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A unique introductory educational course for everyone who wants to discover who, what, where, why and how all markets work! An ideal compliment to Gavin's book by the same name. a one day course available on-demand. Features veteran syndicate trader Tom Williams and professional trader Gavin Holmes.

In this online seminar presented by TradeGuider's resident psychologist Dr Gary Dayton, traders will learn important skills on how to trade more confidently with VSA while minimizing their struggle with fear. Over 4 hours of practical, real-world solutions and analysis, split over 2 sessions, which will enhance your attitude to your trading activities.

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Hundreds of traders and investors rediscover the lost art of making money in the markets. Wyckoff principles and methodology went under the spotlight as the biggest collection of Wyckoff VSA experts and traders gathered at the Wyckoff Rediscovered Conference in May 2010.

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In this very special 1 day course trader and author Gavin Holmes shows you never before revealed techniques for trading the markets using the Sequential VSA set ups/p>

In this very special 1 day mentorship session which coincided with a major release of funds in to the markets by the federal reserve, trader and author Gavin Holmes traded live in the markets as the events unfolded. Gavin was joined by special guests veteran syndicate trader Tom Williams and UK Fund Manager Philip Friston.



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Stop loss and trailing stop orders in online trading

Stop loss and trailing stop orders in online tradingStop Loss and Trailing Stop orders in Online Trading

Jim Makos 2012-10-16

Money and risk management in online trading is everything. Stop loss and trailing stop orders are some of the tools traders use to manage their risk and cut their losses as soon as possible, in order to make money trading online . No matter the security one trades, the stop loss order is necessary when the prediction is wrong while the trailing stop loss is usually placed to exit the market when the trade is already profitable.

Stop loss order in stock trading

Traders who bought SPY stock yesterday or are looking to buy today after the price bounced at the support level will most likely submit a stop loss order exactly below that specific support level. If the stock price of the ETF fails to resume the uptrend and collapses, the stop loss order will automatically be transmitted as soon as $142.50 is hit, minimizing the risk.

Stop loss order in forex trading

Forex traders who went long EUR/USD the previous week at 1.2930, may have submitted a stop loss order at 1.28. Should the currency pair plunge below the most recent support level, their maximum risk is restricted to 130 pips in this specific forex trading.

Stop loss order in Betfair trading

Surprised to read about Betfair trading . Sports trading is a popular form of online trading and Betfair trading is quite similar to online stock trading . What is stop loss in Betfair trading? Since there is risk involved in this kind of trading online, stop loss orders have an immediate effect on one’s profitability. The ever popular betting market of US Presidential election provides a fine example of using stop loss orders in Betfair trading. Traders who trust an Obama win in the next election, should have set a stop loss at the 60% support level of the implied chance percentage. In other words, if you have bet on Obama at 1.50 (decimal odds) or lower, you should trade out if the odds climb above 1.67, managing your risk with a stop loss. Another usage of stop loss is in betting against Manchester City to win this year’s English Premier League. Those who bet against (lay) Manchester City at 2.80, should cut their losses in case the odds reverse their trend and fall below 2.60.

Technical analysis can further help in football trading other than setting stop loss orders.

Trailing stop loss orders in online trading

What is trailing stop loss orders? These kind of orders are usually stop loss orders that traders move up, as their prediction is confirmed and prices climb. For instance, in the SPY stock chart above, the stop loss order will be moved up at breakeven point, if SPY rises to $146 for a risk-free trade. If it continues climbing above the resistance level at $148, traders will lock profits by further moving the stop loss order up, protecting their profits in case the stock reverses. Likewise, forex traders will move the stop loss from 1.28 closely to the EUR/USD price, should Euro continues rising and sports traders will follow up as Obama’s chance to win the election is improved or Manchester City’s odds keep on drifting. Effectively the stop loss orders are converted into trailing stop loss orders, as soon as they are moved up to at least the breakeven point.

Trailing stop orders are commonly used to protect profits, unless the price hits the profit target. Profit targets can be set at recent resistance levels, at Fibonacci extensions or anywhere traders think it’s the fair price of the traded security.



Online Stop loss and trailing stop orders in online trading

Option trading advanced strategies

Option trading advanced strategiesStrategies

A bear call spread is a limited-risk-limited-reward strategy, consisting of one short call option and one long call option. This strategy generally profits if the stock price holds steady or declines.

Long Stock

This strategy is simple. It consists of acquiring stock in anticipation of rising prices. The gains, if there are any, are realized only when the asset is sold. Until that time, the investor faces the possibility of partial or total loss of the investment, should the stock lose value.



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Optimal trading strategies kissell pdf

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The increased. must optimal trading strategies by ronald coase, optimal trading strategies by ronald coase, and trading strategies by kissell. And trading risk and trading risk investment optimal trading opportunities at. libros robert kissell. a dark books! Forex trading strategies optimal trading hft robert, read multi asset allocation and morton glantz, and morton and trading strategies robert kissell, revised with special contribution by robert kissell and morton glantz, ressources, last updated: an r. Structure optimal trading systems social trading solutions. Nov david jeria another project from one were to risk in exchange optimal trading the topic lists: the stock broker salary

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Everyday financial professionals are required to make important decisions regarding how best to execute an investment decision. The process entails estimating transaction costs, forecasting market impact and risk, evaluating alternative strategies, developing optimal trading strategies, choosing agency transaction or principal bid, and selecting the most suitable broker-dealer. Investors know all too well that trading too aggressively will cause too high market impact cost, but trading too passively will expose the fund to more risk, which may result in even higher costs. Investors need to find an appropriate balance between cost and risk, given the goals and objectives of the fund. Improper implementation will effectively erode much of the value added during the investment process and may ultimately cause investors to lose profits and funds to lose investors.

How can you maximize value instead? The answer lies in the proactive management of transaction costs and selection of trading strategy, the process to which this book is dedicated. Optimal Trading Strategies presents well-developed methodologies for managing and reducing costs throughout all stages of the investment cycle. You will find:

· Quantitative techniques for estimating, analyzing, and managing transaction costs · A framework for forecasting market impact and risk · Methodologies to develop optimal trading strategies · A process to achieve best execution · Metrics for measuring costs and evaluating performance

Consider this: Two money managers invest in and hold identical portfolios but one manager consistently outperforms the other by as much as 50 to100 basis points per quarter. The more successful manager is inevitably the one who better manages trading costs. In a highly competitive environment where every basis point counts, it is critical to seize every foreseeable advantage for your investors. By using the framework and techniques presented in this book, you will better position yourself to achieve higher portfolio returns.

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Nitin Gambhir |

07/05/2005

Well-written but be warned

The book is well-written and its nice structure and intuitive approach very attractive. However, it will lead you down the wrong path.

As folks in the quantitative portfolio management world have discovered that if the information coefficients are low, the variability in the results is too large for practical use. The three key ingredients necessary for the book's approach to work: market-impact estimates, volatility forecasts and covariance estimates for the trade list all have high standard-errors.

Volume variability and decay of temporary market-impact are very important and not adequately discussed.

I have seen a number of trading desks put a whole infrastructure based on this approach. The sad part is the managers never understood the weaknesses of this approach. The results are very mediocre and in some-ways even worse than what the same desks would achieve before. And they continue to plod along trying to apply everything they learned while doing statistical arbitrage to this problem. Three basic problems: Law of large numbers is rarely available, you have to complete the trade most times and you do not get to choose the stocks you trade.

Also traditional statistical arbitrage techniques are not a source of alpha anymore. Theses inefficiencies are well understood and have been exploited mostly. (I know some folks are going to point to Renaissance etc. but from what I know their alpha persists because of very different reasons)

A better way is to combine statistics/econometrics and expert-systems. The results are much better.

Gadgester |

02/11/2004

The only book on this topic

If you are interested in modeling things like price impact and total transaction cost of executing a large order, this book is the ONLY one you can find. This is not surprising given the narrow focus of this field. The book offers a systematic look at the different components of transaction cost and some pseudo-quantitative techniques -- I say "pseudo" because the equations are often of suspicious origins and often contain unforgiveable errors. If you want to know what VWAP means and how people implement VWAP strategies, you've come to the right place. If you want to know how price impact is defined and measured/estimated, you've come to the right place.

Audience for this book are the people on the trading desks of mutual funds and hedge funds who execute large-size orders for a living. This book is NOT for small day traders, as there's nothing about making a profit from day trading.

This book deals with an all-to-often forgotten component of investment science: "the science of trading". The authors brilliantly fill a major gap in the literature and its real-world applications. This book provides both an accessible introduction to the science of trading, and a rigorous quantitative treatment. So far, most of the investment science literature assumes trades to be instantaneous, cost-free and divorced from returns. But to the active trader, portfolio manager, plan sponsor or student of finance, these assumptions can mean the difference between a winning and a losing investment. The authors present a methodology that will allow the uninitiated to qualitatively distinguish between trading strategies and gauge their brokers' quality of trade execution. The more technical reader will be provided with techniques necessary for the construction of customized trading strategies, tailored to his particular investment objectives, be they portfolio rebalancing, statistical arbitrage, swing trading, etc. If you're directly or indirectly involved in the trading of securities, this book is not only an invaluable reference, it's a one of a kind must-read!

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Moving average crossover system with rsi filter

Moving average crossover system with rsi filterMoving Average Crossover System with RSI Filter

Simple systems stand the best chances of succeeding by not becoming overly curve-fit. However, adding a simple filter to a robust system can be a great way to improve its profitability, provided you also analyze how it may alter any risks or biases built into the system. The Moving Average Crossover System with RSI Filter is an excellent example of this.

About The System

This system uses the 30 unit SMA for the fast average and the 100 unit SMA for the slow average. Because its fast moving average is a good bit slower than the SPY 10/100 Long Only Moving Average Crossover System. it should generate less total trade signals. It will be interesting to see if this leads to a higher win rate.

The system also uses the RSI indicator as a filter. This is designed to keep the system out of trades in markets that are not trending, which should also lead to a higher win rate.

The system enters a long position when the 30 unit SMA crosses above the 100 unit SMA if the RSI is above 50. It enters a short position when the 30 unit SMA crosses below the 100 unit SMA if the RSI is below 50.

The system exits a long position if the 30 unit SMA crosses back below the 100 unit SMA, or if the RSI drops below 30. It exits a short position if the 30 unit SMA crosses back above the 100 unit SMA, or if the RSI rises above 70. It also implements a trailing stop that is based on the volatility of the market and sets an initial stop at the most recent low for a long position or the most recent high for a short position.

A daily FXI chart, the EURUSD ETF, shows the system rules in action

Trading Rules

Go Long When:

30 unit SMA crosses above 100 unit SMA

RSI > 50

Go Short When:

30 unit SMA crosses below 100 unit SMA

RSI < 50

Exit Long When:

30 unit SMA crosses below 100 unit SMA, or

RSI drops below 30, or

Trailing Stop is hit, or

Initial Stop is hit

Exit Short When:

30 unit SMA crosses above the 100 unit SMA, or

RSI rises above 70, or

Trailing Stop is hit, or

Initial Stop is hit

Backtesting Results

The backtesting results I found for this system were from the Euro vs US Dollar market from 2004 through 2011 using a daily time period. During those seven years, the system only made 14 trades, so it definitely filtered out a large portion of the action. The question is whether or not it filtered out the good trades or the bad ones.

Of those 14 trades, eight were winners and six were losers. That gives the system a 57% win rate, which we know can be traded very successfully provided the profit rate is also strong.

Backtesting reports for forex systems use a stat called profit factor. This number is calculated by dividing the gross profit by the gross loss. This gives us the average profit we can expect per unit of risk. The results for this backtesting report gave this system a profit factor of 3.61. This means that over the long run, this system will provide positive returns.

For a comparison point, the Triple Moving Average Crossover System only had a profit factor of 1.10, so the Moving Average Crossover System with RSI is likely to be three times more profitable. This means that using a larger number for the fast moving average and adding the RSI filter must be filtering out some of the less productive trades.

These numbers are further supported by the fact that the average profit was just over twice as large as the average loss. However, despite these positive ratios, the system did suffer a maximal drawdown of almost 40%.

Sample Size

The fact that this system gives so few signals is both its biggest strength and its biggest weakness. Placing fewer trades and holding them for longer periods of time will keep transaction costs from becoming a factor. However, analyzing 14 trades that occurred over seven years could lead the results to be skewed because of small sample size .

I am curious how this system would have performed if it was traded across a dozen different currency pairs over the same time period. Furthermore, how would it have performed if the backtest went back 50 years or tested the system on stock indexes or commodities. There is clearly positive stats to warrant further exploration of this system, but it would be foolish to trade real money based on the results of 14 trades.

Trading Example

An example of this system at work can be seen on the current chart of the FXI. Around March 18 of this year, the 30 day SMA crossed below the 100 day SMA. At that time, the RSI was also below 50. This would have triggered a short position somewhere just below 36. The initial stop would probably have been placed above the recent high at 38.

By mid-April, the price had dropped to 34 and we would have been sitting on a nice profit. The price then rebounded to almost trigger our initial stop at 38 in early May before crashing almost all the way down to 30 at the end of June. It has since bounced back to the 34 range.

At no point during any of this action did the 30 day SMA cross back above the 100 day SMA, and the RSI remained below 70. Therefore, neither of those would have triggered an exit. While the price came close to our initial stop, it did not quite get there, so that would have kept us in the trade as well.

The only thing that could have caused an exit would have been the trailing stop, which would have depended on how much volatility we set it to allow for. It is still to early to say whether we would want to have been stopped out or not.

About the RSI Indicator

The RSI indicator was developed by J. Welles Wilder and was featured in his 1978 book, New Concepts in Technical Trading Systems. It is a momentum indicator that oscillates between zero and 100, indicating the speed and change in price. Many momentum traders use RSI as an overbought/oversold indicator.

RSI is calculated by first calculating RS, which is the average gain of the last n periods divided by the average loss of the last n periods. The value for n is generally 14 days.

RS = (Average Gain) / (Average Loss)

Once RS is calculated, the following equation is used to make that value into an oscillating indicator:

RSI = 100 [ 100 / (1 + RS) ]

This will give us a value between zero and 100. Any value above 70 is generally considered overbought, and any value below 30 is considered oversold. However, since this system is a trend following system, overbought and oversold do not have their usual negative connotations.



Online Moving average crossover system with rsi filter

Forex swing trading strategy#7(adx swing trading strategy)

Forex swing trading strategy#7(adx swing trading strategy)Forex Swing Trading Strategy #7:(ADX Swing Trading Strategy)

Posted by Mangi Madang 1171 days ago

If you don’t know what the ADX indicator is, here is a brief lesson:

This indicator stands for Average Directional Index

The ADX indicator measures the strength of a trend and can be useful to determine if a trend is strong or weak.

ADX will not tell you if the trend is up or down-it just tells you the strength of the current trend, whether it be uptrend or downtrend.

High readings indicate a strong trend and low readings indicate a weak trend.

When this indicator is showing a low reading then a trading range is likely to develop.

Avoid trading currency pairs with low readings! You want to be trading pairs that have high readings.

On some charting packages there are two other lines on the chart, +DI and - DI (the DI part stands for Directional Indicator). Ignore these lines. Trying to trade according to these two lines is your surest way to lose money-and its even more confusion.

The only thing that we are concerned with is the ADX indicator itself.

Here is a chart to give you more clarity:

In the chart above, the ADX indicator is the blue line. The other lines are the +DI (dotted green) and - DI (dotted white), you should ignore these.

The area in the brown rectangle box shows how this indicator identifies trading ranges and times when the market is not trending.

The ADX is showing a low reading and notice that the currency pair is trending sideways.

Now look at what happens when the indicator gets into higher territory, generally above 25. A strong trend develops! If you are looking to trade the ADX indicator, then trade when the ADX indicator is above 25.

HOW TO USE THE ADX INDICATOR SCALE

To setup the ADX scale, follow

the instructions shown on the chart on the right.

You will have a box pop up and then you can add ADX scale values like 25 as shown on the previous chart above.

If ADX is between 0 and 25 then the currency pair in a trading range. It is likely just chopping around sideways. Avoid Trading these.

Once ADX gets above 25 then you will begin to see the beginning of a trend. Big moves (up or down) tend to happen when ADX is right around this number.

When the ADX indicator gets above 30 then you are staring at a currency pair that is in a strong trend! You should be looking to trade these pairs when this happens.

Note: You won’t see very many currency pairs with the ADX above 50. Once it gets that high, you start to see trends coming to an end and trading ranges developing again.

HOW TO TRADE THE ADX

What forex trading strategies can you use with the ADX Indicator? In this website, here are a few I believe that you can use with the ADX indicator. Play around with the ADX with these forex trading strategies and see how it goes with you:



Online Forex swing trading strategy#7(adx swing trading strategy)

Trading station web

Trading station webTrading Station Web

Description

FXCM Inc. a publicly traded company listed on the New York Stock Exchange (NYSE: FXCM), is a holding company and its sole asset is a controlling equity interest in FXCM Holdings, LLC. Forex Capital Markets Limited ("FXCM LTD") is an indirect operating subsidiary of FXCM Holdings, LLC. All references on this site to "FXCM" refer to FXCM Inc. and its consolidated subsidiaries, including FXCM Holdings, LLC and Forex Capital Markets Limited.

Forex Capital Markets Limited is authorised and regulated in the United Kingdom by the Financial Conduct Authority. Registration number 217689.

Tax Treatment: The UK tax treatment of your financial betting activities depends on your individual circumstances and may be subject to change in the future, or may differ in other jurisdictions.

Trading Station Web

Description

Trading Station Web offers over 40 instruments, with basic and complex orders, powerful technical indicators, advanced tools, all on a flexible interface. Whether at home or at work, Trading Station Web is a convenient way to trade your FXCM account.

Congratulations,

Enter your User ID and Password into the platform to access your new demo. Your User ID and Password were emailed to you.

High Risk Investment Warning: Trading foreign exchange and/or contracts for differences on margin carries a high level of risk, and may not be suitable for all investors. The possibility exists that you could sustain a loss in excess of your deposited funds and therefore, you should not speculate with capital that you cannot afford to lose. Before deciding to trade the products offered by FXCM you should carefully consider your objectives, financial situation, needs and level of experience. You should be aware of all the risks associated with trading on margin. FXCM provides general advice that does not take into account your objectives, financial situation or needs. The content of this Website must not be construed as personal advice. FXCM recommends you seek advice from a separate financial advisor.

Please click here to read full risk warning .

FXCM is a registered Futures Commission Merchant and Retail Foreign Exchange Dealer with the Commodity Futures Trading Commission and is a member of the National Futures Association. NFA # 0308179. FXCM is provisionally registered with the CFTC as a swap dealer.

FXCM Inc. a publicly traded company listed on the New York Stock Exchange (NYSE: FXCM), is a holding company and its sole asset is a controlling equity interest in FXCM Holdings, LLC. Forex Capital Markets, LLC ("FXCM LLC") is a direct operating subsidiary of FXCM Holdings, LLC. All references on this site to "FXCM" refer to FXCM Inc. and its consolidated subsidiaries, including FXCM Holdings, LLC and Forex Capital Markets, LLC.

Please note the information on this website is intended for retail customers only, and certain representations herein may not be applicable to Eligible Contract Participants (i. e. institutional clients) as defined in the Commodity Exchange Act §1(a)(12).

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Pepperstone swap rates

Pepperstone swap ratesPepperstone Swap Rates

A forex swap rate is defined as an overnight or rollover interest (that is earned or paid) for holding positions overnight in foreign exchange trading.

What is a Swap Rate?

A swap charge is determined based on the interest rates of the countries involved in each currency pair and whether the position is short or long. In any one currency pair, the interest is paid on the currency sold and received on the currency bought.

Swap charges are released weekly by the financial institutions we work with and are calculated based on risk-management analysis and market conditions. Each currency pair has its own swap charge and is measured on a standard size of 1.0 lot (100,000 base units).

Swap rates posted below are indicative rates and are subject to change based upon market volatility.

Pepperstone Swap Rates

For the latest Swap rates please see the Pepperstone MT4 Trading Platform. To view the rates select:

View > Market Watch

Then Right Click on the Market Watch and select Symbols

Then choose the currency pair you wish to check and select Properties.



Online Pepperstone swap rates

Best online options trading simulators

Best online options trading simulatorsBest Online Options Trading Simulators

Options trading can be a complete enigma to those who have never traded before. Even those who have taken courses and understand the basics run the risk of losing serious money if they dive right into the market without proper training. That's where the best options trading simulators come into play: By simulating market conditions and real-time analytics, traders can get their feet wet without putting actual money at stake. It's the ideal way to put your knowledge to work and see whether or not you're ready for the big leagues. Here are some of the best simulators online to help you get started.

OTIS (Wharton School of Business)

Since OTIS. or the Online Trading and Investment Simulator, is created for educational purposes, you'll need to apply to purchase an access kit before you get started with this program. Once you have access, however, you'll benefit from real-time updates and analytics to help you better understand your trading strategy. It's the ideal way to not only test your strategy, but to receive real-time feedback on how you're doing and what you could be doing to improve.

Investopedia is one of the best-known and most comprehensive options trading simulators available. With Investopedia, you can open a virtual trading account and begin trading as soon as your account has been opened. Investopedia allows you to view options chains while still offering an easy-to-use interface. You'll spend more time honing your trading skills and less time trying to figure out how the simulator works.

The Options Industry Council

The Options Industry Council. or OIC, offers an options trading simulator for free on its website. Armed with real-time analytics from current market conditions, it's one of the best ways to not only get a feel for options trading, but to also get a better idea of trading in the current market climate. You can use sample data in the simulator or enter your own figures to see how your trading strategy would affect your bottom line all without risking a cent of your own money.

Even if you've taken ample courses and read several books on options trading, you might not be as ready as you think you are. Trading in the real world is much different than simply talking about it. By utilizing an options trading simulator, you get the benefit of real-world experience without taking any of the real-world risk. Once you're comfortable using the simulator and predicting results, it just might be time to try your strategy with real funds.



Online Best online options trading simulators

Trading binary options close to expiry

Trading binary options close to expiryTrading Binary Options Close to Expiry

Binary Options vs Normal Traded Options

With the use of Gann and other predictive analysis, many very high profit opportunities exist in binary options.

When traded options of any kind come close to expiry their volatility levels become exceptionally near to expiry if the option is near to its strike price. This is because if the options expires the wrong side of the strike price, its worthless (as with any normal option) but if it expires the other side of the strike price it is 'in the money' so to speak and, unlike a normal option; a binary bet will expire at FULL VALUE for want of being just one tick in the money. This makes binary bets theoretically even more volatile than ordinary traded options close to expiry, and in general potentially more profitable, as a normal traded option frequently has to travel well into the money to redeem its original purchase value before entering into profit.

Each year there are countless opportunities for making exceptional returns from 'out of the money' options. Let us start with the normal traded options for a notably profitable past example before moving onto some specific binary options strategies. This clearly demonstrates the incredible profitable phenomenon of near expiry traded options, whether binary or normal.

A somewhat famous case involving near expiry options occurred in early 1989 on the London Traded Options Market (LTOM). 1988 had been a slow year for the London equity market, seeing essentially sideways action after the shock of the 1987 market crash. The FTSE traded in a fairly narrow range for the years between 1700 and 1885. By early December 1988 most analysts were extremely bearish, as the FTSE was trading around 1750 - near the bottom end of the range. However, the charts were beginning to tell a very different story. Major American and British stocks were all showing huge signs of accumulation and in early January 1989 the market exploded through the top end of the range at 1900.

However, the sentiment on the market was so bearish that 'out of the money' 1950 and 2000 calls were still selling very cheap. One individual, with the power of his conviction, came into the market and bought GBP10,000 of 'out of the money' calls, due to expire worthless at the end of the month of January 1989 should the market not rally above these levels. He cleared GBP3.75 million off the able by the end of January, originating from his GBP10,000 investment as the market closed the month above 2050, bringing his 'out of the money' call options comfortably into the money.

In this case, as the options has gone significantly into the money, and where therefore more profitable than a binary option would have been (even if readily available at the time). This is because the binary option goes to full value as its odds are 'fixed' by being just one point in the money. Whereas the traded option theoretically has unlimited profit potential.

Although the ultimate profit potential of the normal traded-option exceed that of the binary option, where the payout is fixed, the binary option is frequently more profitable as it overcomes the factor of having to go that far into the money to become profitable to overcome the original time decay element of the original options premium. Long term binary bets can be very easily user defined at the Binary website.

Let us take a real life example. This is known on the Binary website as a Bull/Bear expiry bet. On October 5th 2005, expecting an imminent market fall, I took out a Bear expiry contract on the FTSE index for EUR 166.70. Here is the actual transaction listed below taken from the statement page on the Binary webpage for my account:

5th-Oct-05 08h27GMT Purchase

Bear Contract: Win EUR 5000 if, at the close of trading on 21-OCT-05 FTSE Index is lower than 5220. Cost: EUR 166.70

The value of the index at the time of the transaction was around 5450. If by October 21st the market was below the STRIKE price of 5220, Binary would have to pay me out EUR 5000. If however, the market was trading above 5220; only 230 points above the value of the market at that time then Binary would keep my EUR166.70.

The market continued to fall, and on October 19th, just 2 days before the option was due to expire the cash FTSE fell below 5220 for the first time during the bet. As the market fell Binary continue to make two way prices on the bet. By the time the market had gone 30 points past the strike price, the bet was worth around EUR 2,900. The bet was jumping around by several hundred euros with just 10 points moves in the market. After all, if the market were to rally by a few points, my EUR 2700+ gain would evaporate instantly. Therefore, I ran a risk of losing the entire stake by holding on. So, with 17 times my money in the bag if I took profit, I decided to close the position. Here is the statement text cut and pasted from my Binary account:

19-Oct-05 09h04GMT Sale

Bear Contract: Win EUR 5000 if, at the close of trading on 21-OCT-05, FTSE Index is lower than 5220. Sale: EUR 2,927.3

In just 14 days, I had turned EUR 166.70 into EUR 2,927.30, a 17 1/2 times gain on my original investment. Not bad.

As it happened the FTSE closed on October 21st at 5142.1 - so I could have indeed redeemed my 5000 euros if I had held on!

The story above is 100% true, and such opportunities are a daily occurrence in the world of options. However, for every winner such as this one has to ask oneself how many times there are losers. Unless you can really predict significant moves in the market and, in my opinion using market geometry such as Gann and Elliot Wave theory, it is sometimes possible that it can be very foolish to punt on such trades.

To put the above story in perspective I also took out additional bets on the CAC, Dow Jones and DAX markets at the same time as the FTSE - for a possible redemption of EUR 30,000. In some cases the other bets expired worthless or marginally in profit, as the markets did not fall far enough to bring home the big one. However, due to the exceptional gearing possible with these kinds of bets, I could afford to take five bets and make on only one bet to still be heavily in profit.

This proves the theory of risk reward. In other words, I could get it wrong 17 times before making a loss on this trade. The KEY with this strategy is two-fold:

Wait for the opportunity. There are not that many on a daily basis. Then

Do not bet the house on it. In other words risk only a small portion of your capital on these low statistical probability high reward options. Clearly one has a reason to believe that a significant move will take place but take care of the possible downside of risking too high a portion of your funds on one trade or series of trades. Do not be greedy. Then you can play again if you get it wrong!

Also notice that I came out of the bet early. Even though in this case I could have made the full EUR 5000 by waiting the extra two days, my past experience as an options broker and a trader made me take off the table what was offered before it simply disappeared. NEVER expect to take it all, and NEVER regret not taking it all off the table. That is your greed talking. The number of times I have seen option profits of thousands evaporate and expire totally worthless the very next day (both in my own account and others) because the position was not closed when the money was there to be taken is too painful to even think about.

An alternative strategy of course is to take a portion of the profit off the table, at the very least gaining back your initial capital, and then let the rest of the position run. This strategy is common in futures and stock trading and is just as valid in binary betting and options trading.

Remember; always operate from a range of strength. Preserve capital. Only risk a small portion of it per trade and try to engineer multiple profitable opportunities.

IG Index and Binary both offer intraday binary bets. The Penny Strategy may be aptly applied to intraday UP/DOWN bets at binarybets.

Let us use an example of what binarybets calls their Wall St Index, but in reality is identical to the Dow 30 Cash Index. A standardized bet called Wall St to finish UP starts trading each evening shortly after the market closed which runs through to the close the following evening. Based on the Dow Jones 30 Index cash price the binary option has a maximum redemption value of 100 and a minimum of zero depending on whether the market closes up or down on the previous close. As the bet or binary option nears expiry it can become extremely volatile if the market is trading near to the close in the last hour of trading.

The market in the option fluctuates live all day long and traders can come in and out of the binary bet. If, however, in the final hour the Dow is 10 - 20 points lower OR higher on the day the option will often trade below 20 or even below 10 or above 80 or even 90 conversely.

I have picked up a bet (or option) for as low as 7 that ended up closing at 100 - a gain of 14x in less than one hour. The differences before the most extreme in the last few minutes of the trading day.

However, most traders will be happy with doubling their money in just a few minutes. When the market is oversold in the evening and in the last two hours of trading gains of two or three times ones money is not unusual. For example the market is down, say 50 points and the bet to close up on the day is trading at say 13. A rally of twenty points, although it may peter out, will allow you to sell back that bet to binarybet in the high twenties or mid-thirties. So even though the bet will ultimately still expire worthless, as the market is not net up on the day, one nevertheless can trade out of the bet for several hundred percent profit. Such opportunities were virtually not existent until recently and yet so few people appear to be grasping them fully.

One bet to avoid is when the market is heavily down and the bet is very cheap. This is because the chances of a rally to race against the time depreciation are highly unlikely. For example, SP to finish up on the day was just 5 for a 100 close on the evening this article was written, but the market was down seven SP points (around 0.6%). The chances of a rally to countermand the depreciating value of this option were highly unlikely.

Those who are trading these strategies successfully are not making a big noise about it, for obvious reasons. The key to success is how you trade these opportunities. Greed is still the greatest enemy as traders will regularly over trade. For every multi-bagger one needs to realize that one will often lose ones capital to the binary company and they will be bagging your money to their bottom line.

This article was originally published in Traders' Magazine as part of a feature on binary betting.

The content of this site is 2015 Financial Spread Betting Ltd. Please contact us if you wish to reproduce any of it.

© 2010 - 2015. All Rights Reserved.



Online Trading binary options close to expiry

The part time forex trader

The part time forex traderThe Part Time Forex Trader

Talking Points:

*Trading FX does not have to be a full time job

*Learn three methods to trade in your spare time

*Try them out in a practice account

As we speak to many different traders and investors around the world, the one thing that surprises me a lot is how many traders looking to get into FX perceive FX to be a day traders market. Sure, if you have time during the day to sit in front of the screen and hammer away at several trades, the FX market offers simple access with no day trading restrictions.

Many traders new to FX would be surprised to know that the 24 hour nature of the market also makes FX attractive to part time traders. A part time trader would be somebody who has a day job and may have only a couple of hours per week to research or make trades.

Trading typically doesnt require a lot of time. The act of actually pushing the buttons to get into or out of a trade or moving stop losses doesnt happen often. The challenge is that traders dont have the confidence in their plan so they choose to watch each pip roll by rather than stepping away from the computer monitor.

There are variety of tools and strategies available to assist the trader in accessing the full time market in a part time fashion.

There are 3 general ways to trade:

Investing with currency baskets Trade automation Discretionary Trading

The strategies implemented and time required for each of the 3 styles above will vary. Lets take a moment and review each one. There is likely a method that works for your personality and time availability.

Currency Baskets

Currency baskets can require as little as a couple hours per month with most of the time spent researching for trade ideas. The idea behind a currency basket is that you wish to take a position in a currency rather than a pair.

For assistance while researching which pair to trade, check out the Strong Weak publication series. There are generally 2-3 article published per month which asses the strongest and weakest currencies based on the current market environment.

Additionally, check the DailyFX Plus Live Classroom for regular webinars on trading the strongest and weakest currencies.

Trade Automation

Much like the currency baskets, trade automation can be one of the simplest methods of accessing the full time 24 hour FX market in a part time fashion.

There are 2 general ways to trade with automation. First, you can set up your own network to run the strategies from your computer. Once the network is set up, turning strategies on and off are simple. This would be more complex and requires a basic knowledge of computers and networking because the strategies are run on your network. The benefit, you control it and you only need a 3 rd party broker to execute the trades.

The second way is using the mirror platform. This method is geared for the beginning as you can choose from a menu of strategies to trade. The strategies are held on Mirrors servers so you can turn off your computer and let the strategies run while you are away.

(Try out a free Mirror practice account where you can test out trade automation or even currency baskets.)

There are a variety of resources available on Mirror including a weekly webinar Time Efficient Trading. The webinar is also held inside the DailyFX Plus Live Classroom.

Discretionary Trading

Lastly, there are strategies that you can trade by hand without spending a lot of time in from of the computer. These are strategies that trade off of longer intraday charts or daily chart time frames.

For example, a breakout strategy is a common strategy that does not require a lot of time. This is because it utilizes entry orders. Simply log in, set the entry orders and then, wait for those strategic price points to get hit. This can be accomplished through a simple 4 steps to trading breakouts.

Also, there is a strategy that trades using a 4 hour candle chart which is called the 4 hour trader. This means every 4 hours, a new price bar will close and you can scroll through each of the charts looking for trade set up. The 4 hour trader is a good strategy for somebody with mobile access that has the ability to check the charts a couple time s per day.

---Written by Jeremy Wagner, Head Trading Instructor, DailyFX Education

Follow me on Twitter at JWagnerFXTrader.

To be added to Jeremys e-mail distribution list, click H ERE and select SUBSCRIBE then enter in your email information.

See Jeremys recent articles at his DailyFX Forex Educators Bio Page.

DailyFX provides forex news and technical analysis on the trends that influence the global currency markets.

Learn forex trading with a free practice account and trading charts from FXCM.



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Trading strategy using fibonacci

Trading strategy using fibonacciUsing Fibonacci Indicators To Improve Your Day Trading

Please, never pay for Fibonacci Software you can find it FOR FREE!

Using Fibonacci Indicators to improve your trading is one of the best things that you can do. First a little about the history of Fibonacci, he was was a mathematician that discovered the Fibonacci number system. Over time, the system was found to be in natural recurring patterns that happen over and over again in nature; there are certain amounts of pedals on a flower, the way a leaf is arranged, even the number of scales in pineapple.

You can apply patterns to everything in your life, have you heard of the adage that history repeats itself? Empires rise and fall under the same principles over and over again.

The stock market is no different, the same things happen over and over again. What we do is identify patterns in the market that repeat themselves making our odds significantly higher. The fib retracements and extensions are the same patterns that Fibonacci applied to nature, except now we are applying them to the stock market.

Want to see how well my traders and I are doing using Fib Retracements Extensions?

Fibonacci Retracements Extensions

Using Fibonacci techniques and strategies to improve your day trading can be extremely effective if you learn how to use it properly. There are several different ways that you can use the Fibonacci principles in your day trading. Most people use Fibonacci indicators as support and resistance as a "where to go" and "where the market is going to pivot" type system.

The very first day trading software I purchased had fancy Fibonacci support and resistance areas, after giving away $7,000 of my hard earned money, I realized a few years later you can actually find the same indicators online for free. I have been day trading with my own day trading strategy close to 10 years now. I do coach others to help them make money in the stock market, sign up for my newsletter for more updates (or just look at the income statements and see how our day traders are doing)

Using Fibonacci Indicators to Anticipate The Market

There are tools that you can find that will allow you anticipate where the market will pull back to and where the market will head to as well. You can use these tools to maximize your trading results and also minimize your risk as the market. I use these tools specifically in my day trading strategy for well over 6 years, they are called extensions retracements.

Click here to read more about Fibonacci Retracements Extensions

Fibonacci support resistance

Using Fibonacci as Support Resistance Areas

There is also day trading software found on the market where the software system will automatically plot support and resistance areas for you. Having bought a system like this when I first started day trading I can tell you that you can find the support and resistance areas on your own without any special software. In addition to that, most Fibonacci indicators come free with any standard day trading software system.

Can I Learn Fibonacci Trading?

Yes, you can implement Fibonacci trading techniques into your everyday trading decisions. All you need is an expert to teach you the ropes. EWI’s top Fibonacci trading experts have produced several valuable resources that will put you well on your way to mastering the art, history and science of Fibonacci trading.

But, before you get started, you’ll at least want to know this key principle: The number 0.618 is known as the Golden Ratio, the Divine Proportion, the building block of nearly everything in nature. With that said, it’s time for you to get started.

Feel free to begin your Fibonacci Trading education by watching the free video clip at the top of this page about the Golden Number's amazing role in nearly everything we do. Then sign up for our FREE Club EWI to get immediate access to some of our best Fibonacci content absolutely FREE. Look to the left-hand column to access your FREE resources.

Need a deeper, more intermediate - to expert-level resource on Fibonacci trading? Check out the resources on the right-hand side of this page.

Don’t Think Fibonacci Trading is for You?

That’s fine. Fibonacci trading is not for everyone. And, like all trading systems, Fibonacci trading has its limits. However, before you rule it out, you should consider a few of the top reasons professional traders turn to Fibonacci trading every day:

Fibonacci trading can frequently confirm or reject directional market analysis.

Fibonacci analysis works on all time frames – whether your investment is for two minutes, two days or two years.

The basics of Fibonacci trading are easy to learn, and mastery of the method can have a huge impact on you success in the markets.

Sign up for our FREE Club EWI to get started now.

Q&A with an Expert on Fibonacci Trading

Following is an interview Elliott Wave International’s Futures Focus column conducted with EWI’s Senior Commodities Analyst and Fibonacci trading expert Jeffery Kennedy.

From the comfort of his office, behind multiple flashing computer screens, Jeffery explains the importance of using both Fibonacci trading techniques in conjunction with the Elliott Wave Principle, plus he tells you which takes precedence when there’s a conflict.

Futures Focus: Jeffrey, traders who have ever had an idea to measure the ratios between legs in a market's chart usually find, to their amazement, that all too often, those legs relate to each other in perfect, or near-perfect, Fibonacci proportions – such as 0.618, for example, also known as the Golden Ratio.

Jeffrey Kennedy: It really is nothing short of amazing. When I first stumbled across that, I felt I had just discovered some ancient secret that no one else knew about. After all, you don't hear about Fibonacci numbers too often on mainstream financial TV. And yet those proportions are everywhere, in nature and in every liquid market, including the markets I focus on, commodities.

FF: So, if no one talks about it, is it really a secret?

JK: Well, yes and no. Many, probably even most, professional traders frequently use Fibonacci ratios as support and resistance levels. When they see a market approaching a Fibonacci retracement, they take note. If the market stops and reverses, it's often a sign of a trend change, and if it blows right through it, the trend is still strong. But your general investor is largely oblivious to Fibonacci numbers (save for what they've read in The Da Vinci Code ), so for them, it does remain a secret.

In my Daily Futures Junctures . I use Fibonacci trading techniques all the time. My readers know that it's an essential element of Elliott wave analysis. But as amazing as Fibonacci trading is, the actual wave subdivisions on a chart are even more amazing. In fact, in my Daily Futures Junctures service, I frequently talk about how Elliott wave counts are frequently supported by Fibonacci numbers.

FF: What do you mean by wave subdivisions are more important?

JK: How many legs a wave subdivides into, three or five, is more important than whether or not the length of that wave observes a perfect Fibonacci ratio. It's hard to explain this without a chart, and you'll understand my point much better once you take a look at EWI’s many free resources on Fibonacci trading. Basically, what I'm trying to say is that if a wave doesn't hit a certain Fibonacci target but still maintains its proper internal structure, the structure takes precedence. Fibonacci trading cannot be your only technique.

FF: Interesting. So, in those instances Fibonacci proportions don't matter?

JK: They matter, but they take a back seat to the wave structure. For example, if I see a wave that has overshot its perfect Fibonacci proportion but still maintained its three-wave internal structure, I know it's likely still a correction, not an impulse.

FF: You've got me intrigued. Thanks a lot for your time.

For more on Fibonacci trading techniques, access the free resources on the left-column of this page or order one of the Fibonacci trading books or DVDs from the right-hand column of this page. Sign up for our FREE Club EWI to get started now.



Online Trading strategy using fibonacci

Sports contact

Sports contactRussell: Mustangs take LSC title from Lions

A Texas A&M-Commerce Twitter post earlier this week showed a picture of the Lions getting the Lone Star Conference trophy for winning the regular season title and the caption, "Come and take it." | Yesterday 10:19 p. m.

Chafin scores three times, but OU beats Baylor

WACO — Sterling Shepard had 14 catches for 177 yards and two touchdowns and No. 12 Oklahoma beat No. 4 Baylor 44-34 on Saturday night to end the Bears' 20-game home winning streak — and likely their playoff chances. | Yesterday 12:07 a. m.

Newberry: Trojanettes take I-2A final for the ages

SNYDER — I think the kids these days want to "keep it 100." | Yesterday 8:08 p. m.

Mustangs claim LCS Playoff Championship

Wildcats can’t keep up with Topeka

Area Football Pairings

Barrett returns, OSU runs away for win

Mustangs open season Sunday vs. OKC

Raiders dominate Dunbar, 61-20



Online Sports contact

About forex verified

About forex verifiedAbout Forex Verified

About Forex Verified

Forex Verified was born from an urgent need in the Forex trading community:

Honest performance results of commercial Forex products and services.

Avoiding Scams

Avoid fake statements and false advertising by checking Forex Verified for the REAL results of an EA or signal service before you make a purchasing decision.

About Our Trading Accounts

We only use legitimate and well-regulated Forex brokers for our performance test accounts. The spreads and execution in these accounts are comparable to a typical regulated broker (average spreads with good execution).

Also, we only use trading accounts that we control ourselves: not using "investor password" access to show you the results in the vendor's showcase account. This is how we verify the results of the software: because we witness the software making the trades (no one else) and it happens in our own accounts.

This is important because there are times when a vendor will make significant changes to their showcase account (such as changing settings or installing a new version of the EA) without telling their customers. Also there can be times when a vendor's software license server will fail and the program stops working, while the vendor continues to run a license-free version that keeps trading. We want to show you the results that a typical client would experience, not the results that could have been impossible to achieve.

Demo Account Usage

Most of our trading accounts are demo accounts. Some people distrust demo accounts because they can offer unrealistic spreads and execution that is impossible to find on a live account. However, since our demo accounts are provided by a well-regulated broker and experience average spreads, their reliability is far superior to the demo accounts that are only used to display impossible performance.

Of course, we agree that there is no substitute for testing on a live account: but this is only necessary when a strategy can prove itself profitable on a demo account first. Since the majority of the Expert Advisors and signal services we test end up failing, even on demo accounts, we have found that live account testing is not necessary in order to provide you with an initial filter to narrow down your selection.

There are 2 types of strategies that our demo accounts do a poor job of testing:

1) Scalping Strategies. Since most of our demos have average spreads (EURUSD and GBPUSD average 2 pips), they do not offer ideal conditions for scalping. When a vendor specifies that their software will only work on a broker with thin spreads, we will use a different broker which does offer the necessary spreads, but this can reduce the overall reliability of the test. For most scalping strategies, the best way to test them is with a live account, but your results will often vary wildly from one broker to the next.

2) News Trading Strategies. No broker can offer perfect live-account execution during a news announcement, but demo accounts can trade them without a problem. The only way to reliably test a news-trading strategy is with a live account.

If you want to know which broker was used to generate the results shown, just look next to the account number on the "Statements" tab of any performance test.

Sometimes we do test an EA or signal service on a live trading account. Sometimes these include scalping or news-trading strategies. These tests are clearly labeled as live accounts.

Other Exceptions

Unless otherwise noted, all accounts are demo accounts and only display the results from trading accounts that we control ourselves. Possible exceptions include:

Live Accounts: Sometimes we use a live account and these tests are clearly noted. These live accounts are personal accounts.

Managed Accounts: In the case of a managed account service that utilizes a PAMM or MAM (not an Expert Advisor or trade copier), we use investor password access to a live trading account inside the PAMM service. Since all live accounts in a PAMM are guaranteed to experience the same results (profits/losses are distributed equally by the broker), this is the most reliable way to show results from a managed account service. These tests are clearly noted.

Demo Accounts: Are mostly provided by ForexFS (Australia, ASIC regulated), unless noted otherwise.



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Online trading events

Online trading eventsRegister for our FREE weekly FOREX newsletter

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Disney Pin Trading Events:

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Star Wars Pin Trading Event: Sunday, December 13, 2015 at 12:00 p. m. Click here for details.

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Pin Trading Night

November 27, 2015 starting at 6:00 p. m. in Disneys Hotel Cheyenne, Yellow Rose Dance Hall. Click here for pin releases.

Pin Trading Event

December 12, 2015 from 11:00 a. m. to 3:00 p. m. at Disneys Hotel New York, Coliseum Convention Center, Times Square.

Seattle Pin Trading Day:

Saturday, November 14, 2015 at the Meadowbrook Community Center in Seattle, Washington from 1:00 pm. to 5:00 p. m.

Fall Fantasy Trade-a-Thon Weekend:

Hosted by Central Florida Disney Pin Chasers. November 13 15, 2015 at the Holiday Inn in Kissimmee. Click here for more information.

Central Jersey Pin Traders:

Friday, November 20, 2015 at 7:00 p. m. to 11:00 p. m. at Comfort Inn Suites 255 Davidson Ave. Somerset, N. J. 08873.

North Jersey Disney Pin Traders:

Friday, November 27, 2015 at 6:00 p. m. at Paramus Park Mall food court.

The 2015 Fantasy Disneyana Collectible Show:

Sunday, December 6, 2015 at Fantasy of Flight I 400 Broadway Blvd SE Polk City, FL I-4 exit 44 between Tampa Orlando. Featuring Fantasy, Disneyana, Vinylmation, Pin Trading, Vintage Toys and much more!

Other Popular Disney Events

Epcot International Food and Wine Festival: September 25 November 16, 2015. Click here to view the pins.

Mickeys Very Merry Christmas Party at Magic Kingdom Park: Select nights November 8 December 18, 2015.

Have a local pin trading meet that you would like us to list? Contact us here .

To ensure you have the best experience possible working with us in our live interactive programs, we suggest you study the information below. Information about technical difficulties is at the bottom of this page.

Your Participation is Encouraged:

For our FREE WORKSHOPS . we have a program or lesson prepared. Prior to the session, it is useful to write down some of your questions. Your questions will be answered after the initial short program or lesson in order to allow the material to be covered thoroughly and in order to maximize our time together effectively. Please feel free to take notes as many trading and investment tips will be shared. Our FREE workshop sessions usually run about 90 - 120 minutes long.

If you attend one of our Symbol Evaluation sessions . please come prepared with what you would like reviewed. After an initial discussion of the MACRO MARKET environment and some recent specifics, your Symbols will be reviewed. General questions will also be answered. These sessions usually run about 90 - 120 minutes long.

For those of you attending our COACHING sessions . it is to your advantage to make a list of symbols you want to review. It is always a good idea to also write down symbols discussed in each coaching session so you can review those charts on your own trading platform after the session is over. If you are attending a GRADUATE coaching session, you should enter through your custom portal page by logging in. If you are a GRADUATE, please also come prepared with your specific questions related to any of the courses you have participated in. These sessions usually run about 2 hours or longer.

Those attending our COURSES should keep an ongoing journal. We have found over the years that it is best to trade less prior to each course and observe the market more while adding to your list of questions. Your questions as a COURSE participant will be answered completely during the course and or during your coaching sessions if you are a graduate. The number of breaks and duration of each course session will be discussed with you before starting.

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IMPORTANT! We do not record many of our sessions. The reason for this is because during each program we discuss the current market environment as well as review Symbols and strategies related to that current time period. We do not want anyone to misunderstand the content by viewing it at a different time and or during a different market environment. We have a tremendous amount of material both FREE and for our members that is not time sensitive. We STRONGLY ENCOURAGE you to be prompt and come prepared to take notes during each of our programs.

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BEFORE EACH EVENT: It's always a good idea to test your connection a couple of days before each event even if you have done so recently. This will avoid last minute issues that can often come up when using any online technology. Please take a moment whenever you like to use this link to test your connection. It will only take a minute.

SOUND and IMAGES: I nfrequently, a participant will not get any sound or see an image. When you first login, before the start, you will usually see a "Red Curtain" and hear some music. If you can't see the "Red Curtain" or for help with other technical issues, Click Here. And if you have no sound, Click Here.

ATTENDEE'S GUIDE: Click Here to view this comprehensive guide that will answer your questions about participating in our ONLINE EVENTS. You should be able to seamlessly and quickly enter our events without any trouble. If you should encounter any issues, please first try rebooting your computer, make sure you have a solid connection, test your computer as noted above and THEN IF NECESSARY go down the the "Getting Technical Support" section in this guide. If you are trying to access one of our COURSES, please also use our "Contact Us" tab at the top of any of our website pages. We may not be able to hold up our program if this is an isolated issue, but at least we will be aware of your situation.



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Functions of stock exchange pakistan online trading academy revenue

Functions of stock exchange pakistan online trading academy revenueFunctions of stock exchange pakistan online trading academy revenue

mai 18, 2015

Blog Commentaires fermes sur Functions of stock exchange pakistan online trading academy revenue

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Online Functions of stock exchange pakistan online trading academy revenue

Jeff augen options trading strategies pdf best binary options brokers2015

Jeff augen options trading strategies pdf best binary options brokers2015Jeff augen options trading strategies pdf Best Binary Options Brokers 2015 esthelis. dk

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Online Jeff augen options trading strategies pdf best binary options brokers2015

Start trading the london forex open

Start trading the london forex openStart Trading The London Forex Open

London Forex Open is a set time morning breakout strategy for Forex. It is based upon the overnight Asian market range principle combined with the opening of the London financial markets. The strategy aims to capture early price breakouts from the overnight range as volatility increases at the start of the trading session.

The system provides clear, 100% mechanical entry and exit levels based on the previous market price action. Each morning at the market open you check the indicator to see if a signal has been generated. If a trading opportunity is signaled you simply place your orders at the suggested levels. No fear, no greed and no constant screen watching.

Set Time Forex Morning Breakout Strategy

The set and forget trading of this strategy the grey areas associated with a number of trading systems. It is clear, accurate and simple enough for new traders to follow. It also helps to remove many psychological factors which are widely acknowledged to hinder performance and limit the gains of even experienced traders.

Defined targets and risk on each position ensures that subjectivity and emotional involvement is effectively removed from the trading process. This results in an efficient system which you can use to trade Forex in just 10 minutes per day!

Conservative, Aggressive or Advanced Startegies

The reason we have published our morning breakout Forex trading system is to provide a reliable and repeatable way to capitalize on early morning price breakouts. In developing our Forex breakout indicator we have focused on proven principles and solid trading practices. Our cue is taken from a number of recognized trading approaches including among others, Big Ben and box breakout methods.

We have traded and refined our strategies over a number of years to make this approach our own. As a result we can also capture both breakout and false breakout moves We continue to trade the strategy each day and report our results on this website.

Simple Forex System

The core strategy is designed to trade the at 08:00 UK local time . While the core strategy originally focused on the GBP/USD pair it is perfectly possible to trade on other currency pairs and markets. You can stick with trading our core strategies or use the inbuilt flexibility of the software indicator to refine or customise your own strategies.

Other pairs that are typically good candidates for trading are the European currency crosses (EUR/USD, GBP/JPY, GBP/CHF, EUR/CHF, EUR/GBP etc). The MT4 indicator can also be configured to trade other sessions. The European Open such as when the Frankfurt and Paris markets open or even trading the New York Open provide additional possibilities.

Advanced traders can customize the parameters of the indicator. Take profit and stop loss levels can be adapted to suit your own trading strategies.

Keep your trading simple or see how far you can go!



Online Start trading the london forex open

Short term trading strategies that work spy,sso and the end of the month

Short term trading strategies that work spy,sso and the end of the monthShort Term Trading Strategies That Work: SPY, SSO and the End of the Month

January 26, 2010 By David Penn

The beginning of a new year is always a great time for making resolutions. But when it comes to making high probability trades, look to the end of the month as your opportunity to take advantage of a real, quantified, short term edge.

As noted in Short Term Trading Strategies That Work . the best-selling trading book now available in paperback, seven of the final eight days of the month saw five-day gains for the average stock of more than 0.50%. This was based on simulated testing on trades from January 1995 through December 2007.

Click here to order your copy of The VXX Trend Following Strategy today and be one of the very first traders to utilize these unique strategies. This guidebook will make you a better, more powerful trader.

Many traders have talked about the idea of stocks moving higher toward the end of the month. But very few if any have ever actually quantified this behavior, revealing what the edges how, specifically when they occur (and disappear) and how large they are

Larry Connors has taken this basic research several steps further, to the point of developing a number of short term trading strategies that traders of both stocks and exchange-traded funds (ETFs) can use. These strategies, called the End of the Month Strategy, can also be used with leveraged ETFs

On December 29th, 30th and 31st, our End of Month Strategy gave three consecutive buy signals. Traders watching for these signals could have used a variety of vehicles to take advantage of these signals from e-mini index futures to equity index ETFs including leveraged ETFs to options.

On Monday, the first trading day of the new year, markets soared higher, providing traders who had taken advantage of the End of Month Strategy trading signals with the necessary strength to sell into.

As you might imagine, not every End of Month is created equal. To arrive at the high probability strategies that make up the End of Month Strategy, Larry applied the same sort of high-win rate, mean reversion trading rules that the market data continues to indicate represent a winning method for trading stocks and exchange-traded funds in the short term. Those rules? Buy the selling. Exit into Strength. And quantify, quantify, quantify.

David Penn is Editor in Chief at TradingMarkets.



Online Short term trading strategies that work spy,sso and the end of the month

Margin and leverage

Margin and leverageMargin and Leverage

Margin and leverage are fundamental concepts that every beginning forex trader must understand to be effective.

What is leverage?

When you decided to buy a house for the first time, chances are you didn’t have enough money to buy the house at its listed price. Traditionally, you would put a down payment on a house of 25%, and borrow the rest of the money from the bank. Whether you knew it or not, but you were using leverage to buy your house.

Leverage gives you access to large sums of money with only a small initial deposit.

Leverages are shown as a ratio. For example, a 25:1 leverage will give you access to 25 times more money than you put in. In this example $4000 dollars will allow you to buy a standard lot, which is $100,000 worth of currency.

Different brokers will have different leverages. Typical leverages are 10:1, 20:1, 30:1, 40:1, 50:1, 75:1, and 100:1. If you are trading using 100:1 leverage, you would be able to buy a $100,000 of currency for only $1000. You are spending less of your own money to buy that currency. Why wouldn’t you use the highest leverage available?

The simple fact is that the higher leverage you use, the higher risk there is. The make more money when you are right, but you lose more money when you are wrong. Don’t forget:

High leverage = High risk.

Example of Leverage

Say you are bullish on the USD/CAD pair, and believe that the USD will become stronger compared to the CAD currency. In other words, you think the price will go up. At a price of 1.0662, you buy a standard lot using 25:1 leverage, which means spent $4000 to buy $100,000 of USD currency.

It turns out that you were right, and you sold the currency pair at 1.0702, which was 40 pips above what you bought it. You have profited approximately $400 USD from this trade from an initial investment of $4000 dollars. This means your return on investment (ROI) is 10% ($400 / $4000) from this trade. Not bad for one day’s work.

But imagine what would have happened if you bought it using 100:1 leverage. You will only spend $1000 to buy $100,000 USD. The price still increased 40 pips, which equates to approximately $400 USD. You ROI is now 40% ($400 / $1000).

From this example you made four times as much with a higher leverage. But if the price decreased 40 pips, the results would be the exact opposite. Using a 25:1 leverage, you would have only lost 10% of your initial investment. But if you used 100:1 leverage, you would have lost 40% of the investment, which is almost half of what you put in!

The amount of leverage you use will be determined by how well you handle risk. Some people are naturally more capable of handling risk than others. But when you first start out, I highly recommend not using more than 25:1 margin.

What is Margin?

The margin is the amount of money as a percentage that you would have to put up to buy a contract. Depending on your broker’s margin policy, if your account balance dips below the margin, you will get a margin call and all your open positions will be closed for you.

How to Calculate Margin?

Leverage and margin are related by the following formula:

Leverage = 100 / Margin

Margin = 100 / Leverage

So 25:1 leverage would indicate 4 percent margin (100/25). Here are some other common ones:

100:1 Leverage = 1% Margin

50:1 Leverage = 2% Margin

40:1 Leverage = 2.5 % Margin

30:1 Leverage = 3.33 % Margin

25:1 Leverage = 4% Margin

20:1 Leverage = 5% Margin

10:1 Leverage = 10% Margin

I think you get the idea.

In this next example, I am buying a mini-lot ($10,000). The margin used is calculated automatically for me on the picture below. In this example, we want to find out how the margin is calculated if our leverage is 50:1.

You are putting up $200 USD of your own money to buy a $10,000 mini contract. Therefore you are putting up 2% (200 / 10,000) of your own money. To calculate the margin, we take 2% of $10,000, which is $200.

How to Calculate Margin 2

What happens when the base currency is not the same as the home currency? Every currency pair is listed with two numbers. For example, you will often see EUR / USD = 1.40917 / 1.40912. The first number is the base currency, and the second number is the quotes currency. The home currency is USD if your forex account was deposited using US currency. If this doesn’t make sense, click here to review the basics.

In this case, when you buy or sell a standard lot, the currency of that lot will be in Euros, but the margin will still be listed in your home currency (USD in our example). How does the margin get calculated? Let’s take a look at another example.

We are buying a standard lot of the EUR/USD pair. Once again, the margin is automatically calculated for us. But how did we arrive at that number?

Let’s take a deeper look. Since the quoted price is 1.40792, this means that it costs 1.40792 USD to buy 1 EUR. A standard lot of 100,000 EUR will cost 140,792 USD. I am glad that we have margin because I sure don’t have that kind of money!

We know from our broker what the leverage is (50:1 in this case), so we can calculate the margin. A 50:1 leverage is the same as 2% margin. Two percent of $140,792 is $2815.84, which is the margin listed. We now know how to calculate the margin. The margin calculation uses the following formula:

Margin Used = ((Base Currency / Home Currency) * Units) / Margin Ratio

Base Currency / Home Currency = EUR/USD = 1.40792

Units = 100,000

Margin Ratio = 50

Margin Used = (1.40792 * 100,000) / 50 = $2815.84

How to Calculate Margin 3

We will go one step further determine how the margin is calculated if both the base currency and quote currency are different than the home currency.

The home currency is still USD, but now we want to buy 100,000 units of the EUR / GBP pair.

We will use the formula from above to calculate the margin.

Base Currency = EUR

Home Currency = USD

Base / Home Currency = EUR / USD = 1.40884

Units = 100,000

Leverage = 20:1

Margin Used = (1.40884 * 100,000) / 20 = $2,817.68 USD.

The best person to tell you what type of leverage to use is you. Only you will know what type of risk tolerance you have. However, I highly recommend not using too much leverage if you are just learning how to trade. Most professionals don’t use more than 50:1 margin, and neither should you.

You should also know how to calculate the margin so you can plan ahead and know how much of your money is actually being risked, and avoid the nasty margin call.



Online Margin and leverage

Weekly options

Weekly optionsIn Any Market Conditions Good, Bad Or Otherwise!

Wall Street Insider And Trading Expert Gives Free Webinar To Prove His Weekly

Options Trading System Can Make People Money In Any Market Conditions

From: Jack Carter

Boulder, Colorado

Dear Trading Friend,

The stock market has been crazier, more volatile and unpredictable than any time in recent history. An upcoming election, economic problems here and Europe on the brink of financial disaster will make the stock market behave like this for a long time.

Yet, despite this market volatility and these uncertain economic times, a small group of traders are quietly raking in millions of dollars from the stock market using a new “secret weapon”.

Here’s what it’s all about…

What they are doing in t e stock market does not involve stocks, but rather…

Options On Stocks!

But here’s the thing. Stocks options, Puts and Calls, and trading Put and Call options have been around a long time. Trading strategies involving Puts and Calls are really nothing new. However, lurking deep inside in the options market is something new…

And for the average person trying to make money in the stock market, this new secret weapon is…

Here’s why…

Recently, the CBOE, ( Chicago Board Options Exchange ) created and listed a “new” option called

Weekly Options!

Weekly options are like regular Put and Call options. Since, these weekly options are rather new to the market and they are not available on all stocks yet.

I’ll give you the list of stocks with available weekly options and tell you how to get it in just a minute.

But first I want to give you a critical piece of information. The advantage with weekly options is the fact that…

Because weekly options expire every week, you can use them to create weekly income. With weekly options, you can potentially make 2%… 5% 8% 15% or more every week with just…

One Weekly Trade!

You can do as many of these simple “weekly trades” as you want… to create weekly income… or… a huge retirement account… or both!

You can trade weekly options with small accounts or large.

You can trade with just $3,000 or $100,000… or $1,000,000!

The best part is when your trades works, …

Every Friday!

Plus, it’s a proven you can DOUBLE your returns… even with some options strategies you use now.

I’ll tell you more about this remarkable system but first let me tell you a little about myself, and why you should listen to me…

My name is Jack Carter. As of this writing, I have over 25 years and close to one billion dollars in trading experience. That’s not a misprint. I started in 1984 and traded throughout the largest up and down market in history. In fact, I traded over eight million dollars worth of stock in one day.

During my career, I’ve been a stockbroker, a Nasdaq Market Maker, a professional day trader and a “fast – money” hedge fund manager. I’m not telling you all this to impress you, but to impress upon you that, when it comes to stocks and options trading, I have successfully done it all. You can profit from my experience.

Recently I discovered and perfected a weekly options-trading system that makes from 2% to 15% every week. My weekly options trading system is almost automatic. It only takes a few minutes to get into the trades and check them once a day. Plus, this weekly options system works in both up and down markets. It works, even if you are a horrible stock picker.

It is, I believe, the most unusual and the most profitable income producing trading system ever developed in human history! This system works so well because

It’s Based On Three Simple Core

Truths About Options!

Options Truth #1: 77% Of All Options Expire Worthless! Options Truth #2: “Time Decay” makes options expire worthless. Options Truth #3: Time Decay” occurs most during the last week of an option’s expiration.

These three truths about the options market form the foundation for my weekly options trading system.

There are several easy ways to set up low risk trades that produce weekly income like clockwork. I can’t explain everything you need to know about my weekly options system in this letter. That would take too long and take up too much space. But thanks to the internet you can discover my secrets of weekly options, learn all about my weekly options trading system, see real trade examples and copy what I’m doing during my new web based seminar…

The Weekly Options “Webinar”

You Can Attend Online

This is the most exciting and thing ever revealed options. Once you attend the Weekly Options Webinar there is no waiting you can start trading weekly options the very same day.

Why am I doing it free? The answer is simple…

To Prove My Weekly Options Trading System Can

Make People Money In Any Market Conditions!

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Weekly Options

Do some exchanges trade options series that expire weekly?

Yes. Exchanges call these weekly options series or Weeklys”. In addition to previously listed index weekly options series, the exchanges participate in an approved program that allows trading in some equity and ETF weekly options. Weekly option series are listed on a Thursday and, in most cases, expire the following Friday. Each exchange can list weekly options series on a limited number of classes. Become fully familiar with the contract specifications of any option product you trade by visiting the exchange website where that contract trades.

OCC publishes this list of newly added and newly delisted Weekly Option Products that have been processed through OCC's internal series listing application. These series are in the weekly program for the next eligible weekly expiration.

Do exchanges list weekly options every week?

Weekly option series are listed each Thursday and expire the following Friday, except for those instances when the following Friday is a standard Expiration Friday (the third Friday of the month) or a quarterly expiration. If the following Friday is an OCC holiday, the weekly option series expires on the Thursday preceding the holiday.



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Food safety program templates

Food safety program templatesFood Safety Program Templates

State Food Safety Program Templates

Queensland

Please select the appropriate program template for your course and you can also check for additional information under FAQ's our 'State/Territory Useful Links'

Health Facilities

Right Click and "Save Link As" to Download the Health Facilities Program Template.

Retail Food Service Businesses

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Mid-georgia mid-pack training

Mid-georgia mid-pack trainingSunday, October 18, 2009

2010 Annual Training Plan

Here's my plan for 2010. Those of you familiar with various popular training approaches will recognize this training philosophy and structure as Joe Friel's. I used a Friel plan in 2006, but that doesn't really count because I didn't start training for cycling exclusively until April 2006. So this will be my first full year on an Friel-based structure.

The most significant changes from my 2008 and 2009 plans are:

A greater emphasis on macroperiodization -- base1, base2, et cetera as shown below.



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Betfair forum

Betfair forumGreyhound Betting Strategy

Evening everyone,

There seems to be a bit of a debate going about what is the best method of selection on here so I thought I'd add my thoughts. From what I can gather there are the following approaches:

1) The video/dvd scenario where people study the races and make thorough notes, way in excess of those recorded in the form.

2) Form students using publically available form.

3) Mathematical analysis based on price/market moves (I guess you could include trading here too).

4) Time boys.

I am number 4, but before anyone jumps to conclusions I do things a little differently to how anyone might assume I'm operating. Got my own methods and I have had them verified by a qualified independent source. I've got a few other tricks too. Took a long time to put together.

The truth path? In my opinion I suspect it is a combination of vids, mathematical analysis and speed figures.

It all comes down to the time available to study. I cover three tracks (soon to be four) and it takes a lot of time getting everything together. Barry on the otherhand studies his video footage for hours on end picking out things that I am not privy too. One thing is for sure though, unless you only follow one track I don't think you could cover all bases.

Your thoughts gentlemen please.

Homer Strategy

Report packmanuk • August 15, 2011 5:39 PM BST

I've managed to find out you back a home fav in the ht correct score market with

You also lay the under 2.5 goals market but this needs to be about 1.7 or below at start of play.

Report Handy Andy • August 20, 2011 11:26 AM BST

It's no surprise reading a thread about systems and strategies and seeing them being slated and criticised just as I used to do as most are a load of rubbish and only about making money.

However, this time I am over the other side of the fence looking in and it's a weird feeling. The Homer is my strategy. It works, I use it every chance I get and making a very good profit. I have no motive to sing it's praises as I am not selling it. I like to think that I am a really decent football trader whereas I was losing money day in day out 18 months ago. I joined the TF service and they changed me so I am showing my support to the service by having my strat available along side all the others that they have.

Betting System Notes is a close partner to TF so the strat is also available on their site but it is only a very small part of what they have to offer. The only money I am making is the commission from referrals if the purchase is made via my blog.

Your right that it's no 'millionaires sh1t' but if it is traded in a game with huge liquidity you can certainly do alright with it.

It has a no loss stike rate of 74%. Bad runs are inevitable until us traders are allowed onto the pitch to kick the ball in the net. The only thing that I have control of is picking the games that give the best chance of the result that is needed.

It's no surprise reading a thread about systems and strategies and seeing them being slated and criticised just as I used to do as most are a load of rubbish and only about making money. However, this time I am over the other side of the fence looking

Trading horses - any advice?

I would not use stop losses. You just open yourself to losing money to spoofers. Take small bets that you think are value using your own judgement of the event and if they become no longer good value then close them.

I'll give you a counter-example for why you don't want to use stop losses. Sometimes you will find the same trainer has 2 or more decent horses in a race. Almost invariably one of these "drifts", i. e. the odds start to get better. Everyone thinks the trainer "knows" that one of his horses is fitter than the other and wants or expects the other to win. In racing because there is a certain amount of inside information, but people think there is a lot more than there is.

The trainers do not know how well their horses will run, they know more than you to be sure. I once overheard a conversation with an owner and a trainer, the trainer who was a very nice and honest man was saying he was not 100% sure the horse was fit, although he said he thought it probably was else it would not have run. He was very cagey about the horse's chances. The owner had been going to back it, but he didn't, anyway the horse won!

I was very tempted to ring up betfair and lay the horse but I did not because I thought that was a bit unethical, good job I didn't!

Drifters and Steamers Strategy

Report Baldwin65 • November 29, 2011 11:48 AM GMT

Wipeout, I've been backing 'drifters' for some time now. Through trial and error I've found it's best to limit yourself to better quality racing i. e no lower than class 3. (Tends to mean most of your bets are on Saturdays).

Rather than using the terminology 'drifters' I simply back horses that go off at bigger odds than the Racing Post forecast SP.

I also limit myself to horses priced up by the RP at 7/1 or lower. (purely based on stats. I've read somehwhere that something like 85%? of horses are returned at an ISP of 7/1 or less). You can apply to all horses in a race but I think when you get to the bigger prices there's more guesswork involved. However, if you have a huge betting bank you'll also get some huge price winners. e. g a horse won in Ireland on Sunday whose RP forecast tissue price was 25/1 and won at a betfair SP of 246/1

Basically, I calculate the overround then apply that to the horse I want to back. I also add in commission.

Therefore, as an example if a horse is priced in the RP tissue as 3/1 and the overrround is 20%, I will ask for SP odds of 3/1 + 20% + 5% (my commission rate) = 3.78/1 (4.78)rounded up to 4.8

Over the last couple of Saturdays, this has given me winners at SP of 16/1 (BSP about 20/1) (Cappa Bleu), 8/1 (BSP about 8.7/1)(I'msingingtheblues) and 2/1 (BSP 2.2/1)(Masterminded)

Obviously there's the losers to be factored in. Over the last 2 weeks I've had 16 bets with 3 winners as above

= approx 17pts profit. Strike rate only about 18/19% so you need a fairly big bank and be prepared for long losing runs.

The key, as always, seems to be discipline and unfortunately I haven'g got any. I throw all my profits away by applying the same principle to lower class (especially AW racing and greyhounds!)

I think the reason it works better for better class racing is that the RP tissue is probably more accurate for top class racing and generally every horse is trying as better prize money etc.

I have no idea whether this strategy stands the test of time but it seems based on fairly logical principles. Also, I don't profess to be an expert at gambling on horses and haven't got time to study form so this is just my cheap (?2 a bet) weekend's entertainment. Therefore, please don't follow this advice blindly.

Wipeout, I've been backing 'drifters' for some time now. Through trial and error I've found it's best to limit yourself to better quality racing i. e no lower than class 3. (Tends to mean most of your bets are on Saturdays).Rather than using the termi



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Big commodity trading firms reap rewards from sensational decade

Big commodity trading firms reap rewards from sensational decadeBig Commodity Trading Firms Reap Rewards from 'Sensational' Decade

Big trading firms reap rewards from 'sensational' decade. REUTERS

For the small club of companies who trade the food, fuels and metals that keep the world running, the last decade has been sensational. Driven by the rise of Brazil. China, India and other fast-growing economies, the global commodities boom has turbocharged profits at the world's biggest trading houses.

They form an exclusive group, whose loosely regulated members are often based in such tax havens as Switzerland. Together, they are worth over a trillion dollars in annual revenue and control more than half the world's freely traded commodities. The top five piled up $629 billion in revenues last year, just below the global top five financial companies and more than the combined sales of leading players in tech or telecoms. Many amass speculative positions worth billions in raw goods, or hoard commodities in warehouses and super-tankers during periods of tight supply.

U. S. and European regulators are cracking down on big banks and hedge funds that speculate in raw goods, but trading firms remain largely untouched. Many are unlisted or family run, and because they trade physical goods are largely impervious to financial regulators. Outside the commodities business, many of these quiet giants who broker the world's basic goods are little known.

Their reach is expanding. Big trading firms now own a growing number of the mines that produce many of our commodities, the ships and pipelines that carry them, and the warehouses, silos and ports where they are stored. With their connections and inside knowledge -- commodities markets are mostly free of insider-trading restrictions -- trading houses have become power brokers, especially in fast-developing Asia, Latin America and Africa. They are part of the food chain, yet help shape it, and the personal rewards can be huge. The payout percentage of profits at the commodities houses can be double what Wall Street banks pay, says George Stein of New York headhunting firm Commodity Talent.

Switzerland-based Glencore, whose initial public offering (IPO) in May put trading houses in the spotlight, pays some traders yearly bonuses in the tens of millions. On paper, the partial float made boss Ivan Glasenberg $10 billion richer overnight.

SIZE MATTERS

How big are the biggest trading houses? Put it this way: two of them, Vitol and Trafigura, sold a combined 8.1 million barrels a day of oil last year. That's equal to the combined oil exports of Saudi Arabia and Venezuela.

Or this: Glencore in 2010 controlled 55 percent of the world's traded zinc market, and 36 percent of that for copper.

Or this: publicity-shy Vitol's sales of $195 billion in 2010 were twice those at Apple Inc. As well as the 200 tankers it has at sea, Vitol owns storage tanks on five continents.

U. S. regulations are now pending to limit banks' proprietary trading -- speculating with their own cash. The new rules don't apply to trading firms. Trading houses have huge volumes of proprietary trading. In some cases it makes up 60-80 percent of what they do, said Carl Holland, a former price risk manager at oil major Chevron Texaco, who now runs energy consultancy Trading Solutions LLC in Connecticut. They have the most talent, the deepest pockets, and the best risk management.

In addition to proprietary trading curbs, the U. S. regulator voted on Oct. 19 to impose position limits in oil and metals markets. That gives banks who trade futures cause for concern, but since physical players usually receive exemptions to limits -- because they are categorized as bona fide hedgers -- trading firms should go unscathed.

The trading houses' talent and deep pockets translate into incredible power. Most commodity buyers in the world are price takers. The top trading firms are price makers, said Chris Hinde, editor of London-based Mining Journal. It puts them in a tremendous position.

The sort of position that has allowed Vitol to do a brisk oil business with the U. S. government, the besieged Syrian regime, and Libya's newly empowered rebels simultaneously over the past few months. In April the company dodged NATO bombs and a naval blockade and sent an oil tanker into the battered Mediterranean port of Tobruk to extract the first cargo of premium crude sold by rebels at the helm of a breakaway Libyan oil company defying Muammar Gaddafi.

Vitol also discreetly supplied Libya's rebels with $1 billion in fuel, Reuters has learned -- supplies they desperately needed to advance on Tripoli. Vitol's early running gave the firm an edge with the country's new political stewards. As it turns the pumps back on, Libyan oil firm Agoco has allocated Vitol half of its crude production to repay debts.

While its savvy traders were doing deals in eastern Libya, Vitol, along with rival Trafigura, kept refined product supplies flowing to the besieged government of Bashar al-Assad in Syria as his troops attacked civilians. Trading houses were able to do this because international sanctions on Syria do not ban the sale of fuel into the country, but they did not have to fight off much competition for that business.

PAST SCRUTINY

Despite a relative lack of regulatory oversight, such reach does attract scrutiny. There has always been some concern about the trading firms' influence, said Craig Pirrong, a finance professor and commodities specialist at the University of Houston, who points out that some firms have been associated with allegations of market manipulation.

Public and regulatory attention usually rises with prices. A spike in world food prices in 2007 stirred an outcry against the largest grain trading firms; when oil prices surged to a record $147 a barrel in 2008, U. S. Congress probed the role of oil trading firms, but found no smoking gun. But in May the U. S. Commodity Futures Trading Commission sued Arcadia and Parnon, both owned by a Norwegian shipping billionaire, for allegedly manipulating U. S. oil prices three years ago, amassing millions of barrels they had no intention of using. The companies dispute the charges.

Some transgressions make headlines. Switzerland-based Trafigura was caught shipping sanctioned Iraqi crude in 2001, and in 2006 a tanker it chartered dumped toxic waste in Ivory Coast, allegedly making thousands ill and killing up to 16. Courts did not find any connection between its waste and sick people. But after unsuccessfully suing to keep a British parliamentary probe out of the newspapers, Trafigura paid $200 million in compensation.

And it's not just the Europeans. Executives of Illinois-based ADM, formerly Archer Daniels Midland, were jailed for an early 1990s international price-fixing conspiracy for animal feed additive lysine. After Minnesota-based Cargill built a huge soybean terminal on the banks of the Amazon River in 2003, it was targeted by Greenpeace and subjected to Brazilian government injunctions for allegedly encouraging more farming in fragile rainforest. Cargill has since placed a moratorium on buying soybeans from newly deforested land.

THE SQUEEZE AND THE ARB

For many commodities traders, the most profitable ploy has been the squeeze, which involves driving prices up or down by accumulating a dominant position. In the early 2000s, the Brent crude oil stream -- used as a global price benchmark -- fell to 400,000 barrels per day from more than 1 million in the late 1980s. A few traders seized the chance to buy what amounted to almost all the available supply. Price premiums for immediate supply spiked, sapping margins for refiners worldwide. U. S. refiner Tosco sued Arcadia and Glencore for market manipulation; the case was settled out of court.

In metals, stock in warehouses can be tied up for years as loan collateral, allowing the same traders who dominate the metals market to control a huge chunk of world supply -- an apparent conflict of interest that has drawn criticism from the UK parliament.

The warehouses seem to have an infinite capacity to absorb metal, but a very small capacity to release it, said Nick Madden of Novelis, the world's top rolled aluminium producer.

Trading houses saw the opportunity to leverage metals warehousing after the 2008 financial crisis. Of the six major metals warehousers only one, Dutch-based C. Steinweg, remains independent. Trading houses competed with banks for the spoils -- Glencore, Trafigura and Noble took one warehousing company each, Goldman and JP Morgan the others.

And unlike commodities producers, such as U. S. oil giant Exxon Mobil, trading firms don't just make money when prices go up. Most rely on arbitrage -- playing the divergence in prices at different locations, between different future delivery dates, or between a commodity's quality in different places.

That's what Koch, Vitol and others did in 2009 when they parked 100 million barrels of oil in seaborne tankers. Thanks to a market condition known as contango -- a period when buyers pay more for future delivery than to receive their cargoes promptly -- they could sell futures and lock in profits of $10 a barrel or more.

RICH HISTORY

Many of the biggest players in oil and metals trading trace their roots back to notorious trader Marc Rich, whose triumph in the 1960s and 70s was to create a spot market for oil, wresting business away from the majors.

Belgium-born Rich joined Philipp Brothers, subsequently Phibro, aged 20, leaving in 1974 with a fellow graduate of the Phibro mailroom, Pincus Pinky Green, to to set up Marc Rich and Co AG in Switzerland.

Rich, now 76, would later end up on the FBI's most-wanted list for alleged tax evasion and trading oil from Iran after the revolution in 1979. He was later pardoned. His partners seized control of the firm in 1994, renaming it Glencore.

Several big trading houses are still family-held -- firms like agricultural giant Cargill, the top private U. S. company, or Kansas-based Koch Industries, a close No. 2. Koch's chief executive Charles Koch, a libertarian activist with a $22 billion personal fortune according to Forbes, has said his company would go public over my dead body. The thinking is, why open the books to the world? said a former lobbyist for Koch who requested anonymity. Koch benefits from privacy, and it's astonishingly agile and profitable as is.

The old guard now faces a challenge from a new breed of Asian competitors. Companies like Hong Kong-based Noble and Singapore's Olam and Hin Leong are not new, but they are spreading their wings as China's influence in commodities markets increases. Chinese state funds have flowed into Noble and private Asian traders. As China's clout grows, it's very likely that Chinese firms will build trading dynasties of their own. In a move borrowed from the playbooks of western rivals, state-run oil firm PetroChina has set up a Houston oil trading desk and leased massive oil storage tanks in the Caribbean. China is becoming more like a Glencore, said Hinde. The Chinese state is funding nimble trading firms to do its bidding. We don't hear much about them yet, but in time we will.

Here's a look at the 16 companies, with aggregate revenues of $1.1 trillion, that trade energy, metals and agriculture.

SAILING CLOSE TO THE WIND WHO: Vitol, founded 1966 in Rotterdam by Henk Vietor and Jacques Detiger WHERE: Geneva and Rotterdam WHAT: Oil, gas, power, coal, industrial metals, sugar TURNOVER: $195 billion (2010) CEO: Ian Taylor STAFF: 2,700

By Richard Mably

On the world oil markets the name Vitol is as familiar as Exxon is at the petrol pump.

In public, for a company that turned over almost $200 billion last year trading 5.5 million barrels a day, its profile is nigh on subterranean.

But earlier this year the world's wealthiest oil trader raised that profile, and did its reputation no harm, by becoming the first to deal with Libya's rebels, long before the overthrow of Muammar Gaddafi.

That helped balance the reputational damage of being fined -- along with many other companies -- for paying surcharges a decade ago to Saddam Hussein's Iraqi oil ministry during the U. N. oil-for-food programme.

Vitol's Saddam connection does not seem to have hurt it in Iraq. It became the first company to supply gasoline to the energy ministry after the war in 2003, and now is both a buyer of Iraqi crude and supplier of refined products.

An array of storage tanks on five continents oils the wheels of its vast trading operation and it has stepped into the gap left by the oil majors as they reduce their downstream presence to focus on upstream exploration and production.

With African investors Helios Investment it recently paid a billion dollars to buy Shell's fuel marketing operation across 14 West African countries, keeping the Shell branding.

It has also dipped a toe in the upstream business. Together with Glencore, it pre-qualified to bid for exploration rights in Iraq in a licensing round next year that that could add the Iraqi upstream to its offshore West Africa operations.

Its early dealings with the Libyan rebels may offer the chance of a foothold in Libya's oil and gas territory.

Vitol's goal was to supply the refined products and then try to pick up upstream assets in Libya, said a western diplomatic source.

Glencore's flotation has sparked speculation about a possible Vitol initial public offering and what it would be worth. Vitol says it is happy with its private status and has no IPO plans.

By annual revenue Vitol is richer than Glencore but the numbers aren't directly comparable -- Glencore owns more hard assets which, typically, are far more profitable than trade turnover.

Vitol's wealth is spread across only 330 share-holding employees, fewer than Glencore's 500. While Vitol would not comment, industry talk has it that none of its senior employees, including CEO Ian Taylor who joined from Shell in 1985 or long-timer Bob Finch who heads Vitol's coal business, holds more than 5 percent of the company. That would put them well below the 16 percent stake Glencore CEO Ivan Glasenberg owns in his firm.

The company's deal with Libya's rebels was a gamble. Sanctions targeted Gaddafi. The firms now controlled by the western-backed rebels might still legally be linked to Libya's national oil corporation. Was Vitol in violation? Lawyers said doing business with the rebels still required great care. But by the end of April, a U. S. Treasury directive authorised the Vitol transactions.

They sail as close to the wind as they possibly can legally, said an oil analyst who requested anonymity. That's the nature of their business.

(additional reporting Barbara Lewis)

PRIVATE TO PUBLIC WHO: Glencore, founded 1974 as Marc Rich and Co. renamed Glencore in 1994 WHERE: Baar, Switzerland WHAT: Metals, minerals, energy, agricultural products REVENUE: $145 billion in 2010 CEO: Ivan Glasenberg STAFF: 2,800 people directly; 55,000 at Glencore's industrial assets

By Clara Ferreira Marques

Switzerland-based Glencore cast aside its famed secrecy earlier this year with a record market debut that turned its executives into paper millionaires and propelled the firm into the headlines.

Founded in 1974 by Marc Rich, who fell foul of U. S. authorities but was later pardoned by President Bill Clinton, Glencore has assets spanning the globe and an oil division with more ships than Britain's Royal Navy. Top officials in many other large trading companies began their careers at Glencore.

The company handles 3 percent of the world's daily oil consumption. It's one of the largest physical suppliers of metals including zinc, lead and nickel, and a leading grain exporter from Europe, the former Soviet Union and Australia .

Though it began as a pure metals and oil trader, Glencore has bought a wealth of industrial assets since the late 1980s which now stretches from South American farmland to copper mines in Zambia.

Belgium-born Rich sold his stake in 1994.

The company's largest shareholder is now former coal trader and Chief Executive Ivan Glasenberg, an intense and charismatic South African who holds a stake of just under 16 percent, worth around 4.5 billion pounds at current prices.

Still not entirely comfortable with his public profile, Glasenberg has described his shift into the glare of publicity as crossing the Rubicon. He is flanked in the top investor table by the youthful heads of Glencore's major divisions. Together, Glencore employees, including many of its top traders, own just under 80 percent of the company.

Glencore has long made its fortune by working on the fringes and in areas where few others dared. That strategy has often succeeded, though last month it found itself at the centre of a dispute in the newly minted nation of South Sudan. A row over oil export control could jeopardize its role in selling the nation's crude.

Glencore's initial public offering was the largest globally this year, attracting huge publicity as well as arguments that it marked the top of the commodities cycle. The shares listed at 530 pence in May but have since traded below that, dropping almost a quarter in three months.

A large part of Glencore's market value comes from its listed stakes in other companies, most notably a 34.5 percent holding in Swiss miner Xstrata. Glencore has said publicly it would see good value in a merger with Xstrata, but that has so far been rejected by other, smaller, shareholders.

BACK-HAUL MASTERS WHO: Cargill, founded 1865 by William Wallace Cargill at the end of the U. S. Civil War WHERE: Minneapolis, Minnesota WHAT: Grains, oilseeds, salt, fertilizers, metals, energy TURNOVER: $108 billion (2010) CEO: Greg Page STAFF: 130,000

By Christine Stebbins

Tucked away in a private forest an hour's drive from the downtown high rises of mid-western Minnesota stands a brick mansion that strikes most visitors the same way: isolated, solid, regal, powerful.

Inside the lake office, as it is known, sits the chairman of Cargill Inc. one of the largest privately held companies in the world.

Over the last 145 years, Cargill has grown from a single grain storage warehouse by an Iowa railroad to a behemoth of world commodities trade, straddling dozens of markets for food and other essential materials -- salt, fertilizer, metals.

With global sales of $108 billion in 2010, Cargill would have ranked No. 13 in the Fortune 500 list of publicly held companies, just behind Wall Street banking giant Citigroup.

But Cargill is anything but public. Despite a concerted campaign in recent years to put forth a friendlier face and personality through advertising and more appearances by its executives in public forums, Cargill is bound together by a culture of confidentiality, aggressiveness -- and winning.

By and large they move as a team, says one retired wheat trader who did business with Cargill for decades. They have some superstars but mostly a lot of team players -- what I would describe as well grounded, fundamental traders.

One of their secrets: filling the empty barges headed home.

You've always had grain going down the river and going through the Gulf and being exported. One of the great things that Cargill did was develop the salt business to transport back up, eliminate the snow during the wintertime, and fill barges back up with back hauls, the wheat trader said.

It was done a long time ago. People forget about it. But it was absolutely one of the greatest moves in the business.

Cargill hopes to dominate new markets as well. Two examples: it makes biodegradable and recyclable plastics out of corn at its $1 billion complex at Blair, Nebraska, and is creating new low-calorie food ingredients for such multinationals as Kraft, Nestle and Coca Cola.

TROUBLED PAST

At times Cargill's power has got it into trouble. In 1937 the Chicago Board of Trade forced the company to sell its corn contracts and Secretary of Agriculture Henry Wallace accused it of trying to corner the U. S. corn market. In 1972 Cargill came under attack as it secretly sold millions of tonnes of wheat to Russia. using a U. S. export subsidy program to boot -- and boosting food inflation.

It helps that the firm usually has the backing of Washington. In early 2007, when world grain prices were surging towards all-time highs, it faced a problem in Ukraine. Citing concerns over potential shortages and rising bread prices, Kiev had placed export quotas on cash crops and temporarily stopped granting export licenses for corn, wheat, barley and other grains.

Cargill, as well as fellow U. S. commodity trading firms Bunge and ADM, agreed to undertake a public relations effort with the goal of creating a political problem for the Government of Ukraine, according to a 2007 diplomatic cable by the U. S. ambassador to Ukraine that was obtained by WikiLeaks and made available to Reuters by a third party.

To achieve this, it would be necessary to recruit the (Ukrainian) farmers to take an active role. This would be a challenge, since small farmers were unorganized, and most had already cashed in their crops by selling to the traders early. Grain traders welcomed our offer to lend a diplomatic hand, the ambassador wrote.

Asked to comment, Cargill said the company actively backs free trade to boost agriculture in all countries and is in dialogue with many important audiences, including governments. Additionally, we don't believe export bans are the solution to either high grain prices or price volatility. ADM declined to comment and a spokesman for Bunge could not be reached.

THE 'KOCHTOPUS' WHO: Koch Industries, founded 1920s by Fred Koch WHERE: Wichita, Kansas WHAT: Oil TURNOVER: $100 billion (2010) CEO: Charles Koch STAFF: 70,000

By Joshua Schneyer

Founded in the 1920s by patriarch Fred Koch, a U. S. engineer who developed a new method of converting oil into gasoline, Koch helped to build a refining network in the Soviet Union in the 1930s. Fred Koch returned to the United States with a visceral hatred for Joseph Stalin and communism. A fiercely libertarian ideology and ultra-competitive engineering prowess live on at Koch Industries' spartan headquarters in Wichita, Kansas, a former Koch executive told Reuters.

With around $100 billion in sales, Koch Industries is a heavyweight among U. S. oil trading firms, and one of the most secretive U. S. corporations. Investors can forget about buying shares in the wildly profitable, family-run firm any time soon.

In oil markets, Koch is a brutally efficient middleman. A master of physical markets, it owns a 4,000-mile U. S. pipeline network and three of the country's most profitable refineries. Many small producers rely almost entirely on Koch to buy, sell and ship their crude. The company now operates in 60 countries.

The Koch brothers, Chairman and CEO Charles and co-owner David Koch, are high-profile supporters of libertarian and anti-regulation U. S. politics. Among their campaigns is one to end the U. S. Environmental Protection Agency's mandate for regulating greenhouse gas emissions. A profile in the New Yorker magazine last year identified the brothers as behind-the-scenes operators who bankroll the U. S. Tea Party movement. The Kochs have denied funding the Tea Party, but their empire's far-reaching tentacles in the political arena have spawned a nickname: the 'Kochtopus'.

The firm's traders, according to two industry sources, made a fortune for Koch in 2009-10 during a contango in U. S. oil markets -- a period when oil for future delivery was higher priced than immediate cargoes. Koch moved quietly to lead a boom in U. S. offshore crude storage, buying millions of barrels at cheap spot prices, parking them in supertankers near its Gulf Coast pipelines, and simultaneously selling into futures markets.

With Koch's easy access to tankers and pipelines, the strategy locked in profits of up to $10 a barrel with virtually no risk, traders said. When spot and futures prices began to converge, Koch would quietly slip crude from the ships into its onshore pipelines. Koch declined to discuss its trading with Reuters.

Former Koch employees were implicated in improper payments to secure contracts in six foreign countries between 2002 and 2008, and the company's officers admitted in a letter made public by a French court last year that those activities constitute violations of criminal law, according to a report in Bloomberg Markets Magazine this month. The report also details sales by a foreign Koch subsidiary of petrochemical equipment to Iran, which is subject to U. S. sanctions, and a history of criminal or civil penalties for oil spills, a deadly 1996 U. S. pipeline blast, and under-reporting of emissions of benzene, a carcinogen, from a Texas refinery in 1995.

On its website Koch said it dismissed several employees of a French subsidiary upon learning of the improper and unauthorized payments. It also said its foreign units had ended sales to Iran years ago, and did not violate U. S. law by conducting business with Iran earlier. Koch said its 90s-era pipeline blast was the only event of its kind in the company's history, and that a report to Texas regulators was voluntarily submitted by the company in 1995 to reflect higher emissions than it had originally reported. Koch eventually pleaded guilty in 2001 to a felony charge related to its reporting of the benzene emissions.

The firm's far-ranging industrial interests also include chemicals, forestry, ethanol, carbon trading and ranching. Its huge lobbying budget in Washington -- estimated at $10.3 million a year in a recent investigation by the Center for Public Integrity -- stands in contrast to Charles Koch's frugal demeanor within the firm.

The CEO sometimes flies to speaking engagements with no entourage. When in Wichita, he often dines in the Koch cafeteria. When out-of-town employees visit, he has taken them to dinner at seafood chain Red Lobster, a former Koch employee said. But make no mistake, if you perform well at Koch, you are richly rewarded in salary terms, the person added. And if you don't, you're out of there fast.

CORN BELT KINGS WHO: ADM, formerly Archer Daniels Midland, founded 1902 by John Daniels and George Archer BASED: Decatur, Illinois TRADES: Grains, oilseeds, cocoa TURNOVER: $81 billion (2010) CEO: Patricia Woertz STAFF: 30,000

By Karl Plume

Corn goes in one end and profit comes out the other.

That comment, by Matt Damon's character Marc Whitacre in the 2009 corporate scandal film The Informant, described how U. S. agricultural firm Archer Daniels Midland Co. turned grain into gold. The line may be simplistic but it's not too far from the truth.

Decatur, Illinois-based ADM is one of the world's biggest commodities traders. It buys and sells multiple crops, mills and grinds and processes them into scores of products, both edible and not, and ships them to markets around the world.

A small Minnesota linseed crushing business more than a century ago, the firm is now is so big its financial performance is often viewed as a barometer of agribusiness as a whole. It owns processing plants, railcars, trucks, river barges and ships. It has trading offices in China, palm plantations and chemical plants across Asia, and silos in Brazil.

We have a system that monitors the supply and demand needs, because often times they are working independently. For us in the middle, we have the ability then to manage the commodity risk that can be created by the timing differences between those buys and sells, said Steve Mills, ADM's senior executive vice president for performance and growth.

You'll hear things through the marketplace or the wire services that it's raining someplace or not raining someplace and we'll have people on the ground saying 'I don't know what you're talking about'. The futures market may take some of that information and run with it. One of the things that gives us an advantage is that we're working in the physical markets as well so (we can) absorb all that information and make the calls.

But ADM's reputation has endured a black eye or two over the years.

A lysine price-fixing scandal in 1993 tarred its name after three top executives were indicted and imprisoned. ADM was fined $100 million by the U. S. government for antitrust violations. The incident was the subject of The Informant, filmed on site in Decatur.

ADM's environmental record has also been questioned by the Environmental Protection Agency, resulting in fines and forced installation of pollution control measures. PUTIN, JUDO, CONSPIRACIES WHO: Gunvor, founded 1997 by Swedish oil trader Torbjorn Tornqvist and Russian/Finnish businessman Gennady Timchenko WHERE: Geneva WHAT: Oil, coal, LNG, emissions TURNOVER: $80 billion 2011, company estimate ($65 billion 2010) CHAIRMAN: Torbjorn Tornqvist STAFF: Fewer than 500

By Dmitry Zhdannikov

When it comes to his critics, Vladimir Putin is a heavyweight puncher. Yet it took Russia's most influential politician almost a decade to publicly address one of the most serious allegations against him.

Critics, including the Russian opposition, put it simply -- Russia's paramount leader helped businessman Gennady Timchenko create the Gunvor oil trading empire, which saw a spectacular rise in the past decade when Putin was president and then prime minister.

Putin finally broke his silence last month: I assure you, I know that a lot is being written about it, without any participation on my part.

I have known the citizen Timchenko for a very long time, since my work in St Petersburg, Putin told a group of Russian writers. Putin worked in the mayor's office in the early 1990s when Timchenko and his friends, Putin said, spun off an oil trading unit of the Kirishi oil refinery.

I never interfered with anything related to his business interests, I hope he will not stick his nose into my business either, Putin said.

Timchenko doesn't need to be told to keep a low profile. He is one of Russia's most private tycoons. And his silence helped feed rumors about Gunvor's remarkable growth.

In 2011 the company will turn over $80 billion, up from just $5 billion in 2004. In his first public interview to Reuters in 2007, Gunvor's Swedish co-founder Tornbjorn Tornqvist was keen to stress that the firm's success was built on its traders' experience and excellent contacts.

But. to involve Mr Putin and any of his staff in this dialogue is speculation, he added. That comment didn't help calm rumours and then Timchenko spoke too.

After a newspaper interview he wrote an open letter in 2008 headlined Gunvor, Putin and me: the truth about a Russian oil trader.

It is true that I, together with three other businessmen, sponsored a judo club where Mr Putin became honorary president, he wrote. That is as far as it goes -- yet time and again, the media wrongly jump to the conclusion that the judo club connection means that Mr Putin and I are 'close', then leap into conspiracy-theory mode.

Tornqvist, a former BP trader and keen yachtsman, says he doesn't share the vision of Mark Rich, the father of contemporary trading, that political links are the most prized asset in trading.

If you don't offer competitive terms, no one will work with you, he told a Russian daily this month. For Gunvor's rivals, too, favoritism is also an overly simple explanation of the company's success. They point to very competitive pricing offered by Gunvor when it comes to Russian oil tenders.

Gunvor's oil dominance has waned in the past two years -- it is handling around a fifth of Russian seaborne oil exports, down from a third three years ago. Perhaps to make up for that, it has moved into new sectors such as natural gas, coal and emissions.

Tornqvist says Gunvor's goal is to become a truly global company. We know how to close the gap (with Vitol and Glencore) and we are actively catching up, Tornqvist said. Like Vitol, he says, Gunvor has no plans to follow Glencore into an IPO.

THE RICH LINK WHO: Trafigura, founded 1993 by former Marc Rich traders Claude Dauphin, Eric de Turkheim and Graham Sharp WHERE: Geneva, Switzerland WHAT: Oil, metals TURNOVER: $79 billion (2010) CHAIRMAN: Claude Dauphin STAFF: 6,000

By Dmitry Zhdannikov and Ikuko Kurahone

The godfather of oil trading, Marc Rich, taught one of his most talented apprentices Claude Dauphin almost every trick in the business. Like Rich, Dauphin created a leading commodities trading house by applying a knife-edge approach to business. He has made a fortune.

But there was one lesson that Rich must have cut short: how to avoid jail. While Rich himself fled to Europe in the 1980s to escape possible imprisonment for tax evasion in the United States, Dauphin spent almost six months behind bars in Ivory Coast in 2006-7 in pre-trial detention involving a dispute over toxic waste dumping.

Shortly after the material was dumped, thousands of residents of the city of Abidjan complained of illnesses, including breathing problems, skin irritation and related ailments. The government of Ivory Coast said 16 people died. The material was dumped in open-air sites around Abidjan in August 2006 after being unloaded from a Trafigura-chartered tanker.

Trafigura said it entrusted the waste to a state-registered Ivorian company, Tommy, which dumped the material illegally at sites around Abidjan.

We went to the Ivory Coast on a mission to help the people of Abidjan, and to find ourselves arrested and in jail as a result has been a terrible ordeal for ourselves and our families, said Dauphin.

Trafigura paid a $200 million settlement and the country's prosecutor declared that there was no evidence of any illegality or misconduct by any Trafigura company or staff.

In London, Trafigura reached a pre-trial settlement to put an end to a class-action suit from some 31,000 residents. The judge said there was no evidence the waste had caused anything more than flu-like symptoms and said some media had been irresponsible in their reporting.

The scandal has hardly hampered the firm's stellar growth.

It has grown into the world's third-largest independent oil trader and second-largest industrial metals trader in less than 20 years, since it was set up in the early 1990s by Dauphin and fellow traders Eric de Turckheim and Graham Sharp.

Like rival Vitol, Trafigura has seized the opportunity to get into oil storage as oil majors focus on production. It announced in early October that it may float its storage subsidiary Puma Energy within 18 months.

Trafigura was also quick to recognise the potential of storage in the industrial metals markets. It bought UK-based metals warehouser and logistics firm NEMS in March 2010, a month after Goldman Sachs had acquired rival Metro and several months before Glencore and JP Morgan moved into the business.

SEVEN-YEAR-OLD IN BIG LEAGUE WHO: Mercuria, founded in 2004 WHERE: Geneva WHAT: ENERGY TURNOVER: $75 billion 2011 company estimate (2010, $47 billion) CEO: Marco Dunand

By Christopher Johnson

Mercuria is just seven years old, but is already one of the world's top five energy traders.

Headquartered in Geneva, Switzerland, and named after Mercury, the god of merchants, Mercuria's business straddles global energy markets.

It has coal mines in Kalimantan in Indonesia, oilfields in Argentina and Canada plus oil trading in Singapore, Chicago, Houston and across Europe.

Its meteoric growth has been piloted by a couple of the sharpest minds in commodities.

Marco Dunand and Daniel Jaeggi, both Swiss, have worked together closely for more than 25 years in a string of commodities companies, buying and selling crude and oil products in many of the hottest oil trading outfits: Cargill, Goldman Sachs' J. Aron, Salomon Brothers' Phibro and Sempra.

In two decades of oil trading, Dunand and Jaeggi built fearsome reputations for seeing profit margins where others could only see potential losses. They were early dealers in a range of financial derivatives that are now commonplace and brought a level of sophistication to their trading books that most of their competitors could often only envy.

You were always a little worried, taking the other side of their trades, said one European oil product trader, who declined to be identified.

Compared with other independent trading houses, Dunand and Jaeggi are high profile, speaking periodically to the press and giving regular interviews.

Their move to run their own empire came in 2004 when they founded Mercuria, raising capital from two Polish businessmen, Grzegorz Jankielewicz and Slawomir Smolokowski.

Jankielewicz and Smolokowski's company, J+S Group, traded Russian crude oil and was a leading supplier of oil to PKN Orlen, Poland's top oil refiner.

In 2006, J+S was raided by the Polish authorities in connection with an investigation into oil trading in Poland. J+S denied any wrong-doing and suggested the investigation was politically motivated. No suggestions of wrong-doing were levelled against Dunand or Jaeggi.

Dunand, chairman and chief executive, and Jaeggi, head of global trading, used Mercuria to expand their trading base from crude and oil products.

The business has grown to 890 employees in 28 countries with a turnover at $75 billion, trading almost 120 million tonnes of oil, coal and gas.

NO IPO, YET

Dunand says he and Jaeggi have no intention of selling the company they have built so swiftly, or launching an initial public share offering (IPO). But they have seen interest from potential investors, and have considered a tie-up with a sovereign wealth fund.

We are not thinking about an IPO -- but that doesn't mean we don't have an open mind, Dunand told Reuters in June. We are keen to consolidate our culture before we could think about changing it. Having said that, we have also been approached by potential investors -- sovereign funds and others -- who wish to make a private-equity type of investment in our company.

Dunand and Jaeggi are Mercuria's largest shareholders but an employee share ownership scheme holds around 40 percent of the company. We don't see the need to raise money from the market, Dunand said. A BRIT IN HONG KONG WHO: Noble Group, founded 1986 by UK scrap metal man Richard Elman WHERE: Hong Kong WHAT: Sugar, coal, oil TURNOVER: $57 billion (2010) EXECUTIVE CHAIRMAN: Richard Elman STAFF: 11,000

By Luke R. Pachymuthu

Founded 25 years ago by Briton Richard Elman, the Hong Kong-based, Singapore-listed Noble Group buys and sells everything from Brazilian sugar to Australian coal.

Noble's shareholders include China's sovereign wealth fund, China Investment Corp. which bought an $850 million stake in 2009, and Korean Investment Corp. which has a minority stake.

Elman, the company's chairman, holds around 30 percent of the company. After dropping out of school he began his career at 15 in a metals scrap yard in the UK. He spent time trading metal in Hong Kong before moving to New York and a stint at commodities trading giant Phibro. Back in Hong Kong, he traded commodities with China in the 1970s and was the first to sell China's Daqing crude oil to the United States.

Noble has grown by acquiring troubled competitors. In 2001, for instance, it bought storied Swiss company Andre Cie, once one of the world's top five grains traders. Finding itself with a big client base, but short of the physical supplies it needed to meet demand, Noble built its own processing facilities. It's a model it has replicated across various commodities.

Noble is now seeking to spin off its agriculture business with a listing on the Singapore Exchange. The grains business accounts for a third of its earnings and could have a value of more than $5 billion. Wall Street heavyweight JP Morgan is advising Noble on the planned listing.

The company's early forays into trading gas and oil left it with a black eye. Noble quit its global liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) operations in 2010, a year it was censured in Nigeria for discrepancies in gasoline shipping lists. Nigeria's Petroleum Product Pricing Regulatory Agency (PPPRA) said that in one transaction the amount of fuel submitted for subsidies did not match the actual quantity delivered. The company did not comment publicly on this incident.

And it sounded a rare retreat this week when sources close to the company said it had shut its European coal trading operations to focus on Asia and trading.

The China connection continues. In April Noble appointed Li Rongrong, former chairman of the state-owned assets supervision and administration commission of China, as a non-executive director.

PRIVATE FIRM, PUBLIC SPAT WHO: Louis Dreyfus, founded 1851 by Leopold Louis-Dreyfus WHERE: Paris WHAT: Cotton, rice, grains, orange juice TURNOVER: $46 billion (2010) CEO: Serge Schoen STAFF: 34,000

By Gus Trompiz

In the two years since Margarita Louis-Dreyfus inherited control of the world's top cotton and rice trader following the death of her husband Robert, the woman the French press call the tsarina has been at the centre of one of the most intriguing struggles in corporate Europe.

Analysts and commentators focused on differences between the forty-something, Russian-born Margarita Louis-Dreyfus and chief executive Jacques Veyrat over how to develop the 160-year-old family firm and whether to list its shares or seek a merger deal.

The winner? The tsarina, or MLD, as the press sometimes also calls her. In April, she and Veyrat told business daily Les Echos that the CEO would be stepping down to make way for Serge Schoen, head of Louis Dreyfus Commodities.

The very public power struggle was all the more remarkable because the company normally keeps everything, from its precise earnings to the exact age of its main shareholder and chairwoman, a secret.

Louis Dreyfus is a well-honed global operator, marketing agricultural commodities from wheat to orange juice. But most analysts think it needs fresh capital to grow, or to buy out minority family shareholders who will have the option to sell their stakes in 2012.

Unsuccessful talks have taken place with Singaporean commodities group Olam International Ltd, while bankers say they have been sounded out about a stock market listing.

Margarita Louis-Dreyfus told Les Echos that a listing, merger or the entry of a private investor were all options. But there's little room for maneuver: the majority stake she inherited is locked up in a trust her husband set up to last for 99 years.

There is no ideal solution. What matters is that the group and its name survive, she said.

In the wake of Glencore's listing this year, there is interest in another big trading house going public; investors want exposure to long-term demand for commodities.

I would love for them to be listed on the stock market, said Gertjan van der Geer, who manages an agriculture fund for Swiss bank Pictet. Cargill and Louis Dreyfus are the large missing players in the commodity trading space.

It doesn't look likely anytime soon. There is no rush, the company has been private for 150 years so there is no specific timing for changing the shareholding structure, one source close to the company said.

A management shake-up this year at France's most popular football club, Olympique Marseille, offers more proof of Margarita Louis-Dreyfus' determination to defend her husband's legacy and impose hard financial choices.

While pursuing Robert Louis-Dreyfus' passion for the club, which drained millions from his fortune, she has placed strict conditions on new investment.

Olympique Marseille is at a crossroads, she told supporters in a statement to announce the changes at the club. It's a message that could apply just as well to the Louis Dreyfus group.

(Additional reporting by Jean-Francois Rosnoblet)

CASHING IN ON CHINESE PIGS WHO: Bunge, founded 1818 by Johann Peter Gottlieb Bunge in Amsterdam WHERE: White Plains, New York. TRADES: Grains, oilseeds, sugar TURNOVER: $46 billion (2010) CHAIRMAN and CEO: Alberto Weissner STAFF: 32,000

By Hugh Bronstein

Two decades ago, Chinese farmers fed their pigs just about anything they could lay their hands on. But since White Plains, New York-based Bunge set up in China in 1998, many have switched to soy pellets. Result: China's pigs are heavier than ever and Bunge has become a key supplier to one of the fastest growing economies in the world.

The company, which went public 10 years ago, realized early that rising incomes in Asia could be fed by Brazil and Argentina, two of the last remaining countries with new farmland left for crop cultivation.

It helps that the company's CEO Alberto Weisser is a Brazilian, and that Bunge has more than 100 years experience in South America.

Asian demand for South American soybeans has exploded over the last five years and Bunge is arguably the best positioned company in the world as it relates to servicing and profiting from the Asian demand trend, said Jeff Farmer, an analyst who follows the company for Jefferies Company in Boston.

Founded in 1818 in Amsterdam, the company is the world's No.1 oilseed processor. Along the way it has moved headquarters to Belgium, Argentina, Brazil and then the United States.

They go where the business is, said an industry insider who asked not to be named. No sentimental attachments to any country or location. What matters is results, and you can see that in the way they trade.

It doesn't always work. In May, Argentina kicked Bunge off the country's exporters' register after the government alleged it had evaded $300 million in taxes, an accusation the company denies. Argentina's tax office is investigating dozens of other agricultural exporters as well.

Despite not being on the registry, Bunge continues to export grains and agricultural products as usual, but it cannot cash in on certain tax benefits and it faces hurdles transporting goods within Argentina, which analysts say could hurt the company's bottom line.

ASIA'S NEW SUGAR KING WHO: Wilmar International, founded 1991 WHERE: Singapore WHAT: Palm oil, grains, sugar TURNOVER: $30.4 billion (2010) CHAIRMAN AND CEO: Kuok Khoon Hong STAFF: 88,000 plus

By Harry Suhartono and Naveen Thakral

Around two decades ago, Kuok Khoon Hong decided to leave the business empire of his billionaire uncle Robert Kuok to set up an edible oil business with a big bet: China.

He competed fiercely with Indonesia's Salim group, the business group commanded by his uncle, and won, to dominate the edible oil market in the world's most populous nation.

Wilmar is now the biggest soy player in China with a 20 percent market share, measured in processing capacity. It is also the largest producer of consumer pack edible oils with about 45 percent market share.

Wilmar's strategy is to have its fingers in every part of the supply chain, from point of origin to destination.

In the palm oil business, for example, it owns plantations, mills, refiners, shippers, bottlers and the distribution network, in both the top producers, Indonesia and Malaysia, and the top consumers, India and China.

That gives its traders the advantage of timely market intelligence.

We have a daily sales report from every corner where we operate and if we see sales slowing over a few weeks, we get to know the changing trend before others, one employee said, on condition of anonymity.

In 2006 Kuok, now 62, orchestrated a $4.3 billion merger which consolidated his uncle's palm oil assets into Wilmar, making it the world's largest listed palm oil firm.

Last year he surprised the market when he trumped China's Bright Food in a $1.5 billion deal to buy Australia's Sucrogen.

That complements his plan to set up a 200,000 hectares plantation in Indonesia's Papua island, which could make him the new Asian sugar king, a title once hold by his uncle.

With nearly $10 billion worth of cash and bank deposits on Wilmar's balance sheet, Kuok is unlikely to stop his expansion drive there. Investors say he might already have his sights set on Brazil, to strengthen his position in the global sugar market.

THE CUSHING CUSHION WHO: Arcadia, founded 1988 by Japan's Mitsui Co BASED: London TRADES: Oil TURNOVER: $29 billion, Reuters estimate OWNER: John Fredriksen STAFF: 100

By Caroline Copley and Joshua Schneyer

Arcadia Petroleum, the London-based oil trading firm owned by billionaire oil tanker magnate John Fredriksen, was thrust into the spotlight in May when U. S. commodities regulators sued it for allegedly manipulating U. S. oil markets in 2008.

In one of its biggest-ever crackdowns, the U. S. Commodity Futures Trading Commission alleges Arcadia traders amassed large physical crude positions in Cushing, Oklahoma, to create the appearance of tight supply at the delivery hub for U. S. oil futures. Fredriksen's traders then hurriedly sold the physical crude at a loss, the CFTC lawsuit claims, ending expectations for tight supplies. Overall Arcadia profited by $50 million in derivatives markets as oil futures spreads collapsed, according to the suit.

In a May interview with Reuters, Fredriksen refuted the charges and shot back that maybe they (U. S. regulators) are trying to get some revenge for the 2010 BP oil spill in the Gulf of Mexico. Several of Fredriksen's traders worked for BP in the early 2000s, where aggressive oil trading at Cushing turned huge profits, and also led to BP paying fines for alleged trading violations.

It is a normal situation for oil traders. They are buying and selling oil. That's what it is all about, Fredriksen said of the recent CFTC charges.

Risk has often paid off handsomely for Fredriksen. With a personal fortune estimated by Forbes at $10.7 billion, the 67-year-old was Norway's richest man until he abandoned his citizenship in 2006 to become a national of Cyprus, where tax rates are lower.

Beyond Arcadia, Fredriksen's stable of commodities-related firms includes MarineHarvest, a global salmon-farming conglomerate billed as the world's largest seafood company. He also owns oil tanker operator Frontline, U. S. oil trader Parnon -- also named in the CFTC lawsuit -- energy driller Seadrill and gas distributor Golar LNG.

Fredriksen became a leading oil shipping magnate well before buying Arcadia, in 2006. His 28-year-old twins Kathrine and Cecilie play a growing role in his sprawling business empire, according to press reports.

Arcadia doesn't make its revenues public. With 800,000 barrels a day to market, a volume similar to OPEC country Qatar, Arcadia's annual gross revenue from oil could be around $29 billion based on current prices.

The company lists its trade in paper derivatives as larger still, or about 10 million barrels a day.

Arcadia has faced controversy before. Founded in 1988 by Japanese trading giant Mitsui Inc. it was sued in 2000 by independent US refiner Tosco for allegedly conspiring to jack up prices of European benchmark Brent oil by cornering part of the North Sea physical crude market. The suit was settled out of court for an undisclosed sum.

Arcadia often trades large volumes of oil from Nigeria and Yemen. where it boasts close relationships with state oil firms. In a 2009 State Department cable from Yemen, obtained by WikiLeaks and provided by a third party to Reuters, sources told U. S. diplomats that the company used intimidation tactics including kidnapping threats to buy Yemeni crude at below market prices. Arcadia's chief executive in Singapore, Stephen Gibbons, denied the contents of the cable and told Reuters the kidnapping allegations were ludicrous.

60 YEARS OUT OF THE LIMELIGHT WHO: Mabanaft WHERE: Rotterdam WHAT: Oil TURNOVER: $15 billion, Reuters estimate CEO: Jan-Willem van der Velden STAFF: 1,772

By Jessica Donati

Mabanaft's profile is low even by the secretive standards of other independent oil traders. The company has spent six decades trying to keep it that way. Its website reveals little more than that it is the trading arm of privately owned oil company Marquard Bahls.

A rare news release announced that Jan-Willem van der Velden, who started as an international trader at the company in 1997, would take over as CEO from January this year.

Van der Velden took the reins of a company on a roll. Mabanaft sold 20 million tonnes of oil in 2010, up from 18 million tonnes in 2009. Pre-tax income for its parent company Marquard Bahls was $274 million, up from $252 million the previous year.

That's still a lot less than the billions the biggest independent oil traders make and a long way off the revenue of Marquard Bahls' oil tanking division, the second largest in the world after Vopak. Which may be why Mabanaft wants to expand beyond its northern European heartland.

From the 43rd floor of a Rotterdam skyscraper, staff members can look out over a network of rivers towards some of Europe's biggest refineries. But Mabanaft has also gradually opened offices in Singapore and the United States and, in the summer of 2010, a representative office in India.

As usual, details are scant. Mabanaft is aiming to further diversify its product portfolio by pursuing a controlled geographic growth strategy, is all communications manager Maren Mertens is able to offer on the subject. Geography isn't the sole focus of expansion -- it has moved into naphtha, LPG and wood pellets. CASHEWS TO FORBES WHO: Olam, founded 1989 by the Kewalram Chanrai Group, began trading cashews from Nigeria WHERE: Singapore WHAT: Coffee, cocoa, rice, grains, sugar TURNOVER: $11 billion (2009/10) CEO: Sunny Verghese STAFF: 13,000 plus

By Harry Suhartono

A wealthier world needs more food. That's the argument of Sunny Verghese, chief executive of Singapore-based trading firm Olam International.

We haven't seen this pace of population growth in our living memory, Verghese told a conference in Singapore late last year. We have to increase food production by 50 percent by 2030, and 80 percent by 2050, with our hands tied behind our back, he said, referring to constraints to boosting output such as the lack of land, water and infrastructure.

Verghese still plans to cash in. In two decades the Bangalore-born trader has built Olam into a $4.5 billion company involved in around 20 different commodities including coffee, cocoa, rice, grains and sugar, from a startup that sold Nigerian cashew nuts.

These days, Olam has upstream operations in everything from a coffee plantation in Laos to a rice business in Thailand. from almonds in Australia to cashews in Africa. The firm is now the world's largest shipper of Robusta coffee and counts Nestle, Hershey, General Mills and Sara Lee as clients. It is also the world's second largest trader of rice after Louis Dreyfus.

The French trading giant approached Olam with a merger proposal in 2010, but talks failed earlier this year.

Verghese, who Forbes says is worth $190 million, believes he can go it alone and aims to quadruple the company's value by 2015. It helps that Olam has backing in high places: Singapore state investor Temasek holds a 14 percent stake in the trading firm.

Some analysts point to risk factors: Olam's exposure to natural disasters, such as recent flooding in Australia, and social or political unrest such as that in Ivory Coast.

IN SEARCH OF A REFINERY WHO: Hin Leong, founded 1963 supplying diesel to fishing boats WHERE: Singapore WHAT: Oil and tankers TURNOVER: $8 billion (2010) CHAIRMAN AND CEO: Lim Oon Kuin STAFF: About 100

By Yaw Yan Chong

Lim Oon Kuin arrived in Singapore from China over 50 years ago, and started to deliver diesel by bicycle to boatmen. Now in his mid-60s, the reclusive trader is busy with his latest empire-building effort: getting government approval to build the city-state's fourth oil refinery.

Known as OK Lim, the founder of Singapore's Hin Leong Group wants to build the company from oil trader into an integrated company. He's well on the way. A fleet of tankers and Asia's largest commercial storage facility are among the company's assets.

The $5-billion refinery would pit Hin Leong against refineries already operated in Singapore by oil majors Shell, ExxonMobil and a joint venture between Chevron and China's PetroChina.

Hin Leong made its name in the hard-fought Asia fuel oil and distillates market over 20 years ago, and is arguably the largest independent distillates trader in Asia, regularly mounting successful trading plays in the Singapore market. It also has a substantial presence in Asia's fuel oil market, the world's largest.

Lim's Chinese connections have played a big part in the company's success. It focused initially on shipping fuel oil cargoes to the mainland, a relationship that has since deepened. Hin Leong is joining hands with several Chinese firms to build the proposed Singapore refinery, even as it seeks to build a larger oil storage facility in the South Chinese province of Fujian.

Lim's biggest bet may have been an unprecedented 1997 spree in which Hin Leong bought 30 million barrels of jet fuel and diesel in the key Singapore market -- worth nearly US$800 million over a three-month span. The jury is still out among rival traders on whether he made or lost a fortune that summer, a debate Lim is unlikely to settle publicly.

In his only media interview, with Reuters in 2006, Lim credited his success to investment in his tanker armada -- the secret weapon that helped him set up stealthy and profitable deals in the 1990s -- and his philosophy of perseverance.

Sometimes you get it wrong, but you have to accept it, he said.



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Moving average crossover strategy

Moving average crossover strategyMoving Average Crossover Strategy

On this page I'd like to take you through a comparison of a couple of moving average crossover systems. One uses two simple moving averages (sma's) and the other uses three sma's.

Ever thought about using a dual moving average system to trade?

If you're considering using dual moving average crossovers to both enter and exit trades, you might consider testing a triple MA system too. Compare them side by side on different stocks or other trading instruments as well as different time periods or time frames. Test different moving average periods, but be careful not to rely on optimized or 'curve-fitting' results.

But since some of my visitors don't know what this is, lets go over some basics first.

WHAT'S A MOVING AVERAGE CROSSOVER?

The image on the right is an example of a dual moving average crossover . that would initiate a buy signal (bullish crossover). A faster moving average (8 sma - blue) crosses above a slower average (13 sma - yellow).

Notice that the signal is not confirmed until the close of the bar. This means the actual entry (in live trading) would be somewhere within the next bar. Most likely near the open of that bar.

If you haven't done any backtesting yet, this kind of simple system will probably be one of the first that you'll test, since it requires very little programming skills. Anyway, if you go down this path, you'll find that the opening price of the next bar after the cross, is where backtesting software (depending on the setting) will place the simulated trades. Which is reasonable, because if you were actually trading using automated trading software. this is a close approximation of where your trade would take place.

With a typical 'stop & reverse' system, this long entry would not be exited until the blue, faster MA crossed below the yellow, slower MA. This MA bearish crossover not only exits the trade, but initiates a short trade in the opposite direction as well. So, with dual moving average crossover systems, the trader is always in a trade, long or short.

Lets take a look at an intraday example over the course of one day.

DUAL MOVING AVERAGE CROSSOVER

We'll use a 5 minute chart of SPY with two simple moving averages for the first example: Fast = (8 sma - green) and Slow = (13 sma - yellow).

I chose this particular day, because I wanted to illustrate what is very typical for practically any moving average crossover strategy. The first long trade after 11:00am goes very well and actually catches a good pullback entry.

The exit at around 12:45pm is profitable.

But, want I'd like you to observe is the choppy price action between 12:00 - 3:00. This is where double MA systems can really grind your profits down. The MA's just whipsaw back and forth causing three losses in a row, probably evaporating the profits from the first trade. If a person was trading this method on this day, fortunately they would've seen one more decent winning trade at 2:30.

The good part of this system is displayed on the first trade and the last trade. While moving average crossovers fail miserably during choppy price action, they work very well during trending price action.

If you backtest these simple stop and reverse systems, and inspect one that comes out with a profit, you'll most likely find that the win% is less than 50%, but the average winner will be larger than the average loser.

That's because moving average crossover systems are essentially 'trend trading' systems. And, trend trading systems almost always have this characteristic of a small percentage of winners and a good ave. win to ave. loss ratio.

In the charts below L = Long, S = Short and Ex = Exit.

TRIPLE MOVING AVERAGE CROSSOVER

So far the discussion has centered around a stop & reverse type system, whereby a signal for an exit, also produces a trade in the opposite direction. But if we introduce a third moving average to the system, there can be a period of neutrality. In other words, no trade takes place -- you're in cash.

For this example, we're going to use a 3 minute chart and three simple moving averages: 4 sma, 10 sma and 50 sma.

The rules are very simple. If the slow line (50 sma) is rising, and the fast line (4 sma) crosses above the middle line (10 sma), there is a buy signal. The exit signal comes when the fast line crosses below the middle line.

The rules are the opposite for short entries. It's easy to see, that this system is similar to taking trades off the trend of a higher time frame.

An alternative to this system, would be to only take long entries, when both the fast and middle moving averages are above the slow sma.

Be aware that when your dealing with three degrees of freedom (3 variables), rather than two as in the above example, you are making the system more complex and therefore creating many more possible combinations to test.

Of course, backtesting software makes this a snap, but remember that adding filters and complexity doesn't always make a better system. Frequently, a simpler system can be more robust under testing.

An example is below.

If you're interested in moving averages, you might also want to check out my page on how to use moving averages as a trailing stop.



Online Moving average crossover strategy

Madden12franchise tips trading101

Madden12franchise tips trading101Madden 12 Franchise Tips: Trading 101

In this Madden 12 Franchise Tips breakdown, we take a look at some basic Madden 12 offline franchise tips when it comes to trading players Vs the CPU that can help with building a stronger team once the game is released in late August.

Trading Players

Trading in the NFL does not happen as much as some may think. Most of the player movement is done by free agency, however in Madden, thats just not the case. For those of you who have played in online franchise leagues you know that trading is one of most important parts of building a team. All 32 owners are trying to shark each other out of players. We know from experience how lop sided deals can be.

When trading against the CPU, it can also lead to some lob sided trades as well. The CPU in Madden NFL 12 really makes you work to pull off trades. You will find more often times than not, the CPU owner will come out on the better end. Here are few Madden Tips :

When trading with the CPU, try to look at CPU teams needs. Many times you will pull off trades by giving up players that the CPU really needs to improve its team.

Look at your depth chart and see what you have on the bench. If you have quality halfbacks, but lack a cornerback, trade one of halfbacks.

Look at the ages of the players you are giving up. Old players wont improve and will start decline. You might as well trade them and get something in return.

If you decide to give up draft picks, look to see what the seasons NFL draft has to offer. If its a weak draft, then consider giving up draft picks. This really applies to the end of the year, right before the draft. Also, if you play NCAA and import draft classes you should have a good feel for the draft as well.

If you decide to go after an old player with high overall rating because you want to win now, consider the consequences later down the road. It might be worth it if it will take you to the Super Bowl.

If you have a young star on an otherwise poor team, you can get multiple quality players with a trade. Might be worth it to get your whole team competitive instead of having just one star.

Don’t forget to look at player traits to make sure the player you are wanting to trade for fits your style of play.

Player roles play an important apart in your teams overall performance and should not be overlooked when making trades as some players can bring up your team, while others can bring your team down.



Online Madden12franchise tips trading101

Trading strategy for silver

Trading strategy for silverSilver, Gold & Miners ETF Trading Strategy – Part II

November 24th, 2013 at 3:16 pm

Precious Metals ETF Trading . It’s been a week since my last gold silver report which I took a lot of heat because of my bearish outlook. Friday’s closing price has this sector trading precariously close to a major sell off if it’s not already started.

On a percentage bases I feel precious metals mining stocks as whole will be selling at a sharp discount in another week or three. ETF funds like the GDX, GDXJ and SIL have the most downside potential. The amount of emails I received from followers of those who have been buying more precious metals and gold stocks as price continues to fall was mind blowing.

If precious metals continue to fall on Monday and Tuesday of this week selling volume should spike as protective stops will be getting run and the individuals who are underwater with a large percentage of their portfolio in the precious metals sector could start getting margin calls and cause another washout, spike low similar to what we saw in 2008.

ETF Trading Charts:

Below are updated with Friday’s closing prices showing technical breakdowns across the board..

Sweet Sour ETF Trading Analysis:

Just to make things a little more interesting I would like to point out a couple other types of analysis.

Sweet : Through analysis of the CEF Central Fund of Canada Ltd. chart and evaluation it is clear precious metals are falling out of favor at an increased rate. This fund owns physical gold and silver bullion and investors are fleeing the fund so fast that it is now trading at a 7% discount of its asset value . While this may not seem good for metals I see it as a positive.

When everyone is running for one door after an extended moves has already taken place it tends to act as a contrarian indicator. Knowing that some of the largest percent moves in a trend takes place before reversing, I see this information as an early warning that a bottom will soon be put in place.

Sour . While the USD index has not been much help compared to 2012, I feel as though a rising dollar is likely to unfold for a couple weeks which may lend a hand to pulling the precious metals sector down.

Precious Metals ETF Trading Conclusion:

While I am starting to get bullish for a long term investment in precious metals I know that a bottom has likely not yet been made. But even if it has been, it is better to buy during a basing pattern or breakout to the upside from a basing pattern than to be underwater with a position for an extended period of time along with all the other negatives that come along with it.

I do like the idea of CEF as a long term investment when I feel the time is right. I have invested and traded it many times in the past. The key to trading the fund is to be sure you are buying it at fair value or a discount from the net asset value. You do not want to be buying it when it is trading at a 5-7% premium. The fund owns both gold and silver making it a simple diversified precious metals play.



Online Trading strategy for silver

Options greeks gamma risk and reward

Options greeks gamma risk and rewardOptions Greeks: Gamma Risk and Reward

Gamma is one of the more obscure Greeks. Delta . Vega and Theta generally get most of the attention, but Gamma has important implications for risk in options strategies that can easily be demonstrated. First, though, let's quickly review what Gamma represents.

Delta, recall, is a measure of directional risk faced by any option strategy. When you incorporate a Gamma risk analysis into your trading, however, you learn that two Delta s of equal size may not be equal in outcome. The Delta with the higher Gamma will have a higher risk (and potential reward, of course) because given an unfavorable move of the underlying, the Delta with the higher Gamma will exhibit a larger adverse change. Figure 9 reveals that the highest Gamma s are always found on at-the-money options, with the January 110 call showing a Gamma of 5.58, the highest in the entire matrix. The same can be seen for the 110 puts. The risk/reward resulting from changes in Delta are highest at this point. (For more insight, see Gamma-Delta Neutral Option Spreads .)



Online Options greeks gamma risk and reward

Tag archives binary option brokers that accept alertpay-strategies for binary options trading

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Intraday trading strategies in india pdf

Intraday trading strategies in india pdfIntraday trading strategies in india pdf

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A simple forex day trading strategy for beginners

A simple forex day trading strategy for beginnersA Simple Forex Day Trading Strategy for Beginners

Day trading is one kind of trading style in which a day trader usually opens and closes all positions in the same day. In this type of trading, traders do not hold any overnight position. It is a short term trading technique but a bit longer term than scalping. Most of the day traders use 15 minute, 30 minute or hourly charts for trading.

Trading Strategy:

There are various simple trading strategies for day trading. These simple trading strategies are based on simple charts and indicators. Simple trading strategies are suitable for short term trading as these are easy and require less time to understand. A day trader might not have much time to think after getting a trading signal. So, he/she should adopt a simple trading strategy for day trading. Before we discuss on the trading strategy, we should discuss a little on the indicators used.

Indicators used:

EMA10, EMA30 and Heiken Ashi Candlesticks.

Heiken Ashi Candlesticks:

Heiken Ashi candlesticks are quite different from normal candlesticks. Heiken Ashi candlesticks are very useful to determine short term trends and to determine buy and sell signals. The color of heiken ashi candlesticks can give us idea about bullishness and bearishness. When the candlestick is blue colored, then it is indicating bullishness. Inversely, when heiken ashi candlestick is red colored, then it is indicating bearishness. Bullish candles have only upper shadow/leg and bearish candles have lower shadow/leg only. Heiken ashi candlesticks are neutral if the real body of the candle is small and it has both upper and lower shadow/leg. Several frequent neutral candlesticks should be taken as a sign of trend reversal. Bullish and bearish heiken ashi candles have shown in the chart below.

Currency Pairs:

All major currency pairs such as EUR/USD, AUD/USD, GBP/USD, USD/CAD and USD/CHF.

Trading Session:

Overlapping of London and New York Session or first 4 hours of New York session.

Time Frame:

30 minutes.

Entry Conditions:

For long positions,

EMA10 should be above EMA30, and there should be a significant gap between these two moving averages.

Heiken ashi candles should come to the pullback zone (between EMA10 and EMA30)

A bullish heiken ashi candlestick (blue colored)

For short positions,

EMA10 should be below EMA30, and there should be a significant gap between these two moving averages.

Heiken ashi candles should come to the pullback zone (between EMA10 and EMA30)

A bearish heiken ashi candlestick (red colored)

Stop Loss:

Place a stop loss at the value of EMA30.

Or, fixed stop loss at 20 pips.

Exit Strategy:

A fixed take profit at 40 pips

Here is an example of this trading strategy in the chart of USD/CAD (given below),

This is trading strategy based on pullback trading technique. This strategy is a trend following trading strategy, which provides entry signals in the direction of the major trend. This strategy is capable to catch large profits if trailing stop or indicator based exit strategy is used to trail the profits. It will carry better result if used in favor of long term trends (such as 4 hour trend).



Online A simple forex day trading strategy for beginners

Want to explode your forex profits

Want to explode your forex profitsWant To EXPLODE Your

From the Desk of: Rod Johnson Professional Trader

Dear Traders,

Have you been searching for answers on how to become a Profitable FOREX TRADER . Have you tried and failed before?

Well, Youre NOT Alone.

Did you know that 97% of all newbie traders fail This is a horrific statistic !

To SUCCEED you must understand how the market works. What makes it tick? The markets are driven by HUMAN EMOTION .

And the 2 emotions that drive the markets are:

FEAR and GREED

If you have been trading for any time, you will have seen this phenomenon almost at regular occurrence.

When GREED is in the market, currencies, stocks and any tradable commodity rises and rises on sentiment. HUMAN Sentiment . This sentiment pushes prices in one direction as everyone gets excited about how well they are doing.

If people become too GREEDY, the market pushes currencies too far in one direction.

Then what happens?

When prices are overbought, and pushed too high… people start to worry the prices might fall, so FEAR rears its ugly head, and the market takes a turn.

As more sentiment jumps on board, the FEAR Factor GROWS and pushes the markets lower and lower until OVERSOLD … then the GREED Factor kicks in and sentiment changes as BUYERS step back into the market.

Then the cycle begins again.

This happens all the time. And will cotinine to do to so. Its part of trading. And we see it in large scale proportion like ion the Global Financial Crisis of 2008 and agiain what happened at the end of 2011 with the European Debt Crisis .

Have a llook at what happened to the US Dollar in 2008 as FEAR and PANIC set in:

In 2007 the market was cruising along nicely:

Then the GFC hit and look at what FEAR and PANIC did to the US Dollar:

But you can profit from both FEAR and GREED if you can recognise how to spot it in the market.

Have a look on a monthly Chart and see the REAL panic:

This is what we call FEAR . And it drives the market.

Look at both FEAR and GREED in play in this chart on the USD/AUD Chart. First the GFC panic drove the market down and the AUSSIE dollar lost almost 50% of its worth. BUT WHY. How can that be so? It was not sustainable.

It was mainly just FEAR from the GFC and all the media. They sky was falling in. so to speak according to reputable News Agencies. But did it??

Then when the dust settled…. Sentiment realised that they got it all wrong after all, and the GREED came back in and bought the currency up to nearly where it started!!

Classic case of FEAR and GREED at play:

The Aussie Dollar tumbled nearly 50% in a few short months !

Then the market (Human Sentiment) kicked in to push it way back up in almost as short a time.

Funny old bunch we are us humans. Talk about herd mentality. Where the herd goes, punters will follow and thats exactly what happened here.

But this is fine.

In fact its desirable…as we can PROFIT

from this if we know what we are doing.

If you can read human sentiment … you can read the market .

And the best way to read sentiment is with Japanese CandleSticks .

Invented some 400 odd years ago by a Japanese Rice Trader . he sat down and charted fluctuations in the Rice market and it showed him how to make human sentiment graphable!

And it still works just as well today as it did for him back then. Probably even better with the use of technology to aid us find the right patterns to trade.

Now at a glance, thanks to his discovery, we can view the market in a snapshot and get visible signs of what it might do in the future.

IF you want to trade FOREX … you cannot afford to be without knowing Candlesticks.

Lets have a closer a look at that titanic fall of the USD on a weekly chart at the time the GFC FEAR Factor kicked in:

Do you see the highlighted area at the top of the chart? This is a specific Candlestick Pattern, it marks a turn . or a major change in Human Sentiment.

Its called a Falling Hammer in Japanese Candlestick terminology. And it signals a market reversal .

It signals that human sentiment has turned and that price has gone too far, for now, and sentiment WAS NOT able to push price higher, in fact sentiment made price retreat !

On that last candle before the market plummeted, price went up to new highs, but could not sustain it, and retreated quickly down to near its open price.

Well this is a well-known candle formation. It marks bearish sentiment . a market turn!

Did it work. Sure did. Market plummeted after this signal.

Ok, lets look more at the SAME CHART just a little later after this signal to see if there any other markers to human sentiment:

Do You See Them.

There are 3 Falling Hammers in this big downfall, all adding to the indication that this market is going to fall and will continue to fall.

In fact there are more Japanese Candlestick indicators in the chart that I have not highlighted.

Now bear in mind this is basically a 12 month trading period. But there they are, plain to see WHEN you know what you are looking for!

Do you think some information like this may prove beneficial to your trading?

Being able to look into the future, to predict the future …..what do you think that will do to your profits.

Have a look at this short video where I explain how I use Candlestick charting to trade and make profits:

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A 400 YEAR old trading Methodology. Surely it cant work any longer!

You might think that hey, but youd be wrong. DEAD WRONG.

Japanese Candlesticks are hands down the best analytical tool for assessing Human Market Sentiment.

And sentiment drives the market as you now know.

Once you know how to understand Candlestick charting properly, and apply them successfully to FOREX…. you can watch your profits EXPLODE !

Fantastic Book! Helping me enormously

This is a fantastic book. The way you explain the patterns is second to none. You really explain the human emotion behind it all and why the formations look the way they do, and I find that important to understand. Since reading your book my profits have skyrocketed!



Online Want to explode your forex profits

Trading strategy tester

Trading strategy testerTesting of Trading Strategies in MetaTrader 4

Your Expert Advisor has been written. It is at this point that a very important stage begins: the expert must be debugged and optimized for the market to earn profits.

Testing on historical data is an essential prerequisite for a profitable automated trading system to be created. Every trader knows that manual testing of the Expert Advisor is a quite labour-intensive and long process. This is why many traders use special software tools for testing.

A visual strategy tester is now embedded in the MetaTrader ® 4 Client Terminal along with the MQL4 ™ programming language. Testing and optimization of experts is not a challenge anymore!

Our first strategy tester appeared in the online trading platform MetaQuotes as far back as 2002. Since then we have gained much experience: created two new online trading platforms MetaTrader 3 and MetaTrader 4, developed a brand-new strategy tester, embedded genetic optimizer and visual testing into it.

Advantages of Strategy Tester in MetaTrader 4:

Flexible test settings

Any optimizable parameter of the expert - balance, profit factor, maximal drawdown - and any timeframe (if historical data is available) can be tested.

Reports about testing results

For better and quicker analysis of experts' test and optimization results, different kinds of reports are embedded in the strategy tester. The graphic display of test results demonstrates balance changes during expert testing. It is always possible to analyze each specific trade separately, if necessary.

Besides, a combined report is generated after each test. It includes a mass of statistical data about testing parameters and trading activities of the expert. Any desired parameters, starting with the quality of the modeled history and finishing with the expected profit in the next trade (mathematical expectation), can be found there.

The possibility to monitor tester work by logs from journal is provided, as well.

Visualization of strategy testing

Visualization allows monitoring of the expert testing process. One can see directly in the chart how the automated trading system trades. All this makes it possible to implement advanced standards in testing of Expert Advisors and to analyze the expert's behavior more precisely.

Use of genetic algorithms in testing

The idea of genetic algorithms was borrowed from animate nature and consists in artificial construction of the evolutionary process. The ultimate goal of this process is to find optimal solution for a complicated problem. Genetic algorithms enable quick and effective search of a huge amount of combinations during expert optimization. Use of genetic algorithms saves optimization time for automated trading systems by hundreds or even thousands of t imes.

Different modes of bars modeling

For testing to be precise, tick data is required. But it is often impossible to get tick-by-tick history for a sequence of years. Traders, as a rule, have only one-minute data available. This is why there are three modes of bars modeling available in the strategy tester.

The choice of the bars modeling mode essentially influences the adequacy of the expert test and optimization results. Thus, one can quickly test the expert using the fastest mode of modeling on historical data. However, the testing error can be rather significant. At every-tick modeling, in fact, the large amount of data to be processed takes much more time. But the results will be more precise and reliable.

All the above advantages of the visual strategy tester enable the trader to optimize his or her automated trading strategy to meet market requirements.

Benefit from the visual strategy tester and maximize your profits. No matter whether you are going to automate your trading system or not, it must be tested and optimized!

Filter strategies by volatility, greeks, distance to breakeven, technical performance and much more

Oscreener allows you to backtest option strategies with historical performance metric for strategy analysis and optimisation.

Monitor your strategies, manage your risk, save screens and set notifications from your Oscreener dashboard

Option trading made so simple:

a) Select screening parameters from the left menu

b) Specify stop loss (%) from back tester menu

c) Test your strategy and tweak many other parameters.

Optimize your strategy by choosing the right strike price:

Choosing the right strike price when trading options can determine the odds of success vs failure in long run.

- HIGH out-of-the-money option strikes > lead to HIGH profit vs loss ratio > but LOW probability of successful trade

- LOW in-the-money option strikes > lead to LOW profit vs loss ratio > but HIGH probability of successful trade

Oscreener Backtester provides probability metrics to help traders identify optimal strategies without risking any capital.

For the active trader

Oscreener works with predefined groups and all optionable stocks(ETFs and Indices)

Oscreener has a rich set of screening features including max risk, target return, distance to breakeven,

greeks, implied volatility and even related stock technical analysis.

The following option strategies are currently available to backtest:

Backtest Bull Put Spread option strategy (Neutral to Bullish trend)

Backtest Bear Call Spread option strategy (Neutral to Bearish trend)

Backtest Bull Call Spread option strategy (Neutral to Bullish trend)

Backtest Bear Put Spread option strategy (Neutral to Bearish trend)

Backtest Long Put option strategy (Bearish trend)

Backtest Long Call option strategy (Bullish trend)

Backtest Short Put option strategy (Neutral to Bullish trend)

The following screening parameters are supported for backtesting option strategies:

1) Options Strategy Screening parameters:

a. Specify individual equity or create equities portfolio or screen entire options market and backtest your option strategy.

b. Option Strategy Return (in %) also known as 'return on risk'.

c. Budget per strategy or 'max risk' (in US dollars)

d. Expiration periods

e. Front Volatility (Implied Volatility)

g Trading volume - Minimum number of contracts traded on a single leg of selected options strategy

h. Distance to breakeven in % at each option strategy

i. Equity Daily, Weekly, Monthly, Quarterly Technical Performance in %

j. Equity Technical 5,20,50,100 Day Moving Average above/below in %.

if a black candle has been closed, what is the probability of forming a white one? This, of course, depends on a great variety of factors, but let us refer to statistics.

''We will use this function to draw the candle color distribution according to values of indicators WPR and RSI''.

My question is lets say I have RSI indicator producing buy-sell signal can I do a test to find most profitable consecutive white or black or black and white candle or white and black candle occured after buy or sell signal? How can I extentend this little further:

How should I examine the relationship of the consecutive black candles or white candles or blackand white candles close to high or close to low and open to high or open to low? Your feed backs are welcome in particular Mladen and MrTool?



Online Trading strategy tester