their efforts to building trading systems around the technical analysis.

Another important question is the time horizon of the prediction that the trader is trying to make with his system. Better not to try to forecast currency prices too far into the future. This is because the number and the complexity of interaction of various technical and fundamental factors rises geometrically with each trading day. It is, therefore, best to leave this task to high-end investment banks and houses which alone have the capacity to perform the necessary calculations inherent in longer-term currency course forecasting. It is more practical for the typical currency trader to concentrate on capturing the so-called knee-jerk market reactions driven by crowd emotionalism through the analysis of the current technical or fundamental conditions.

Quote . Rule 5: Be prepared for anything don't try to predict what will happen or when. Investing is a skill, not a science. The Zen swordsman dicsniplines body and mind to counter any blow spontaneously; he does not anticipate the moves of an opponent, for that impedes his ability to react. Likewise, professional investors know they cannot control the real estate or stock market, let alone the global economy. Instead, they train themselves to be financially intelligent, to think confidently and creatively when opportunities or problems arise. one of the The Seven Rules of Investing given in Robert Kiyosaki's book You Can Choose to Be Rich.

You should also try not to include too many indicators (over 12) in your forex trading system. This is because probability that the system will perform like it did in the past diminishes as you add more indicators to your system. As a rule, the larger the number of indicators in your system the longer the period of historical currency price data you need to backtest the system on.

Note: There is no necessity to learn all the available indicators and technical analysis methods before you can start creating your own robust trading systems. It is usually enough to master just a few basic technical indicators and formations to start combining them to identify high probability entry and exit points. The fundamental and technical reports issues by the investment banks are one of the best sources of information on which technical and/or fundamental signals are watched by the professional trading community that you can include in your forex trading system. In the long run it is best to stick to a sound forex trading strategy, that has high probability of being profitable in the long-run, than to dissipate your capital among a variety of promising techniques.

2.3.2. Developing the Rule-Set which will Operate on the Signals

You can develop these rules based on your observation of how the prices move in relation to various technical and fundamental indicators. For example, you might notice that currency prices tend to resume trending behaviour after they correct toward and touch 200-day moving average. You can use this observation to formulate a rule which will enter the markets when the prices bounce off from the 200-day moving average. You might also notice that the prices tend to stop trending when they touch the outer daily Bollinger bands. You can use this information to create a rule which will exit the trades once the prices penetrate the outer daily Bollinger Band. Because creating rule-sets for mechanical trading systems forces you to quantify your insights about the market this practice helps to clarify them.

The rule-set of a forex trading system is in essence the clarified version of the weighing algorithms that you naturally create in your mind as you learn the technical and fundamental analysis and observe the price action. I say weighing because most of the technical rules are recorded in your mind as fuzzy patterns (e. g. The longer the shadows of a doji the more likely the reversal or The steeper the trendline - the more bullish or bearish the market sentiment. ). When you create the trading system, you transfer your knowledge to the computer in the form that can be understood by it. Admittedly, the quality of the computerized model very often will fall short of the actual mental model that you keep in your head. However, the real advantage of the mechanicizing your market knowledge is the ability to objectively determine the validity of your trading ideas by the process of the backtesting. It should be noted that the closest the computers approach to imitating the complexity of human comprehension of the market patterns is in the neural network packages .

Neural network packages can be especially useful if you wish to model your way of weighing the strength of support or resistance levels. For example, if you think that fibonacci retracements are more reliable entry points if they are confirmed by reversal candlestick patterns and/or RSI divergence you can ask a neural network to search for past occurrences of this pattern combination and determine the actual numeric weight that should be placed on each of these technical signals for the entry or exit to occur. This process is very beneficial because it allows the computer to extend your natural pattern recognition ability by perfecting (or objectifying) the weights associated with each technical input/signal. This way you can objectively measure the strength or the beauty of the technical setups that you encounter in your trading (e. g. the resultant model might require the position to be opened if the total sum of signal weighs is greater than 0,5 where a reversal candlestick signal is worth 0,15, fibonacci retracement is worth 0,3 and the RSI divergence is worth 0,45). In essence, your forex trading system is the description of how beautiful your trading setups should be, where beauty is defined as the convergence of confirming signals from different type and/or scale technical analysis tools. Advanced users of the neural networks can go even further by tying the position size (within the maximum percentage value set by their money management system ) to the strength or the beauty of the technical setup . If done properly this practice will allow them to make the most of the best trading opportunities while simultaneously reducing the exposure on the less promising setups.

Meta4 . An interesting parallel to weighing the signals in order to determine if the position should be taken or not is the way people fall in love. Each person carries a certain number of unconscious or semi-conscious qualifiers that describe in more or less fuzzy terms the appearance, the character, the temperament of their likely mate. When you meet the person who posses enough of these qualities (i. e. above some threshold or unconscious minimum) the cascade of the confirming signals sets your mind off into the love state. A similar process occurs in the mind of discretionary trader when the market action through all of its technical and/or fundamental signals (i. e. when all the pieces fit) activates the hunch or intuition response from him or her. If you compare the mind of a discretionary trader to a neural network the hunch finds its direct expression in the output neuron. The similarity between the process of falling in love and experiencing a hunch is probably behind such market advices as do not marry your trades or do not fall in love with your trades. To stretch the similarity further we can compare a stop-loss order to the practice employed by some of the married couples called the boundary. The boundary is the some form of behaviour unacceptable to the other spouse which if violated will lead to the end of relationship. Yet another parallel is between adding to a losing position and trying to win a favour of an unloving partner - the more you invest the harder it is to let go and the more likely you are to end up devastated financially (emotionally in the relationships). As a final comparison the neural networks allow to model the connections among the ideas in the human mind in a similar manner that a website through all its external and internal links allows to express the particular mental idea-network of its creator.

Quote: I use all forms of technical analysis, but interpret them through gut feel. I do not believe in mathematical systems that always approach markets in the same way. Using myself as the system, I constantly change the input to achieve the same output—profit!, Mark Weinstein in Jack D. Schwager's book Market Wizards .

Note . It should be noted that the quality of your model will always be only as good as the inputs that you give or feed to it (as someone said - Garbage in, garbage out). This is because computers only extend your pattern recognition ability and cannot be relied upon to think up a winning system on their own - if this was false, the markets would have been cornered long ago by the guy with the most powerful computer.

2.3.3. Optimizing the Parameters of the Analysis Tools used to Produce the Signals

Some forex charting packages (e. g. TradeStation ) allow to optimize the parameters of the technical indicators that you use in your forex trading system. Optimization allows to find parameter values of your indicators that result in the highest profit (most frequently used measure of system performance in optimization) from the trading system over the past data. An example of the optimization is looking for the best time-period parameters for a two-moving-averages crossover system. Typically the periods of two moving averages are stepped from 1 to 50 in steps of 1 and the trading results for each of around 250 moving average combinations are recorded and then sorted to find the most profitable combination. Such process of going though all possible parameter combinations is called brute force optimization. As the number of indicators used in your system increases arithmetically the number of potential parameter combinations increases geometrically. The total number of parameter combinations is, therefore, said to be subject to combinatorial explosion. For example, to optimize a system with 5 indicators each of which has 50 different parameter values you would have to cycle through 312 500 000 (50^5) possible parameter combinations. The only way you can expect to quickly solve such huge optimization problems in your lifetime is through the use of generic optimizers (e. g. OptEvolve for the TradeStation or NeuroShell Trader Professional ).

Optimization of the time-period parameter of the cycle-based indicators like Stochastics allows to automatically adjust them to the cycles present in the market instead of using the default time-period values - which is the method originally practiced by the developer of Stochastics.

As a final note, try not to over optimize your indicators because majority of the professional forex traders use default indicator settings. You are looking for trading setups where the smart money will be acting (as opposed to the general investor public) so it doesn't make much practical sense to use indicator settings that hardly any professional forex trader is aware of.

2.3.4. Backtesting and Forwardtesting the System over Historical Price Data.

Backtesting allows to see how your system would have performed if it was run during some period in the past. You optimize indicator parameters using the price data in the backtesting period. It is important that the time period that you backtest your system on is representative of the currency pair that you wish to trade - it should include all types of market conditions (trending, rangebound) and it should be as recent as possible. Once you are comfortable with the performance of your system you forward test it - you run it on the out-of-sample price data (the price data that would be immediate future to the backtesting period). This way you can see if the system is able to perform similarly to the way it did during the backtesting. The closer the system's performance during the forward testing is to its performance during the backtesting the more robust the system and the more confident you can be that it will continue to trade in a similar manner during the real-time trading. You might also wish to trade your system on a forex demo account for some time before beginning to trade it with the real money.

Backtesting helps the trader or investor to determine if they are prepared psychologically for the live trading of a forex trading system. By reviewing the past performance of a system they can decide if the size of the drawdown, the number of the consecutive losses and the average duration of the trades are acceptable for them. In contrast to the mechanical trading systems the discretionary trading systems cannot be backtested because the discretionary traders cannot guarantee that they will react to a similar set of signals in the future in the same manner that they did in the past.

2.4. Implementation of a Forex Trading System.

There are two ways you can implement a forex trading system - either manually or automatically. Discretionary trading systems can only be followed by the manual placing of the trades. Mechanical trading systems are better followed though the use of automation.

If you are following a discretionary trading system you will be typically screening the currency markets for the signals that you have outlined in your checklist. The checklist is the description of the technical or fundamental trading signals that your trading system's rule-set operates on. The checklist can also contain the guidelines on how often you should check your forex charts/forex newswires for the signals (using the economic news calendar provided by the forex newswires as your fundamental signal timing tool); in contrast, the mechanical forex trading systems will be going through their own checklists with every second, 24 hours a day - which no human can possibly do. Having a detailed checklist will help you to be more disciplined in the application of your system. It is best to write your checklist in the form of the questionnaire. You can automate your search for some technical signals with the help of those forex charting packages which allow you to set up the sound or email/SMS alerts to notify you whenever the technical signal of your interest is generated (e. g. in Intellicharts ). The forex bank reports and the forex newswires frequently issue mini reports of technical conditions on the market which most often are simply the filled-in versions of the same checklist.

Manual implementation of the mechanical signals is NOT recommended. Since the signals are generated by the computer you will always feel compelled to double-check them against you own experience - because no computer can model your thinking with 100% accuracy. This can lead to the delays and/or missing of some of the signals which can potentially undermine the system profitability, that rests on the principle of taking each signal precisely at the time it is generated . A lot is being said about the widespread lack of the discipline in taking the signals of the mechanical forex trading systems. This problem can be easily overcome though the use of a reliable signal automation service. You solve all emotional problems associated with the manual trading of the signals by simply automating this process. Elimination of the emotions from the trading through the use of the automated mechanical forex trading systems should explain their popularity among the multi-billion dollar hedge fund industry.

An important aspect of mechanical system trading is the monitoring of its real-time performance. The hidden market dynamics (a particular way of reacting to technical or fundamental signals that an important group of forex market participants shares - or, systematic mass investor impulsiveness ) that your system has captured during the back-testing may be changing or might already have changed at the time you start to trade your system with the real money. The only way you can say that the market dynamics that you are focusing on have changed or not is to compare the real-time and the past system perofrmance. If the system continues to perform like it did during the backtesting then you can conclude that the market dynamics it targets have not yet changed. If you notice significant deviations in such system performance measures like the maximum peak-to-valley drawdown, the average duration of trades, the average value of the profits/losses, the maximum number of consecutive winners/losses, it can signal that an important shift in market dynamics is taking place (e. g. a group of investment banks have modified their trading models). The quickest way to update your system to the changes in market dynamics is available for the neural network packages - which allow to retrain your model over the most recent price history. Retraining a neural network involves readjusting its matrix of weighs which allows it to stay attuned to the current market conditions. If mechanical trading systems suffer form the paradigm shifts on the market - the same can be said of the human mind (discretionary trading systmes) which tends to be very inflexible once a partciluar way of doing things (i. e. trading style) is ingrained in it.

2.5. Mastering System Trading.

To master system trading you should have the patience to wait calmly for the entry or the exit signal from your own forex trading system and act only on them - irregardless of the technical or fundamental conditions that you observe in-between these signals. It is no wonder why the best traders choose to compare themselves to skilful predators when they describe their trading style:

Quote . Top traders love the hunting metaphor to describe what they do. One of them, for example, claims he is like a cheetah. The cheetah can outrun any animal, but it still stalks its prey. It won't attack until it is right on top of its prey. In addition, the cheetah usually waits for a weak or lame animal to get close. Another top trader told me that he trades like a lion. He watches the herd for weeks until something other than his presence causes the herd to panic. When the herd panics, he then chases a weak or lame animal that appears most confused. The difference between an average hunter and a really skilled animal like the swift cheetah or the cunning lion is that the skilled hunter waits until the odds are overwhelmingly in his favor , from The Ten Tasks of Top Trading by Van K. Tharp.

Quote: Much of the time, even professionals don't have a clear picture of what is going on, but they have learned to have the patience to wait for select, specific setups. You must learn to trade on only the most recognizable and reliable patterns

The primary rule of systematic trading is to take each and every trading signal that your system generates. Only by taking all the signals at the time they are generated can you count on replicating the past performance of your system. If you have the slightest suspicion that you will not be able to take all the signals - either due to the timing of the signals or your busy schedule - you should arrange for the signals to be automatically traded.

At the end of the day, a forex trading system just like the money management system serves to protect yourself from your own destructive tendencies which very often mask themselves as the well-meaning hunches and gut responses. This doesn't mean that you shouldn't trust your instincts - only that you should base your trades on them only if you can eliminate emotions from your decisions. This is because a trading system is a method to profit from other traders' emotional instability . therefore, if you do not control your own emotions you will not be able to profit from any system. Removing the emotions from your manual trading can take years (. )- so it can be more practical and profitable to simply autotrade your system.

Even if you start your currency trading career by following a professionally created forex trading system you will receive full satisfaction from the trading - in terms of profit and self-actualization - only if you create and trade a winning system of your own. One of the best books which can help you to start this fascinating journey is Mechanical Trading Systems: Pairing Trader Psychology with Technical Analysis by Richard L. Weissman.

Quote: In the meantime, it cannot be emphasized enough that, at the very least, genuine success in trading markets involves the adoption of a trading system. Without the discipline of such a system, the very best efforts are likely to be doomed to failure. Tony Plummer in his book Forecasting Financial Markets: The Psychology of Successful Investing .

There are no certainties in the forex trading. because the future will never be exactly the same as the past. There are only probabilities, which you can systematically put in your favour with the help of a proven forex trading system .

Forex Trading System

FXMoneyMap Exposed. Why it is the Simplest Forex Analysis Software and How You can use the profit patterns.

Forex Trading System

With the FXMoneymap Software you can easily see when the currency pair should be bought and when it should be sold. No one knows where the market is going, however many traders try to predict where the market price will go up to or go down to.

Using Moving averages based on a single timeframe charts may not be reliable.

If MA's don't hold, what can should you rely on?

So if you were relying on the price to hold at the support level shown in example 2 your trade would turn negative. The reason why the price crashed through is because you are looking at a 1 min and there maybe other Supports that are being adhered to in the 5, 15 or 60 min charts. The FXMoneyMap re-presents the traditional forex charts in a unique Grid display format. FXMoneymap does this by slicing the last time slice from multiple time frame chart for that currency pair, for example from the

The Criteria is a 4 Column Support with at least 1x 60 Min MA Green Box (L1 or L2) if not 2x Boxes (L1 & L2), close to a 20 point Gap from between the point at which the price came from and is going from (difference between entry and exit) and a set 10 pip s

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