Binary options strategies that work

Binary options strategies that workBinary Options Strategies That Work

Binary Options Strategies That Work

Binary Options Strategies That Work

This is the best binary option strategy, profits can be made in as little as one hour. With Pro Signals you can make up to 75% per trade Without Complicated Formulas.

One of the powerful use the SIGNAL strategy benefits ( Read detail at picture )

Exchanging binary options has come to be a prevalent route for moguls to create some incredible sums of money on the web. Since the aforementioned options will bring about a decided beforehand payout, binary options includes no mystery. Be that as it may, there are certain tips that ought to be emulated for fruitful changing of binary options on the web. Discovering a reputable intermediary could help traders be increasingly auspicious. Discovering a strategy for leading binary options exchanges could likewise be helpful. Binary options ought to be changed day by day for the best effects.

As per current condition, traders are moving from provincial exchanging to binary changing on the grounds that it benefits well in short time period.

All traders may as well study tips and tricks regarding this binary alternative changing generally it is not conceivable to with stand in this changing field. To uphold stable in exchanging field, you need to inch toward getting prepared by some authority from binary barter. Apprentices can peruse progressively about binary changing options in articles and discussions accessible in web. Certain fledglings might find troubles in studying specialized terms. Watch the business decidedly so you will study the ups and downs of the business. So, binary options signals is good to start.

The Spread Strategy

Increase Strategy is a true exchanging strategy that has been disentangled by Binary Trading options. In tried and true exchanging options you utilize the Spread or Straddle system to purchase CALLS then offer PUTS on the same Asset. Then again, in Binary Trading options you cant put a Call and set barter for the same Asset unless you are utilizing two diverse bartering Brokers which isnt prescribed.

The essential thought of augmentation in Binary Options is to find two Assets in which the Trend line is Up for one and Down for that other. On the Asset the Trend lines are up you situated a CALL exchange on it throughout the Asset in which the Trend lines are down you put a PUT exchange onto it in the meantime.

Increase system is reputed to be “supporting your wager”. Assuming that both exchanges close In-the-Money you can get a 81% payout on both of the aforementioned. A $100 Trade Price on every one of the exchanges might make a $162 benefit. Then again, if an individual exchange closes Out-of-the-Money youve minimized your misfortune to $19; $100 misfortune on a specific exchange and $81 benefit on the other exchange. Then again, if both exchanges are Out-of-the-Money you might have a $162 misfortune.

Online Binary options strategies that work

Open alive forex trading account with fxdd

Open alive forex trading account with fxddOpen A Live Forex Trading Account with FXDD

You are one step away from an FXDD Forex trading account

Regardless of your skill-level, strategy, or trading size, FXDD offers an optimal solution for online Forex trading. No cost to apply. No hidden fees. Our application process is secure, fast, and simple.


For an account opened by one individual. Takes less than 10 minutes to apply. Please have your ID and recent utility bill on hand.

Joint Account

For an account opened by more than one individual. Takes less than 10 minutes to apply. Please have your ID and recent utility bill on hand. Every Joint Application must be supported by a Customer Agreement Form signed in hard copy bearing the signatures of TWO/ALL individuals on the same page.

Online Open alive forex trading account with fxdd

Us dollar index

Us dollar indexCurrencies at a Glance

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Forex seminar

Forex seminarForex Seminar

Who really benefits from attending a Forex seminar. To the extent you happen to be an individual who is intrigued by the currency markets that is interested in making a lot of money — then attending a seminar of this kind can really help solidify your knowledge. Even if you are somebody who is brand-new to the world of foreign exchange trading, this is something that can really help you learn a lot more about the way the world works. Very few people truly understand the power and impact of the foreign exchange market place. That is because the evening news and most newspapers only focus on the equity markets.

There are generally two ways of looking at a Forex seminar to make a determination as to whether or not its something worth attending. If you already happen to be somebody who is somewhat familiar with the way in which currency markets operate, then a seminar of this kind can really be valuable because it lets you network with other like-minded people and you also get to learn more tactics and strategies.

Currency trading can sometimes be a very lonely activity. For those who are self-directed traders operating out of a home or apartment, you are usually focused on the computer screen and have very little interaction with other people. By attending a Forex seminar, you are giving yourself the opportunity to speak to others who do what you do on a daily basis. This is not to suggest that you will suddenly start speaking to these people a dozen times during the trading day — but you will at least have other people who you can talk to about different things from time to time.

Another benefit is the fact that you can pick up some new tactics and strategies that can ultimately help you really become a better trader in the financial markets. Even though all of the information and knowledge that will be shared as part of a Forex seminar will focus exclusively on the foreign exchange market place, many of these basic concepts can also be applied to other financial markets as well. In other words, some of the trading philosophy is applicable in other markets as well.

Whether or not you ultimately decide to attend a seminar of this kind, you should ask yourself whether or not you are the kind of person who is really serious about maximizing the profits that can be made by investing in foreign currencies. Because really, if this is something that you treat as a hobby, then you may not necessarily get as much from a seminar somebody else whos really serious about turning this into a professional moneymaking enterprise.

So what exactly can you expect to learn if you attend a Forex seminar? You will learn a wide variety of different things that are both philosophical in nature and are also very strategic and tactical in nature. You really need a combination of both theory and real-world application. One of the best parts of this type of seminar is the fact that you can see actual Forex trades being made at a discussion about what caused a particular trade to be made and an analysis of the results of that trade.

If you happen to be concerned about the potential cost of attending a Forex seminar, dont worry. Not only can you attend this type of seminar in-person, but perhaps more importantly, there are now websites that provide you with a virtual access to the information that you would get by attending a seminar of this kind. You therefore owe it to yourself to seriously consider signing up to learn more about the foreign exchange market place via a seminar.

Online Forex seminar

Open demo account metatrader4demo

Open demo account metatrader4demoOpen Demo Account: MetaTrader 4 Demo

This procedure is meant only for the clients who are not registered in Private Area.

After downloading and installing MetaTrader 4 terminal perform the following 5 easy steps to open a new demo account.

1. Start the trading terminal MetaTrader 4 PC

2. Enter personal details

Click on "File" of the main menu. A drop-down menu will appear. Select "Open an account" from the drop-down menu to call out the first window of the account opening procedure: "Personal details".

Online Open demo account metatrader4demo

Forex1minute scalping

Forex1minute scalpingFirst the chart set up.

The term less is more has never been more relevant when it’s applied to a one minute scalping system . For this chart set up all you need is standard Bollinger bands and a 100 period exponential moving average.

Firstly you need to create a rule to determine direction. Our rule here is determined by the 100 moving average.

For a buy signal both the upper Bollinger band and the middle moving average of the Bollinger band must be above the 100 exponential moving average. For a stronger buy signal all three of the Bollinger bands should be above the 100 exponential average.

For a sell signal both the lower Bollinger band and the middle moving average of the Bollinger band must be below the 100 exponential moving average. For a stronger sell signal all three of the Bollinger bands should be below the 100 exponential average.

Practice makes perfect

There are things to look for which will become very apparent as you trade this in real time yourself. Make sure you test out this system on a demo account before you trade it for real, and make sure you get a feel for when the best trades might come. One of the things you might want to look for are the tightening of the Bollinger bands after a change in direction, often a small impulsive push comes right afterwards.

The entry signal

Once you have determined if the price is in buy or sell mode you will then be looking to enter a trade. This system takes trades in the direction of the Bollinger bands into the extremes. So for instance on the chart below, buying mode has been established because both the upper Bollinger band and the middle Bollinger average are above the 100 exponential moving average. What you are then looking for is a candle to close up above the middle Bollinger band average. It’s important this is a bull candle, if the candle crosses the middle average but closes as a down candle you need to ignore this and wait for an up candle.

Once an up candle has formed you are looking for the price to break beyond the high of this candle. Take a look at the example on this chart. The first highlighted area shows a candle closing up, which then moves higher on the open of the subsequent candle. This would be where you enter the trade. Your stoploss would be placed at either the last low in the price, or at the lower Bollinger band. I’ve shown this entry and stoploss level with two small yellow lines.

This is now where practice comes into play. To keep your risk to a minimum you need to be fast and efficient at moving your stoploss up under the price. What you are looking for is the price to continue and approach or touch the upper Bollinger band. Once it moves towards the upper Bollinger band you need to move your stoploss up to the middle Bollinger band level. This will remove most of the risk from the trade. If the trade moves up sharply you may want to place your stoploss at breakeven right away (actual entry point). With practice you get a feel for the correct place to put your stoploss to allow your trade freedom to move.

Often after the Bollinger bands have contracted price breaks out with a sharp move. If you are quick and get your stop to breakeven you can look to exit this trade somewhere between one or two times the risk (distance between your entry and initial stoploss). Ideally, if you risked 10 points you want to be taking between 10 and 20 points profit from a trade. If the move has been sharp you may want to try and lock in some profits, as often it can retrace quickly. Start moving your stoploss up from breakeven (or from the middle Bollinger) and trail it underneath the low of every candle that closes up.

The next highlighted area on the above chart shows a sell trade. Once again you are looking for the lower Bollinger band and the middle Bollinger average to push below the 100 exponential moving average. Then you are looking for a candle that closes down, and the entry is triggered when the low of this candle is broken. Your stoploss is placed at either the last small high in the price, or at the middle Bollinger level, or at your maximum you are willing to risk on the trade. Bear in mind you want to keep the risk as small as possible on these trades to make this work. Once the price has moved down towards touching the lower Bollinger band you need to get your stop quickly to breakeven. Then either start to trail it down locking in your profit, or closing the trade between one or two times your risk.

Another working example

On the next example both Bollinger’s move below the 100 exponential average, you then get a down candle which triggers a sell trade. As the price starts to push down to the lower Bollinger band you get your stop quickly to the breakeven level. If you are fast enough and have practiced the system, it’s possible you may have closed out for one multiple of your risk. At worst you should have been stopped out at breakeven.

The direction then switches and both Bollinger’s push above the 100 exponential average, confirming buying mode. Highlighted on the chart are the first candles which close up after the Bollinger’s move above the 100 exponential average. The break of the high of the up candle is your entry. Because the last low is quite far away I would suggest placing your stoploss at the middle Bollinger average as the price starts to break in your trade direction. The price quickly moves towards your upper Bollinger band and at this point is around 1.5 times your risk. Here you can either close out for a profit, or trail your stoploss under the low of each one minute candle until the price reverses and closes the trade. You might get another few points reward doing this.

Advanced techniques

You will notice on the chart above that price continued up after the first trade. When you are first learning this system I would suggest you only take the first trade in any new direction. As you become more aware of how this system behaves, you might want to use the same entry and exit techniques to trade continuations of the trend. If it is a strong move and the price is above the middle Bollinger, every consequent touch of the outer Bollinger bands can lead to a profitable move which fits with your risk.

I would suggest you set up a chart with the indicators as shown. Leave it open on your desktop and follow the idea visually for a few days. Even without placing a trade you can get a feel for how this works, and you will see where the opportunities are when the price touches the extremes at the Bollinger bands. Only then should you start to trade this on a demo account, and only after youve produced a few weeks of consistent profits in your demo should you be tempted to try and trade this for real.

There are tools available for certain broker trading platforms (such as Interactive Brokers ) which will help manage your stoploss is and exit points for you. You can set them up to complete tasks, such as move your stoploss 2 points, by clicking the software once to perform the action. They can also enter a trade and automatically place a stoploss at your maximum risk level at the same time. Tools like this are invaluable when trading such a fast-moving system. It allows you to focus on the trade/chart and manage it with one click of your mouse.

If your broker doesn’t allow for the connection of third-party tools you can also try software like uBot (Google it). This is software which records any actions you make on your PC browser and saves them as scripts. For instance you could have one set up which places a trade and your maximum stoploss with one click, then you could have another set up which moves your stoploss by X amounts of points each time you click, and another which closes your position. Fast-moving trading systems need some sort of automation to help manage positions.

I hope my explanation of this system is clear, any questions don’t be afraid to ask in the comments.

daytradingsite/wp-content/uploads/2014/02/Day-Trading-System-For-Scalping-1-Minute-Charts. pdf

Thanks for your respond, increase.

The rules are here :

1. To take SHORT position :

- Red arrow of the zigandzag indicator occur on top

- PA (Price Action) must be below MA 34

- Short trend (up bar) and Long trend (down bar) of iGentorLSMAmust be red colour and in one line vertical

2. To take BUY position :

- Green arrow of the zigandzag indicator occur on bottom

- PA (Price Action) must be above MA 34

- Short trend (up bar) and Long trend (down bar) of iGentorLSMAmust be green colour and in one line vertical

3. MA 100 just for make sure that the trend is fix

4. To exit position according to your target point or wait until appear :

- Green arrow of zigandzag if you enter SHORT/SELL

- Red arrow of zigandzag if you enter BUY/LONG

5. You can place stop loss about max 30 point from your open position.

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You are welcome to the Forex Forum Nigeria serving as a virtual salon for communication of traders of all levels. Forex is a dynamically developing financial market which is open 24 hours a day. Anyone can get access to this market via a brokerage company. On this forum you can discuss the numerous advantages of trading on the currency market and all aspects of online trading on MetaTrader4 and MetaTrader5 platforms.

Every forumite can join a discussion of various issues, including those related to Forex but not limited to. The forum has been designed for sharing opinions and helpful information and is open for both professionals and beginners. Mutual assistance and tolerance are highly appreciated. If you would like to share you experience with others or deepen your knowledge of trading craft, you are most welcome to the forum threads dedicated to trading discussions.

Forex Forum Nigeria – Dialogue between brokers and traders (about brokers)

In order to be successful on Forex, it is crucial to choose a brokerage company with due diligence. Make sure you broker is really reliable! Thus you will be impervious to many risks and will make profitable trades on Forex. On the forum a rating of brokers is represented; it is based on comments left by their customers. Post your opinion about the brokerage company you work with, it will help other traders avoid mistakes and choose a good broker.

On this forum you can talk about not only trading issues, but any other topics you like. Offtopping is allowed in a special thread too! Humour, philosophy, social problems or practical wisdom – converse about anything you are interested in, including forex trading if you like!

Bonuses for communication on Forex Forum Nigeria

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Online Forex1minute scalping

Trading weekly stock options-4tips you should know!

Trading weekly stock options-4tips you should know!Trading Weekly Stock Options 4 Tips You Should Know!

Are you interested in learning how you can trade weekly options?

Well, I have a great guide for you to help you be able to do that. However, before you do, make sure you read the tips below and then download your FREE report .

Weekly options are available on all the usual stocks and indexes, such as the SP 500 Index (SPX), along with the major exchange-traded funds (ETFs), such as the Financial Spider Select XLF.

Weekly options are also available on some of the most widely traded equities such as, includes Apple Inc. (Nasdaq: AAPL), Exxon Mobile Inc. (NYSE:XOM ), and JPMorgan Chase Co. (NYSE: JPM). The list of stocks and futures that are traded regularly change.

Information with regard to availability are listed on the CBOE web site .

Weekly Options Tips

Trade weekly options when you are looking for a short term movement in a financial instrument

Trading weekly options have many benefits. The options have a shorter duration than standard options which expire every 3rd Friday of the month. Shorter dated options will cost less than longer dated options, because there is less time value which generally drives up the price of an option. You should trade weekly options when you are looking for short term movements in a market.

Use weekly options to take advantage of volatility around an economic event or earnings release

Weekly options can be specifically valuable around economic data releases or earnings releases. Because you can keep your premium to a minimum, theres probably no better way to maximize the power o leverage within the generic options arena.

Trade weekly options when you need to hedge your portfolio

If you have a portfolio of stocks and options you might be able to offset some of your exposure with weekly options. You can purchase insurance or short-term protection for your stocks.

Access Your Free eBook To Sizzling Weekly Options Trades!

34-page eBook teaching you what strategies work best with weekly options

The cost will be low than standard options with more than a week to expiry. Additionally, to hedge your exposure to the market you can purchase weekly puts on the major indices to offset potential losses on your portfolio.

Generate short term income by selling covered calls

You can also sell covered calls on weeklys. Although the income you receive will be less than a longer term option, your waiting time until expiration will be a lot shorter.

Weekly Options Specifications

The Chicago Board of Options Exchange offers three different types of weekly options, along with weekly settlement data and volume/open interest information. Some of the options they offer have morning settlements while others offer PM settlement.

Weekly options are traded using American-style exercise features, which make then exercisable at any point prior to the expiration date. On expiration, the buyer has the right but not the obligation to receive the underlying instrument.

Liquidity on weekly options is robust, with the average weekly volume for the new weekly options increasing above 300,000 contracts by November 2010.

Your weekly options Edge

If you want to know all the ways on how to trade weekly options successfully, we have a my quick start weekly options eBook that you can download for for free .

Its time for you to stop sitting on the sidelines wishing about all the money you can make and start learning and understanding how to make money trading weekly options. Well show you how.

Access Your Free eBook To Sizzling Weekly Options Trades!

Online Trading weekly stock options-4tips you should know!

The next financial planning seminar

The next financial planning seminarThe next Financial Planning Seminar

We wish to announce the next Financial Planning Seminar.

Presenters: Jovin Shen, Online Trading Academy, and

Bill Gruver, School of Engineering Science at SFU.

Time and Place: Monday, December 5 at Noon in Room 7500 F, Education Building, SFU Burnaby Campus.

The next Financial Planning seminar will feature Jovin Shen from the Online Trading Academy, and Bill Gruver from the School of Engineering Science at SFU. Jovin Shen will speak to the issues of long-term wealth sustainability, income generation, and strategic portfolio management. Bill Gruver will discuss how he has benefited from using technical analysis to build wealth in his RSP and evaluate recommendations made by financial advisors on his behalf. The presenters will speak to the needs of both retirees and employees.

Online The next financial planning seminar

Investing in the silver market

Investing in the silver marketInvesting in the Silver Market

Silver Futures Trading

Silver has often been called the poor mans gold, taking a back seat to gold when traders looked for a safe-haven investment. Silver is considered a precious metal but not as rare as gold. While silver prices have always been far below the value placed on gold, prices of the two metals have generally tracked together as the factors that affect gold also tend to affect silver. Silver, however, has a wider range of uses and is priced for its industrial uses in electronics, photography, jewelry and elsewhere in addition to its financial role, increasing its significance for an investment portfolio.

Like gold, there are a number of vehicles for investing in silver in addition to silver futures and options. Those who choose to invest in physical silver can buy silver bullion, silver coins, silver medallions or silver certificates backed by silver in vaults.

Silver traders who prefer to express their interest in silver prices through stocks can invest in mining companies including penny stocks or in silver exchange-traded funds.

Silver Trading Information

Like gold, silver is traded at a number of exchanges around the world, including Sydney, Tokyo, Dubai and the worlds major silver futures exchange, the Comex division of the New York Mercantile Exchange (NYMEX).

The full-size NYMEX silver futures contract is 5,000 troy ounces of refined silver, not less than .999 fineness, in cast bars weighing 1,000 or 1,100 troy ounces each.

Contract months are the next two calendar months, any January, March, May and September within a 23-month period and any July and December falling within a 60-month period beginning with the current month.

Silver Prices are quoted in dollars per ounce, with the minimum price fluctuation one-half cent per ounce or $25 per contract.

Straddles or spreads are traded in tenths of a cent, equivalent to $5 per contract.

NYMEX also trades a half-size miNY silver futures contract. However, activity has been limited and may not be liquid enough for active traders.

A report on silver warehouse stocks provides a daily amount of silver inventory on hand for possible delivery on futures contracts. A decrease in inventories can provide support for silver prices to move higher.

Another venue for trading silver futures is NYSE Euronext, which purchased the metals complex including mini - and full-size silver futures contracts that were traded at the Chicago Board of Trade prior to the CBOTs merger into CME Group.

Silver Trading Signals

Newly mined metal provides most of the needed supply of silver, with much of it coming as a byproduct from mining for other metals. About 75 percent of the worlds annual supply of silver comes from mining production, with the remainder coming from government sales of silver stocks and from recycled scrap, including what is termed dishoarding as silver coins, jewelry and other silver products are melted down.

The top silver producing countries are Peru, Mexico, China, Chile and Australia.

On the demand side, about 54 percent of the worlds supply of silver is used in industrial applications, including a variety of uses in the electrical and electronic sector. Photographic demand continues to decrease, mostly due to lower consumer demand for color film because of further inroads from digital photography.

Jewelry fabrication continues to hold up well despite higher and more volatile silver prices, with noteworthy increases in silver demand for jewelry and silverware in China. See how VantagePoint Software can predict the silver market with up to 86% accuracy* - Free Silver Forecasts now .

Trading Tips for Silver Traders

If you trade silver, you want to watch gold and anything that influences gold prices as the two markets tend to move together. Particularly important for the prices of both precious metals are the government economic reports such as quarterly gross domestic product, monthly Consumer Price Index and Producer Price Index figures that measure the inflation rate and any other reports that reflect the countrys economic growth. Economic reports from other nations can also provide clues about silver demand.

Watch the spread between the gold and silver prices to move to one extreme or the other and expect it to come back to normal, buying silver and selling gold at the high end of the spread, for example.

Silver is an excellent commodity to have on hand if you are expecting high inflation and/or chaotic economic conditions because silvers lower values provide more flexibility for purchasing smaller items. For that reason, some people prefer to hold silver coins.

Be careful when holding silver futures overnight. In the volatile market conditions that have marked silver trading in recent years, the price of silver can make big moves from one day to the next. An unexpected crisis can occur at any time anywhere in the world, causing traders to look to the gold or silver markets to preserve their wealth. It is not uncommon for silver prices to open 20 or 30 cents higher or lower than the previous days close $1,000-$1,500 per contract and silver futures have been known to move $1 or even $2 intraday $5,000 to $10,000 per contract. Thats hardly a poor mans contract.

Silver Trading Resources

There are multiple sources for finding news and information about purchasing silver as an investment or trading silver for profit opportunities. Most major newspapers and other financial news sources that cover metals report the pricing and sales of silver. Government sources, exchanges and brokerage firms all offer many resources for silver traders.

One of the major sources of information is The Silver Institute, an international association of miners, refiners, fabricators, and wholesalers of silver and silver products established in 1971 to promote the interests of silver worldwide

Silver Trading History

Civilizations have been using silver going back 6,000 years, as silver deposits were on or near the earths surface, and the durable, malleable metal was used for jewelry and other artifacts that have been recovered. Mesopotamian merchants used silver as a form of exchange as early as 700 B. C. and the ancient Greek drachma and Roman denarius coins were made from silver. And then there is the English shilling "sterling," originally denoting a specific weight of silver, which has come to mean excellence.

Silver played an important role in the early days of the United States when Congress based the currency on the silver dollar and its fixed relationship to gold. Silver was used in U. S. coinage until being discontinued in 1965.

Silver gained a more important economic function as an industrial raw material at the beginning of the 20th century as new processes for photography, jewelry and electronics began to develop.

Online Investing in the silver market

Weekly option trading strategy

Weekly option trading strategyStock options, derivatives of the underlying equity, are traded from the weekly options list. Weekly options expiration occurs each Friday of the week. Option weeklys provide an opportunity for traders and investors alike. Investors may choose to buy or sell puts to protect a stock position. Fund managers may choose to buy index options to protect their entire portfolio. Traders may choose to buy or sell weekly options based on upcoming news or earnings announcements. Determining the right option trading strategies and specific stock to trade has become an integral part of our weekly investment decisions. Choosing the best stock to trade has been a key element in our success! This is something we excel at. We offer, via our newsletter, one new excellent trade recommendation per week.

Online Weekly option trading strategy

What is acarry trade strategy

What is acarry trade strategyHow to Trade the Carry Trade Strategy Part 1

In my opinion Forex Capital Markets (FXCM ) offers the most comprehensive services, and best trading experience in the forex industry.

In our last lesson we continued our free forex trading course with a look at a specific example of how interest rates move the market. In today's lesson we are going to look at one of the more popular strategies employed by currency traders looking to take advantage of interest rate differentials, the carry trade.

As we learned about in our lessons on how rollover works in module two of this course, when holding a position past 5pm NY time traders earn interest when they are long the currency with the higher interest rate. Conversely, when traders are long the currency with the lower interest rate they pay interest when holding a position past 5pm NY time.

Like the US investor in the example from our last lesson who took his US Dollars and invested them in New Zealand Bonds to earn a higher return, currency traders can also take advantage of countries which offer higher interest rates. Luckily for us however taking advantage of interest rate differences between countries is generally much easier for currency traders who can do so with a simple click of the mouse.

To help demonstrate this lets look at the interest rates as set by the central banks for the main currencies which we are interested in. As you can see here and as we went over in our last lesson, rates as set by the Federal Reserve in the United States are currently at 2%, and rates as set by the Bank of New Zealand are currently at 8.25%.

Now lets bring up a screen shot of the simple dealing rates window of the FXCM platform and locate the New Zealand Dollar/US Dollar Currency pair. If we buy this currency pair, then we are long the New Zealand Dollar which is the higher yielding currency, and short the US Dollar which is the lower yielding currency. With this in mind we earn $10 per contract held past 5pm NY time as shown in the Roll B column of the simple dealing rates window. Conversely, if we sell this currency pair then we are short the higher yielding New Zealand Dollar and Long the lower yielding US Dollar, so we pay $15 dollars per contract held past 5pm NY Time, as shown in the roll s column of the window.

As you can see here, we can take advantage of the higher interest rates in New Zealand by buying New Zealand Dollars and Selling US Dollars with the click of the mouse, and without having to go through the trouble of figuring out how to buy New Zealand bonds as we would have had to in our last lesson.

Because of the simplicity of this strategy and the fact that in addition to the interest that one earns by being long the currency with the higher interest rate there is the opportunity for capital appreciation should the higher yielding currency move in one's favor, this is a hugely popular strategy. This is important to us as traders not only because it is a strategy that we may want to consider trading at some point, but also because a huge amount of capital flows in and out of currencies based on this strategy, making it a major market mover in both the long and short term time frames.

Lastly, it is important to us as traders to understand that when a trader is long the carry, meaning that he or she is long the currency pair with the higher interest rate, then that trader is normally trading with the wind at their back as they are getting paid every day they hold their position, regardless of what happens to the exchange rate. Conversely when a trader is short the carry, meaning that they are long the currency pair with the lower interest rate, then they are generally trading with the wind in their face as they are paying money every day, regardless of what happens with the exchange rate.

Thats our lesson for today, in our next lesson we will continue our discussion of the carry trade with a look at the role that leverage plays in the strategy, as well as some other factors that need to be considered so we hope to see you in that lesson.

As always if you have any questions or comments please leave them in the comments section below, and good luck with your trading!

For more on the carry trade, try the links below:

Magic's Carry Trade Series Here on InformedTrades

Other Links to Help You Learn About the Carry Trade

Online What is acarry trade strategy

Is this karen supertrader story legit

Is this karen supertrader story legitIS this Karen Supertrader story legit?

IS this Karen Supertrader story legit?

Joined Oct 2013

Is Karen legit. I certainly believe she is, since I understand the strategy she is using: strangles at around 5%-10% Prob of expiring ITM; in other words, the probability of profit is around 84% (or 1 std deviation).

There are other posts interested in knowing if consistent income can be made in trading. With options, you can achieve consistent income far more easily than trading equities, futures, etc. which are directional trades (and therefore have a prob of profit of 50% at best).

How do I know? Because I am using options (similar to Karen) to make consistent income on a Weekly basis. It can be done.

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Understanding forex rollover credits and debits

Understanding forex rollover credits and debitsUnderstanding Forex Rollover Credits And Debits

Trades made with brokers in the spot foreign exchange (forex of FX) market, are subject to receiving interest or being debited interest, if positions are held overnight. This is known as rollover interest. This article will explain why rollover occurs and how traders can profit (or understand the debits) from it. We'll also take a look at the tax considerations of rollover interest.

What Is Rollover Interest?

Rollover interest is paid or debited to traders who have open currency positions at 5 p. m. EST each day the trade is open. Trades opened before 5 p. m. EST and held until after this time, are considered to be held overnight and, thus, are subject to interest credit or debits depending on the position the trader has open.

Whether a credit or debit is applied to the trader's account is determined by which country's currency the trader bought or sold relative to another country's currency. All currencies trade in pairs. meaning one country's currency is always relative to another country's currency. An example of this is the EUR/USD. Therefore, the amount of interest received by the trader, for holding the EUR/USD pair overnight, will be determined by the difference in interest rates prevailing in each location when the rollover occurs.

In most cases, retail forex brokers automatically roll over trades. Retail brokers do this to prevent traders, most of whom are speculators. from having to deliver actual currency to the party on the other side of the trade. Settlement. which is the day the trader would have to deliver actual currency to the person on the opposing side of the trade, is two days after the transaction took place. With brokers rolling over positions, trades can be left open without actual delivery of the full value of the currency position taking place. If rollover did not occur, the trader would be required to deliver the face value of the currency. This is because the forex market is where we trade contracts in which one currency is exchanged for another; this is to be delivered in two business days. (For more on settlement and other forex topics, take a look at our Forex Walkthrough Charts . Economics . Trading . or you could start at Beginner .)

Rollover interest is paid or debited based on the total value of the trade, and not simply the margin used for the trade. For example, if a trader is holding one lot of EUR/USD, he or she will be credited or debited interest on $100,000 (the full value of one lot), and not only the margin put up for the trade.

It is also important to note that rollover is not a charge for using leverage. It is a common misconception that if rollover is debited from a trader this is the cost of the leverage that a broker provided for this trader. This is not the case. The debit or credit is based on the difference between the interest rates of the countries involved in the currency pair the trader is holding.

Credits and Debits to Trading Account

Credits or debits, in interest, are paid based on which currency, in the currency pair, the trader has purchased and whether that country's currency has a higher or lower interest rate attached to it. For example, if a trader purchases the USD/JPY pair, meaning they buy the U. S. dollar and sells the Japanese yen, and the dollar has a higher interest rate (2%) than the yen (0.5%), then the trader will be credited the interest rate differential - roughly 1.5% a year (unleveraged). If the trader sells the USD/JPY, meaning they sell the dollar and buys the yen, then they would be debited the interest rate differential between the two countries. (Learn about factors that influence interest rates in Forces Behind Interest Rates . )

Simply put, a trader will be paid interest each day that they hold the higher interest-bearing currency, or will be debited each day that they hold the lower interest-bearing currency. Countries' interest rates are determined by a number of economic factors and change over time.

Because banks around the world are generally closed on Saturday's and Sunday's, the interest for these days is applied on Wednesday. This means that if a trade is left open on Wednesday and is held after 5 p. m. EST, that trade will be credited or debited for an extra two days of interest.

Brokers automatically do all of this for traders. A credit or debit will simply be shown in the account for each position that was open at 5 p. m. EST. This could happen through a debit or credit in the trader's account, normally under a "rollover " or "roll" heading. It may also be debited or credited to a trader by way of an adjustment in the entry price.

Profiting from Rollover

Receiving rollover is an additional income stream over and above regular capital gains. For this reason, trades can be set up not only to take advantage of capital gains, but also interest income. Day traders can allow positions to stay open slightly longer to gain interest income, if they are long a higher interest rate bearing currency. Also, swing traders and investors may decide to only take longer term positions in currency pairs where they can be long the higher interest rate bearing currency.

Additionally, if a trader expects that a currency pair will remain relatively flat for the year, or finish the year around current values, they can take advantage of the interest rate differential on the currencies, and make a handsome profit, if in fact the currencies do stay around the same value (this also assumes interest rates don't change). If an investor goes along the EUR/JPY believing they will close the year at roughly the same value, they can make a large profit by using forex market leverage. A 2% profit due to the interest rate differential could mean a 20% return if 10:1 leverage is used. This also means the investor could lose 2% (or 20% or more if leveraged at this level or higher) just by holding the lower interest bearing currency for a year.

Tax Considerations

Rollover interest is much like the interest paid to a bank account balance. Thus, rollover is taxed as interest income, and should be kept track of separately from capital gains for tax purposes. Brokers show interest received and debited in online trading activity statements.

The Bottom Line

Rollover is interest that is debited or credited to a trader's accounts when positions are held after 5 p. m. EST. Whether interest is credited depends on whether the trader is long the higher interest rate bearing currency. If they are, they'll receive a credit; if not, they'll receive a debit. Rollover is done automatically, and nothing is required of the trader except to track interest separately for tax purposes (listed within the account reports). Rollover is calculated on the full value of the position, and, thus, can provide additional profit for the trader or cause a decrease in profits, or increase in losses. (To learn more, see Getting Started In Forex and Floating And Fixed Exchange Rates .)

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What-s your moodle training strategy tips for creating atopnotch training program

What-s your moodle training strategy tips for creating atopnotch training programWhats your Moodle training Strategy? Tips for creating a topnotch training program

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The Moodle Feasibility Study we conducted has some great insights to training strategies that schools/institutions take in order to facilitate a higher level of Moodle use (and a more comprehensive use of its various features). Here are some of the tips and tricks we gleaned from the study/survey,


It seems that there was consensus that no one strategy really will work for training a staff on Moodle. Most training plans incorporated several levels (annual, weekly and ongoing, informal sessions) of training in order to help propel Moodle adoption. One site opted for a training strategy which engaged all teachers on an annual basis (through summer training) provided a library of resources available on-demand and instituted the availability of one-to-one training sessions for any teachers that wanted them throughout the year.

Moodle Power Hour:

One of my favorite strategies is the idea of a regular, informal weekly training session that is consistently available and when teachers can simply drop in. At some schools its called Moodle Mondays , one respondent called it the Moodle Power Hour . In both cases its recommended that the sessions be available outside of school hours (before or after) and that an open door policy be adopted. You might not have attendance every time, but for the teachers that just drop in the time can be invaluable to their classrooms development and the opportunities to their students.

Training Cycles:

In most cases, training and professional development was broken down into a few cycles,

Annual . pre-session, taking place before school starts or over the summer and involving more in depth and longer periods of Moodle training. Some mentioned creating or requiring Moodle training that consisted of 15 to 30 hours of instruction

Weekly . small groups, informal or formal with opportunities for QA, demonstration and trouble shooting.

Ongoing . regularly scheduled opportunities throughout the school year for teachers to begin, continue or refresh their skills. These are great opportunities for expert teachers using Moodle to talk about and showcase their experiences and Moodle-use. Mini-camps and inservice days both provide opportunities for this type of training

Staff-led . a few respondents also mentioned that identifying a Moodle Champion was a great way to let teachers find support through email or IM.


Finally, the utilization and creation of resources and materials for self-paced training is another consistent vein. While some created their own videos through Adobe Captivate, you could also easily rely on the wealth of Moodle-focused resources on the One respondent mentioned that they contracted with a training company, Atomic Learning (which has ample Moodle-based materials available in an online multimedia format). Creating your own videos, FAQ documents and tutorials based in Moodle are beneficial too (and present the information in a context consistent to your LMS). Both are all great ways to expose teachers to whats possible in the Moodle LMS.

What tips do you have for creating a positive Moodle training environment? Share your innovative tips and tricks for teaching Moodle in the comments.

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Forex news trading strategies pdf

Forex news trading strategies pdfForex news trading strategy pdf

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Simple trading strategy

Simple trading strategySimple Trading Strategy

Simple trading strategy is really a simple trend following strategy. This strategy is really effective if properly applied. Since the simple trading strategy is used on daily chart, you may need to hold the trades for long period of time. Sometimes, it may take months to close your position from the market. And also because this is a longer term trading strategy it is quite riskier if you have little equity to trade with. You need to give space for the price to move. In simple trading strategy we have only three indicators used.

Simple Moving Average, period 150 (SMA 150)

Simple moving average is a very popular and effective tool to determine the trend of the market. Professional forex traders and analysts use it in various ways. There are many forex strategies that are based on the Moving averages. It is also used to figure out the support and resistance in the market. Simple moving average is simply calculated by adding the closing price of the security for a number of time periods and then dividing this total by the number of time periods. Those time periods in moving average plays vital role in its value. The moving averages which use fewer time periods tend to react quickly to the changes in the price while long term moving averages tend to react slowly to the market price action. So moving averages are called lagging indicator. It is formed only after the prices are determined in the market.

Stochastic Oscillator

The stochastic oscillator is a momentum indicator that uses support and resistance levels. The term stochastic refers the point of the current price in relation to its price range over the period of time. This technical tool attempts to predict the turning points by comparing the closing price of a security to its price range. Stochastic in market forecasting is generally used to see oversold and overbought conditions, momentum crossovers, and the trading the divergence. When the fast moving momentum crosses another slower moving momentum, it usually indicates that the current trend is changing.

Relative strength Index (RSI)

Relative strength index (RSI) falls under the category of momentum oscillator. It measures the velocity and magnitude of directional price movements. It is also used for knowing the strength of the current market trend, knowing the overbought and oversold territory and spotting the divergence on the chart.

Simple Trading Strategy details

Timeframe: Daily

Currency pair: Any

Buying condition using Simple Trading Strategy

Major trend should be up i. e. SMA 150 should be below the price.

Stochastic oscillator should be on or below the level of 20.

RSI oscillator should be on or below the level of 30.

Selling condition using Simple Trading strategy

Major trend should be down i. e. SMA 150 should be above the price.

Stochastic oscillator should be on or above the level of 80.

RSI oscillator should be on or above the level of 70.

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Algorithmic trading strategy

Algorithmic trading strategyAlgorithmic Trading Strategy

The Algo Auto EA/software works 24/5 with ANY broker, ALL market conditions - even news releases - and on ANY pair, provided that the specific trading pair is VOLATILE enough to make movements. It is based on an Algorithmic trading strategy that only a very small number of traders around the world know and execute. Exit points are determined in both sides of the zone (up and Bellow) at which all trades are closed whenever either side is reached. Eventually the market will move to one of the two directions (you do not care about which direction) and ALL of the trades will close in a combined profit..

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Auotshare's suite of algorithmic trading strategies minimize market impact and improve performance, so traders can devote more valuable time to planning their next move. Whether your goal is to move quickly or to access blocks quietly, Stock USA has a solution for your trading needs.

Uses smart limit order placement strategies throughout the order

Does not speed up or slow down based on projected volume and price moves

Displays only the size you want shown and floats on the bid, midpoint or offer until completion.

NASDAQ Colocation Services

AutoShares supports API and Black Box trading systems through open API or FIX 4.2. Developers may automate and route orders to any of the system's points of liquidity. All orders are checked for buying power, order handling rules and risk management parameters at our OEM with extremely low latency. This is accomplished through your choice of using FIX or our API Plug-in.

Our online support staff works with Black Box and automated program developers to facilitate bringing their systems to market. We provide a testing network to facilitate API testing. This enables developers to paper trade and test their system real time before going live. Other services include on site hosting of Black Box servers.

Optional FIX connection Offers straight through processing.

Get Access:

Use your trading spreadsheet or other programs to automate trades. Your trading sheets may be built to also handle special terms and, like all software, are ready for straight-through processing use FIX Protocol or use our plug in.

The API Use a Wrapper to write Visual Basic applications or use our MFC C++ API to write C++ applications to connect to the Gateway in the manner which best suits your needs. We can provide a plug in to our existing software.

The steps involved are:

Technological handshake between your system and our system

Utilization of a risk management platform

Real time Demo Trading and Authentication.

Live Trading

Monitoring Analysis

We offer a full suite of FIX gateway solutions for clients who require global connectivity, high throughput and reliability. FIX execution solutions allow clients to automatically transmit, receive and cancel advanced order types, execution reports, order status, positions, liquidity flags, account balances and more.

Solving low latency

Specialized messages allow your FIX engine to instantly switch routing or change order placements in response to market factors such as latency at the exchange or indications of fast moving markets. Clients can connect using their own front end or back-office applications or choose one from Nexa, DAS or Sterling. FIX 4.2 and API is available upon request.

Connectivity to most North American equities, options and futures exchanges, market makers ATSs.

For more information, please contact us .

History of Algo Trading

Stock exchanges began transitioning from a traditional auction to computerized transactions in the early 1970s. In the late 1980s and early 1990s, Electronic Communication Networks (“ECNs”) became increasingly popular for traders looking for more efficient access to the markets. These developments set the stage for algorithmic trading that eventually took humans out of the equation.

Algorithms are simply a set of rules that a computer program executes in sequence until a desired end point. In the case of algorithmic trading, the algorithms are simply a series of criteria that must be met to execute a buy or sell order. For example, in an arbitrage scenario, algorithms may compute the difference between an ADR and foreign stock and execute a buy order when profitable.

In 2001, algorithmic trading received a boost when IBM researchers published Agent-Human Interactions in the Continuous Double Auction . The research paper found that simple agent bidding strategies were able to outperform non-expert human subjects by a clear margin, setting the stage for the high-frequency trading algorithms that are widely used today in the financial markets.

The development of low latency proximity hosting and global exchange connectivity in the 2000s helped accelerate the ubiquity of algorithmic trading. By executing trades faster and faster, these faster networks enabled trading algorithms to access and act on information more quickly than human traders. Many algorithmic trading servers are now located near major exchanges and data sources.

Algo Strategies & Limitations

Algorithmic trading is a highly competitive segment of the global financial markets, since the marginal profit per trade is so narrow and the potential for profit is so high. Trading algorithms must be modified over time in order to keep ahead of front-running competition. If an edge is lost, trades can quickly turn negative and losses can pile up, especially if nobody is paying close enough attention.

For example, Knight Capital famously lost $440 million in 45 minutes due to competition from the NYSE’s Retail Liquidity Program. Observers believe that Knight had tried to upgrade its algorithms to work around the NYSE’s new system, but the algorithms were flawed and thousands of bad trades were made. Dozens of stocks were affected by the glitch and faith in the markets was shaken.

The high profit potential of high frequency trading is compelling enough to look past many of the risks, however, with a number of strategies employed to profit.

Index Fund Rebalancing – Index funds must rebalance their portfolios at regular intervals, which presents an opportunity for traders looking to front-run the purchases for a small profit on a large scale. For example, United States Natural Gas Fund ( UNG ) has become infamous for its predictable rolling trades in Figure 1.

Figure 1. UNG Rebalancing Volatility – Source: StockCharts

Arbitrage Opportunities – Arbitrage strategies aim to profit from price differences between assets that are typically strongly correlated, including ADRs/foreign stocks, MA transactions, or simply statistical correlations, as seen in Figure 2. In this case, a trader might take advantage of Exxon Mobil ( XOM ) and Chevron ( CVX ) divergence.

Figure 2. Arbitrage Opportunity in Energy – Source: Google Finance

Low-Latency Strategies – Faster connections to exchanges enable algorithms to front-run each other, creating an opportunity to profit from the speed of transactions relative to other traders in the market. Often times, these transactions are known as high frequency trading (“HFT”), with an example in Figure 3.

Figure 3. HFT Trading Example in Preferred Stock – Source: Nanex Research

Market Making Trades – Many ECNs pay a fee to organizations willing to make a market in illiquid securities, which creates an opportunity for trading algorithm operators to earn a profit over time. Of course, these programs must be careful to account for the added liquidity risk present in these companies.

As algorithmic trading grows in popularity, the profit potential from many of these operations has significantly diminished. Many high-frequency trading operations are also competing with each other in low-latency trading and areas where profit potential is simply a matter of owning the best technology. As a result, algorithmic trading volumes have started to decline from their peak.

Retail Trading and Considerations

Algorithmic trading has largely increased the efficiency of the financial markets by narrowing the spreads in arbitrage opportunities, increasing liquidity where needed, and ultimately ensuring fast executions. The problems arise when these companies start front-running the market, which ends up digging into traders’ margins and increasing transaction costs and slippage.

Following some basic guidelines can avoid these problems:

Avoid Market Orders Traders can use specific limit orders to ensure that their trades are executed exactly at their desired price. In particular, the forex markets are well known for excessive slippage in some cases.

Careful with Stops Algorithmic trading can result in periods of high volatility, which can quickly trigger stop-loss orders. Traders that wish to use stop-loss points should be aware of the risks before placing those limits.

Hedge Your Bets Algorithmic trading introduces greater volatility into the financial system at times, which means it’s also important to hedge bets using techniques like covered calls or put options in some cases.

Traders looking to become involved with algorithmic trading face intense competition these days, although there are some retail options available. Programs like TradeStation enable traders to devise automated strategies based on technical analysis and price/volume/order dynamics in many markets. Similarly, MetaTrader has become a popular option for similar trading in the foreign exchange markets.

The basic process used to build an algorithmic strategy is:

Identify a Strategy Most retail trading algorithms are focused on using various forms of technical analysis rather than low-latency strategies involving the order book. For example, a strategy might be to buy when an equity’s price crosses above its 200-day moving average.

Backtest the Strategy Many popular platforms enable traders to backtest their strategy using historical market data. That way, they can see if the strategy would have worked in the past. While past performance doesn’t guarantee future performance, it’s certainly a good starting point.

Implement the Strategy Many popular platforms enable traders to upload their algorithms and then trade automatically. In many cases, the process is as simple as flipping a switch from paper trading to real trading.

Setup Risk Management Risk management practices are extremely important to limit losses in extraordinary situations. Try to identify all possible scenarios and account for the risks by setting up rules that cut losses short.

Monitor and Refine The markets tend to adapt to successful trading strategies, which makes it necessary for traders to constantly refine their systems to avoid trades becoming unprofitable over time.

The Bottom Line

Algorithmic trading gives computers the ability to make buy and sell trades based on sets of rules provided to them. In many cases, these automated trades can help make markets more efficient by minimizing spreads and increasing liquidity. In other cases, algorithmic trading can introduce greater volatility into the financial system by introducing automated instability, as in the case of Knight Capital Group.

Traders should keep these benefits and risks in mind when trading and take precautions to limit their exposure to the issues. For example, limit orders can be used to avoid slippage and other issues, while careful use of stop-loss points can avoid potential losses during times of instability. In the end, these tools can help traders ensure they aren’t being ripped off by automated programs.

Algorithmic trading

Algorithmic trading . also called automated trading . black-box trading . or algo trading . is the use of electronic platforms for entering trading orders with an algorithm which executes pre-programmed trading instructions whose variables may include timing, price, or quantity of the order, or in many cases initiating the order by a "robot", without human intervention. Algorithmic trading is widely used by investment banks. pension funds. mutual funds. and other buy-side (investor-driven) institutional traders, to divide large trades into several smaller trades to manage market impact and risk. [1] [2] Sell side traders, such as market makers and some hedge funds. provide liquidity to the market, generating and executing orders automatically.

A special class of algorithmic trading is "high-frequency trading " (HFT). Many types of algorithmic or automated trading activities can be described as HFT. As a result, in February 2012, the Commodity Futures Trading Commission (CFTC) formed a special working group that included academics and industry experts to advise the CFTC on how best to define HFT. [3] [4] HFT strategies utilize computers that make elaborate decisions to initiate orders based on information that is received electronically, before human traders are capable of processing the information they observe. Algorithmic trading and HFT have resulted in a dramatic change of the market microstructure, particularly in the way liquidity is provided. [5] Algorithmic trading may be used in any investment strategy. including market making. inter-market spreading, arbitrage. or pure speculation (including trend following ). The investment decision and implementation may be augmented at any stage with algorithmic support or may operate completely automatically. One of the main issues regarding HFT is the difficulty in determining how profitable it is. A report released in August 2009 by the TABB Group, a financial services industry research firm, estimated that the 300 securities firms and hedge funds that specialize in this type of trading took in a maximum of US$21 billion in profits in 2008, [6] which the authors called "relatively small" and "surprisingly modest" when compared to the market's overall trading volume.

A third of all European Union and United States stock trades in 2006 were driven by automatic programs, or algorithms, according to Boston-based financial services industry research and consulting firm Aite Group. [7] As of 2009, studies suggested HFT firms accounted for 60-73% of all US equity trading volume, with that number falling to approximately 50% in 2012. [8] [9] In 2006, at the London Stock Exchange. over 40% of all orders were entered by algorithmic traders, with 60% predicted for 2007. American markets and European markets generally have a higher proportion of algorithmic trades than other markets, and estimates for 2008 range as high as an 80% proportion in some markets. Foreign exchange markets also have active algorithmic trading (about 25% of orders in 2006). [10] Futures markets are considered fairly easy to integrate into algorithmic trading, [11] with about 20% of options volume expected to be computer-generated by 2010. Script error Script error [ dated info ] [12] Bond markets are moving toward more access to algorithmic traders. [13]

Algorithmic and HFT have been the subject of much public debate since the U. S. Securities and Exchange Commission and the Commodity Futures Trading Commission said in reports that an algorithmic trade entered by a mutual fund company triggered a wave of selling that led to the 2010 Flash Crash. [14] [15] [16] [17] [18] [19] [20] [21] The same reports found HFT strategies may have contributed to subsequent volatility. As a result of these events, the Dow Jones Industrial Average suffered its second largest intraday point swing ever to that date, though prices quickly recovered. (See List of largest daily changes in the Dow Jones Industrial Average .) A July, 2011 report by the International Organization of Securities Commissions (IOSCO), an international body of securities regulators, concluded that while "algorithms and HFT technology have been used by market participants to manage their trading and risk, their usage was also clearly a contributing factor in the flash crash event of May 6, 2010." [22] [23] Some algorithmic trading ahead of index fund rebalancing transfers profits from investors. [24] [25] [26]

History 3D%3D" /%Edit

Computerization of the order flow in financial markets began in the early 1970s, with some landmarks being the introduction of the New York Stock Exchange 's “designated order turnaround” system (DOT, and later SuperDOT ), which routed orders electronically to the proper trading post, which executed them manually. The "opening automated reporting system" (OARS) aided the specialist in determining the market clearing opening price (SOR; Smart Order Routing).

Program trading is defined by the New York Stock Exchange as an order to buy or sell 15 or more stocks valued at over US$1 million total. In practice this means that all program trades are entered with the aid of a computer. In the 1980s, program trading became widely used in trading between the SP500 equity and futures markets.

In stock index arbitrage a trader buys (or sells) a stock index futures contract such as the SP 500 futures and sells (or buys) a portfolio of up to 500 stocks (can be a much smaller representative subset) at the NYSE matched against the futures trade. The program trade at the NYSE would be pre-programmed into a computer to enter the order automatically into the NYSE’s electronic order routing system at a time when the futures price and the stock index were far enough apart to make a profit.

At about the same time portfolio insurance was designed to create a synthetic put option on a stock portfolio by dynamically trading stock index futures according to a computer model based on the Black–Scholes option pricing model.

Both strategies, often simply lumped together as "program trading", were blamed by many people (for example by the Brady report ) for exacerbating or even starting the 1987 stock market crash. Yet the impact of computer driven trading on stock market crashes is unclear and widely discussed in the academic community. [27]

Financial markets with fully electronic execution and similar electronic communication networks developed in the late 1980s and 1990s. In the U. S. decimalization. which changed the minimum tick size from 1/16 of a dollar (US$0.0625) to US$0.01 per share, may have encouraged algorithmic trading as it changed the market microstructure by permitting smaller differences between the bid and offer prices, decreasing the market-makers' trading advantage, thus increasing market liquidity.

This increased market liquidity led to institutional traders splitting up orders according to computer algorithms so they could execute orders at a better average price. These average price benchmarks are measured and calculated by computers by applying the time-weighted average price or more usually by the volume-weighted average price.

A further encouragement for the adoption of algorithmic trading in the financial markets came in 2001 when a team of IBM researchers published a paper [28] at the International Joint Conference on Artificial Intelligence where they showed that in experimental laboratory versions of the electronic auctions used in the financial markets, two algorithmic strategies (IBM's own MGD . and Hewlett-Packard 's ZIP ) could consistently out-perform human traders. MGD was a modified version of the "GD" algorithm invented by Steven Gjerstad John Dickhaut in 1996/7; [29] the ZIP algorithm had been invented at HP by Dave Cliff (professor) in 1996. [30] In their paper, the IBM team wrote that the financial impact of their results showing MGD and ZIP outperforming human traders ". might be measured in billions of dollars annually"; the IBM paper generated international media coverage.

As more electronic markets opened, other algorithmic trading strategies were introduced. These strategies are more easily implemented by computers, because machines can react more rapidly to temporary mispricing and examine prices from several markets simultaneously. For example Stealth (developed by the Deutsche Bank ), Sniper and Guerilla (developed by Credit Suisse [31] ), arbitrage. statistical arbitrage. trend following. and mean reversion.

This type of trading is what is driving the new demand for Low Latency Proximity Hosting and Global Exchange Connectivity. It is imperative to understand what latency is when putting together a strategy for electronic trading. Latency refers to the delay between the transmission of information from a source and the reception of the information at a destination. Latency has as a lower bound the speed of light; this corresponds to about 3.3 milliseconds per 1,000 kilometers of optical fibre. Any signal regenerating or routing equipment introduces greater latency than this lightspeed baseline.

Strategies 3D%3D" /%Edit

Trading ahead of index fund rebalancing 3D%3D" /%Edit

Most retirement savings. such as private pension funds or 401(k) and individual retirement accounts in the US, are invested in mutual funds. the most popular of which are index funds which must periodically "rebalance" or adjust their portfolio to match the new prices and market capitalization of the underlying securities in the stock or other index that they track. [32] [33] This allows algorithmic traders (80% of the trades of whom involve the top 20% most popular securities [32] ) to anticipate and trade ahead of stock price movements caused by mutual fund rebalancing, making a profit on advance knowledge of the large institutional block orders. [24] [34] This results in profits transferred from investors to algorithmic traders, estimated to be at least 21 to 28 basis points annually for SP 500 index funds, and at least 38 to 77 basis points per year for Russell 2000 funds. [25] John Montgomery of Bridgeway Capital Management says that the resulting "poor investor returns" from trading ahead of mutual funds is "the elephant in the room" that "shockingly, people are not talking about." [26] Related "time zone arbitrage" against mutual funds and their underlying securities traded on overseas markets is likely "damaging to financial integration between the United States, Asia and Europe." [35]

Trend following 3D%3D" /%Edit

Trend following is an investment strategy that tries to take advantage of long-term, medium-term, and short-term movements that sometimes occur in various markets. The strategy aims to take advantage of a market trend on both sides, going long (buying) or short (selling) in a market in an attempt to profit from the ups and downs of the stock or futures markets. Traders who use this approach can use current market price calculation, moving averages and channel breakouts to determine the general direction of the market and to generate trade signals. Traders who subscribe to a trend following strategy do not aim to forecast or predict specific price levels; they initiate a trade when a trend appears to have started, and exit the trade once the trend appears to have ended. [36]

Pairs trading 3D%3D" /%Edit

Pairs trading or pair trading is a long-short. ideally market-neutral strategy enabling traders to profit from transient discrepancies in relative value of close substitutes. Unlike in the case of classic arbitrage, in case of pairs trading, the law of one price cannot guarantee convergence of prices. This is especially true when the strategy is applied to individual stocks - these imperfect substitutes can in fact diverge indefinitely. In theory the long-short nature of the strategy should make it work regardless of the stock market direction. In practice, execution risk, persistent and large divergences, as well as a decline in volatility can make this strategy unprofitable for long periods of time (e. g. 2004-7). It belongs to wider categories of statistical arbitrage. convergence trading. and relative value strategies. [37]

Delta-neutral strategies 3D%3D" /%Edit

In finance, delta-neutral describes a portfolio of related financial securities, in which the portfolio value remains unchanged due to small changes in the value of the underlying security. Such a portfolio typically contains options and their corresponding underlying securities such that positive and negative delta components offset, resulting in the portfolio's value being relatively insensitive to changes in the value of the underlying security.

Arbitrage 3D%3D" /%Edit

In economics and finance. arbitrage / ? ?r b ? t r ?? ? / is the practice of taking advantage of a price difference between two or more markets. striking a combination of matching deals that capitalize upon the imbalance, the profit being the difference between the market prices. When used by academics, an arbitrage is a transaction that involves no negative cash flow at any probabilistic or temporal state and a positive cash flow in at least one state; in simple terms, it is the possibility of a risk-free profit at zero cost.

Arbitrage is possible when one of three conditions is met:

The same asset does not trade at the same price on all markets (the "law of one price " is temporarily violated).

Two assets with identical cash flows do not trade at the same price.

An asset with a known price in the future does not today trade at its future price discounted at the risk-free interest rate (or, the asset does not have negligible costs of storage; as such, for example, this condition holds for grain but not for securities ).

Arbitrage is not simply the act of buying a product in one market and selling it in another for a higher price at some later time. The long and short transactions should ideally occur simultaneously to minimize the exposure to market risk, or the risk that prices may change on one market before both transactions are complete. In practical terms, this is generally only possible with securities and financial products which can be traded electronically, and even then, when first leg(s) of the trade is executed, the prices in the other legs may have worsened, locking in a guaranteed loss. Missing one of the legs of the trade (and subsequently having to open it at a worse price) is called 'execution risk' or more specifically 'leg-in and leg-out risk'. [note 1]

In the simplest example, any good sold in one market should sell for the same price in another. Traders may, for example, find that the price of wheat is lower in agricultural regions than in cities, purchase the good, and transport it to another region to sell at a higher price. This type of price arbitrage is the most common, but this simple example ignores the cost of transport, storage, risk, and other factors. "True" arbitrage requires that there be no market risk involved. Where securities are traded on more than one exchange, arbitrage occurs by simultaneously buying in one and selling on the other. Such simultaneous execution, if perfect substitutes are involved, minimizes capital requirements, but in practice never creates a "self-financing" (free) position, as many sources incorrectly assume following the theory. As long as there is some difference in the market value and riskiness of the two legs, capital would have to be put up in order to carry the long-short arbitrage position.

Mean reversion 3D%3D" /%Edit

Mean reversion is a mathematical methodology sometimes used for stock investing, but it can be applied to other processes. In general terms the idea is that both a stock's high and low prices are temporary, and that a stock's price tends to have an average price over time.

Mean reversion involves first identifying the trading range for a stock, and then computing the average price using analytical techniques as it relates to assets, earnings, etc.

When the current market price is less than the average price, the stock is considered attractive for purchase, with the expectation that the price will rise. When the current market price is above the average price, the market price is expected to fall. In other words, deviations from the average price are expected to revert to the average.

The Standard deviation of the most recent prices (e. g. the last 20) is often used as a buy or sell indicator.

Stock reporting services (such as Yahoo! Finance, MS Investor, Morningstar, etc.), commonly offer moving averages for periods such as 50 and 100 days. While reporting services provide the averages, identifying the high and low prices for the study period is still necessary.

Scalping 3D%3D" /%Edit

Scalping (trading) is a method of arbitrage of small price gaps created by the bid-ask spread. Scalpers attempt to act like traditional market makers or specialists. To make the spread means to buy at the bid price and sell at the ask price, to gain the bid/ask difference. This procedure allows for profit even when the bid and ask do not move at all, as long as there are traders who are willing to take market prices. It normally involves establishing and liquidating a position quickly, usually within minutes or even seconds.

The role of a scalper is actually the role of market makers or specialists who are to maintain the liquidity and order flow of a product of a market. A market maker is basically a specialized scalper. The volume a market maker trades are many times more than the average individual scalpers. A market maker has a sophisticated trading system to monitor trading activity. However, a market maker is bound by strict exchange rules while the individual trader is not. For instance, NASDAQ requires each market maker to post at least one bid and one ask at some price level, so as to maintain a two-sided market for each stock represented.

Transaction cost reduction 3D%3D" /%Edit

Most strategies referred to as algorithmic trading (as well as algorithmic liquidity-seeking) fall into the cost-reduction category. The basic idea is to break down a large order into small orders and place them in the market over time. The choice of algorithm depends on various factors, with the most important being volatility and liquidity of the stock. For example, for a highly liquid stock, matching a certain percentage of the overall orders of stock (called volume inline algorithms) is usually a good strategy, but for a highly illiquid stock, algorithms try to match every order that has a favorable price (called liquidity-seeking algorithms).

The success of these strategies is usually measured by comparing the average price at which the entire order was executed with the average price achieved through a benchmark execution for the same duration. Usually, the volume-weighted average price is used as the benchmark. At times, the execution price is also compared with the price of the instrument at the time of placing the order.

A special class of these algorithms attempts to detect algorithmic or iceberg orders on the other side (i. e. if you are trying to buy, the algorithm will try to detect orders for the sell side). These algorithms are called sniffing algorithms. A typical example is "Stealth."

Some examples of algorithms are TWAP, VWAP, Implementation shortfall, POV, Display size, Liquidity seeker, and Stealth.

Strategies that only pertain to dark pools 3D%3D" /%Edit

Recently, HFT, which comprises a broad set of buy-side as well as market making sell side traders, has become more prominent and controversial. [38] These algorithms or techniques are commonly given names such as "Stealth" (developed by the Deutsche Bank), "Iceberg", "Dagger", "Guerrilla", "Sniper", "BASOR" (developed by Quod Financial ) and "Sniffer". [39] Dark pools are alternative electronic stock exchanges where trading takes place anonymously, with most orders hidden or "iceberged." [40] Gamers or "sharks" sniff out large orders by "pinging" small market orders to buy and sell. When several small orders are filled the sharks may have discovered the presence of a large iceberged order.

“Now it’s an arms race,” said Andrew Lo, director of the Massachusetts Institute of Technology ’s Laboratory for Financial Engineering. “Everyone is building more sophisticated algorithms, and the more competition exists, the smaller the profits.” [41]

High-frequency trading 3D%3D" /%Edit

In the U. S. high-frequency trading (HFT) firms represent 2% of the approximately 20,000 firms operating today, but account for 73% of all equity trading volume. [42] As of the first quarter in 2009, total assets under management for hedge funds with HFT strategies were US$141 billion, down about 21% from their high. [43] The HFT strategy was first made successful by Renaissance Technologies. [44] High-frequency funds started to become especially popular in 2007 and 2008. [43] Many HFT firms are market makers and provide liquidity to the market, which has lowered volatility and helped narrow Bid-offer spreads making trading and investing cheaper for other market participants. [43] [45] [46] HFT has been a subject of intense public focus since the U. S. Securities and Exchange Commission and the Commodity Futures Trading Commission stated that both algorithmic and HFT contributed to volatility in the 2010 Flash Crash. Major players in HFT include GETCO LLC, Jump Trading LLC, Tower Research Capital, Hudson River Trading as well as Citadel Investment Group, Goldman Sachs, DE Shaw, Renaissance Technologies. [14] [15] [16] [17]

There are four key categories of HFT strategies: market-making based on order flow, market-making based on tick data information, event arbitrage and statistical arbitrage. All portfolio-allocation decisions are made by computerized quantitative models. The success of HFT strategies is largely driven by their ability to simultaneously process volumes of information, something ordinary human traders cannot do.

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Market making 3D%3D" /%Edit

Market making is a set of HFT strategies that involves placing a limit order to sell (or offer) above the current market price or a buy limit order (or bid) below the current price to benefit from the bid-ask spread. Automated Trading Desk. which was bought by Citigroup in July 2007, has been an active market maker, accounting for about 6% of total volume on both NASDAQ and the New York Stock Exchange. [47]

Statistical arbitrage 3D%3D" /%Edit

Another set of HFT strategies is classical arbitrage strategy might involve several securities such as covered interest rate parity in the foreign exchange market which gives a relation between the prices of a domestic bond, a bond denominated in a foreign currency, the spot price of the currency, and the price of a forward contract on the currency. If the market prices are sufficiently different from those implied in the model to cover transaction cost then four transactions can be made to guarantee a risk-free profit. HFT allows similar arbitrages using models of greater complexity involving many more than 4 securities. The TABB Group estimates that annual aggregate profits of low latency arbitrage strategies currently exceed US$21 billion. [8]

A wide range of statistical arbitrage strategies have been developed whereby trading decisions are made on the basis of deviations from statistically significant relationships. Like market-making strategies, statistical arbitrage can be applied in all asset classes.

Event arbitrage 3D%3D" /%Edit

A subset of risk, merger, convertible, or distressed securities arbitrage that counts on a specific event, such as a contract signing, regulatory approval, judicial decision, etc. to change the price or rate relationship of two or more financial instruments and permit the arbitrageur to earn a profit. [48]

Merger arbitrage also called risk arbitrage would be an example of this. Merger arbitrage generally consists of buying the stock of a company that is the target of a takeover while shorting the stock of the acquiring company. Usually the market price of the target company is less than the price offered by the acquiring company. The spread between these two prices depends mainly on the probability and the timing of the takeover being completed as well as the prevailing level of interest rates. The bet in a merger arbitrage is that such a spread will eventually be zero, if and when the takeover is completed. The risk is that the deal "breaks" and the spread massively widens.

Low-latency trading 3D%3D" /%Edit

HFT is often confused with low-latency trading that uses computers that execute trades within microseconds, or "with extremely low latency" in the jargon of the trade. Low-latency traders depend on ultra-low latency networks. They profit by providing information, such as competing bids and offers, to their algorithms microseconds faster than their competitors. [8] The revolutionary advance in speed has led to the need for firms to have a real-time, colocated trading platform to benefit from implementing high-frequency strategies. [8] Strategies are constantly altered to reflect the subtle changes in the market as well as to combat the threat of the strategy being reverse engineered by competitors. There is also a very strong pressure to continuously add features or improvements to a particular algorithm, such as client specific modifications and various performance enhancing changes (regarding benchmark trading performance, cost reduction for the trading firm or a range of other implementations). This is due to the evolutionary nature of algorithmic trading strategies – they must be able to adapt and trade intelligently, regardless of market conditions, which involves being flexible enough to withstand a vast array of market scenarios. As a result, a significant proportion of net revenue from firms is spent on the RD of these autonomous trading systems. [8]

Strategy implementation 3D%3D" /%Edit

Most of the algorithmic strategies are implemented using modern programming languages, although some still implement strategies designed in spreadsheets. Increasingly, the algorithms used by large brokerages and asset managers are written to the FIX Protocol's Algorithmic Trading Definition Language (FIXatdl ), which allows firms receiving orders to specify exactly how their electronic orders should be expressed. Orders built using FIXatdl can then be transmitted from traders' systems via the FIX Protocol. [49] Basic models can rely on as little as a linear regression, while more complex game-theoretic and pattern recognition [50] or predictive models can also be used to initiate trading. Neural networks and genetic programming have been used to create these models.

Issues and developments 3D%3D" /%Edit

Algorithmic trading has been shown to substantially improve market liquidity [51] among other benefits. However, improvements in productivity brought by algorithmic trading have been opposed by human brokers and traders facing stiff competition from computers.

Concerns 3D%3D" /%Edit

“The downside with these systems is their black box-ness,” Mr. Williams said. “Traders have intuitive senses of how the world works. But with these systems you pour in a bunch of numbers, and something comes out the other end, and it’s not always intuitive or clear why the black box latched onto certain data or relationships.” [41]

“The Financial Services Authority has been keeping a watchful eye on the development of black box trading. In its annual report the regulator remarked on the great benefits of efficiency that new technology is bringing to the market. But it also pointed out that ‘greater reliance on sophisticated technology and modelling brings with it a greater risk that systems failure can result in business interruption’.” [52]

UK Treasury minister Lord Myners has warned that companies could become the "playthings" of speculators because of automatic high-frequency trading. Lord Myners said the process risked destroying the relationship between an investor and a company. [53]

Other issues include the technical problem of latency or the delay in getting quotes to traders, [54] security and the possibility of a complete system breakdown leading to a market crash. [55]

"Goldman spends tens of millions of dollars on this stuff. They have more people working in their technology area than people on the trading desk. The nature of the markets has changed dramatically." [56]

On 1 August 2012 Knight Capital Group experienced a technology issue in their automated trading system, [57] causing a loss of $440 million.

This issue was related to Knight's installation of trading software and resulted in Knight sending numerous erroneous orders in NYSE-listed securities into the market. This software has been removed from the company's systems. [..] Clients were not negatively affected by the erroneous orders, and the software issue was limited to the routing of certain listed stocks to NYSE. Knight has traded out of its entire erroneous trade position, which has resulted in a realized pre-tax loss of approximately $440 million.

Algorithmic and HFT were shown to have contributed to volatility during the May 6, 2010 Flash Crash, [14] [16] when the Dow Jones Industrial Average plunged about 600 points only to recover those losses within minutes. At the time, it was the second largest point swing, 1,010.14 points, and the biggest one-day point decline, 998.5 points, on an intraday basis in Dow Jones Industrial Average history. [58]

Recent developments 3D%3D" /%Edit

Financial market news is now being formatted by firms such as Need To Know News. Thomson Reuters. Dow Jones. and Bloomberg. to be read and traded on via algorithms.

"Computers are now being used to generate news stories about company earnings results or economic statistics as they are released. And this almost instantaneous information forms a direct feed into other computers which trade on the news." [59]

The algorithms do not simply trade on simple news stories but also interpret more difficult to understand news. Some firms are also attempting to automatically assign sentiment (deciding if the news is good or bad) to news stories so that automated trading can work directly on the news story. [60] "Increasingly, people are looking at all forms of news and building their own indicators around it in a semi-structured way," as they constantly seek out new trading advantages said Rob Passarella, global director of strategy at Dow Jones Enterprise Media Group. His firm provides both a low latency news feed and news analytics for traders. Passarella also pointed to new academic research being conducted on the degree to which frequent Google searches on various stocks can serve as trading indicators, the potential impact of various phrases and words that may appear in Securities and Exchange Commission statements and the latest wave of online communities devoted to stock trading topics. [60]

"Markets are by their very nature conversations, having grown out of coffee houses and taverns", he said. So the way conversations get created in a digital society will be used to convert news into trades, as well, Passarella said. [60]

“There is a real interest in moving the process of interpreting news from the humans to the machines” says Kirsti Suutari, global business manager of algorithmic trading at Reuters. "More of our customers are finding ways to use news content to make money." [59]

An example of the importance of news reporting speed to algorithmic traders was an advertising campaign by Dow Jones (appearances included page W15 of the Wall Street Journal. on March 1, 2008) claiming that their service had beaten other news services by 2 seconds in reporting an interest rate cut by the Bank of England.

In July 2007, Citigroup. which had already developed its own trading algorithms, paid $680 million for Automated Trading Desk, a 19-year-old firm that trades about 200 million shares a day. [61] Citigroup had previously bought Lava Trading and OnTrade Inc.

In late 2010, The UK Government Office for Science initiated a Foresight project investigating the future of computer trading in the financial markets, [62] led by Dame Clara Furse. ex-CEO of the London Stock Exchange and in September 2011 the project published its initial findings in the form of a three-chapter working paper available in three languages, along with 16 additional papers that provide supporting evidence. [63] All of these findings are authored or co-authored by leading academics and practitioners, and were subjected to anonymous peer-review. The Foresight project is set to conclude in late 2012.

In September 2011, RYBN has launched "ADM8", [64] an open source Trading Bot prototype, already active on the financial markets.

Technical design 3D%3D" /%Edit

The technical designs of such systems are not standardized. Conceptually, the design can be divided into logical units:

The data stream unit (the part of the systems that receives data (e. g. quotes, news) from external sources)

The decision or strategy unit

The execution unit

With the wide use of social networks, some systems implement scanning or screening technologies to read posts of users extracting human sentiment and influence the trading strategies. [65]

Effects 3D%3D" /%Edit

Though its development may have been prompted by decreasing trade sizes caused by decimalization, algorithmic trading has reduced trade sizes further. Jobs once done by human traders are being switched to computers. The speeds of computer connections, measured in milliseconds and even microseconds. have become very important. [66] [67]

More fully automated markets such as NASDAQ, Direct Edge and BATS, in the US, have gained market share from less automated markets such as the NYSE. Economies of scale in electronic trading have contributed to lowering commissions and trade processing fees, and contributed to international mergers and consolidation of financial exchanges.

Competition is developing among exchanges for the fastest processing times for completing trades. For example, in June 2007, the London Stock Exchange launched a new system called TradElect that promises an average 10 millisecond turnaround time from placing an order to final confirmation and can process 3,000 orders per second. [68] Since then, competitive exchanges have continued to reduce latency with turnaround times of 3 milliseconds available. This is of great importance to high-frequency traders, because they have to attempt to pinpoint the consistent and probable performance ranges of given financial instruments. These professionals are often dealing in versions of stock index funds like the E-mini SPs, because they seek consistency and risk-mitigation along with top performance. They must filter market data to work into their software programming so that there is the lowest latency and highest liquidity at the time for placing stop-losses and/or taking profits. With high volatility in these markets, this becomes a complex and potentially nerve-wracking endeavor, where a small mistake can lead to a large loss. Absolute frequency data play into the development of the trader's pre-programmed instructions. [69]

Spending on computers and software in the financial industry increased to $26.4 billion in 2005. [1]

Communication standards 3D%3D" /%Edit

Algorithmic trades require communicating considerably more parameters than traditional market and limit orders. A trader on one end (the "buy side ") must enable their trading system (often called an "order management system " or "execution management system ") to understand a constantly proliferating flow of new algorithmic order types. The RD and other costs to construct complex new algorithmic orders types, along with the execution infrastructure, and marketing costs to distribute them, are fairly substantial. What was needed was a way that marketers (the "sell side ") could express algo orders electronically such that buy-side traders could just drop the new order types into their system and be ready to trade them without constant coding custom new order entry screens each time.

FIX Protocol LTD fixprotocol is a trade association that publishes free, open standards in the securities trading area. The FIX language was originally created by Fidelity Investments, and the association Members include virtually all large and many midsized and smaller broker dealers, money center banks, institutional investors, mutual funds, etc. This institution dominates standard setting in the pretrade and trade areas of security transactions. In 2006-2007 several members got together and published a draft XML standard for expressing algorithmic order types. The standard is called FIX Algorithmic Trading Definition Language (FIXatdl ). [70] The first version of this standard, 1.0 was not widely adopted due to limitations in the specification, but the second version, 1.1 (released in March 2010) is expected to achieve broad adoption and in the process dramatically reduce time-to-market and costs associated with distributing new algorithms.

Algorithms 3D%3D" /%Edit

Online Algorithmic trading strategy

Quantinsti quantitative learning

Quantinsti quantitative learningQuantInsti Quantitative Learning

Pioneer in algorithmic trading training in Asia

More than 250+ students successfully received QI certification

Participants placed at leading financial and algorithmic trading companies and universities

QI faculty invited to speak at leading international conferences, academic institutions and events

Knowledge imparted through cutting-edge technology – Online program delivery

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What is Algorithmic Trading?

Algorithmic trading, i. e. trading or execution of shares, commodities, etc without any human intervention, is one of the most recent developments in the Indian financial markets.

Algorithmic trading uses advanced electronic trading platforms to execute orders automatically which are generated as per the mathematical models in the algorithm.

The wave of innovation in Trading Industry started in terms of online execution started in late 1990s and is still continuning. With availability of Direct Market Access, Low Latency, Multiple Execution Venues, Markets are seeing innovation in all aspects. The reduction in Average Execution Size and increase in volume of trades by High Frequency Trading Systems is on the rise.

How to Learn Algorithmic Trading?

Quantinsti offers a 6-months long comprehensive course ‘EPAT’ in Algorithmic and Quantitative Trading. It is an online live interactive course aimed at working professionals from diverse backgrounds such as trading-brokerage services, Analytics, Quantitative roles, and Programming & IT industry. Salient features of the program are:

6 month long online course

Primary focus on financial technology trends and solutions.

Eclectic blend of practical and theoretical know-how.

Aimed at all kinds of finance professionals.

EPAT certification received by professionals from all 6 continents.

Online Quantinsti quantitative learning

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Forex Capital Markets Limited operates under the commercial name FXCM France and is partially authorized and regulated by the FCA of the United Kingdom, and is registered with the Autorite de Controle Prudentiel (ACP), as the branch of Forex Capital Markets Limited. In addition, FXCM France is also subject to the regulatory authority in the following areas cited:

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Forex Capital Markets Limited operates under the commercial name FXCM France and is partially authorised and regulated by the FCA of the United Kingdom, and is registered with the Autorite de Controle Prudentiel (ACP), as the branch of Forex Capital Markets Limited. In addition, FXCM France is also subject to the regulatory authority in the following areas cited:

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Ping pong,trading,making money in sideways markets

Ping pong,trading,making money in sideways marketsPing Pong, Trading, Making Money In Sideways Markets

One of the easiest ways to lose money as a trader is to apply a trend following strategy in a sideways market. Unfortunately, most traders learn this the hard way. Some traders will eventually learn how to avoid sideways markets, and do fairly well with trend following strategies, but few traders ever learn how to make money in a market that is moving sideways. Armed with the right methods, a sideways market can be an ideal environment to pull money out of the market.

To understand a sideways market, it’s important to be able to recognize a trending one. Some traders use popular indicators and chart patterns to read a market, in order to determine whether the market is trending up or down. Another way to spot a trending market is to look for a market that is making higher highs and higher lows (an uptrend), or lower lows, and lower highs (a downtrend).

When a market isn’t making higher highs or lower lows, bars are typically overlapping as the market trades in a range. In this environment a trend fading strategy, selling highs and buying lows, is the perfect way to trade. This is exactly what we look to do when using the Ping Pong Strategy that we trade at Rockwell Trading.

The name “Ping Pong” says it all. We are looking for the market to bounce back and forth, while we sell highs and buy lows. Although traders can technically trade different time frames, our favorite chart for trading the Ping Pong Strategy is a range bar chart.

In the chart below, you will notice that overlapping bars are often found in between trending markets. It’s in these ranges that the Ping Pong strategy is most effective and easiest to apply.

Trading the Ping Pong Strategy, we want to enter long when the market is moving sideways, and when a bar completes with a new low. This is one of the advantages of using range bars over time bars. With a range bar, a new bar will begin when a specified range has been exceeded, so we will always know where a bar will complete with a new high or low.

Trading the E-mini SP 500, our first Ping Pong entry is a long at 1053. When the market moves up and we get a new bar with a close higher, we reverse the trade and go short at 1055. This locks in a 2 point profit and we will reverse at the next low. The next reversal takes place at 1053.75. With this reversal we lock in a 1 ? point profit and we look to reverse short at 1055.25. This next reversal locks in a 1 ? point profit and we reverse going long when we get a new low at 1054.50, locking in another ? point profit. You’ll notice now that we are long but our next trade doesn’t take place until the short at 1053.75. This reversal comes 3 bars later because each range bar closed lower instead of higher and for us to close, or reverse a long Ping Pong trade, we need to see a bar close higher.

Let’s review the trades:

At this point our reversals show a 4.75 point profit and we’re short 1 contract at 1053.75. Another reversal would lock in another winning trade, but remember that we are trading a trend fading strategy that is meant to be traded in a sideways market. The market has remained in a range for more than 10 bars and is starting to test the lower range. A break here and series of lower lows could indicate a trending market, which we see just a few bars later.

A word of caution…This strategy is ONLY meant to be used in a sideways market. It cannot be placed on autopilot and you must manage your trades. If you’re uncomfortable recognizing the difference between a trending and sideways market, a little chart reading and practice can go a long way. Last but not least, it is very easy to overtrade this strategy and give back profits. Consider a target of 2 points a day, and let money management do the rest of the work for you.

Happy Trading!

Mark Hodge

Mark is an independent trader and Head Coach at Rockwell Trading (rockwelltrading ). He has traded all markets and timeframes but specializes in short term futures trading. As Head Coach at Rockwell Trading, Mark works one on one with beginners and professionals alike, and conducts educational webinars for traders around the world.

Online Ping pong,trading,making money in sideways markets

Forex pip

Forex pipHow to Calculate Pip Values

A pip is the smallest increment in any currency pair. In EURUSD, a movement from .8941 to .8942 is one pip, so a pip is .0001. In USDJPY, a movement from 130.45 to 130.46 is one pip, so a pip is .01. How much in dollars is this movement worth, for example, per 10,000 Euros in EURUSD? How much is one pip worth per 10,000 Dollars in USDJPY? We will refer to the size, in this case 10,000 units of the base currency, as the Notional Amount. The formula for calculating a pip value is therefore:

(one pip, with proper decimal placement/currency exchange rate) x (Notional Amount)

Using USDJPY as an example, this yields:

(.01/130.46) x USD10,000 = $0.77

or 77 cents per pip

Using EURUSD as an example, we have:

(.0001/.8942) x EUR10,000 = EUR 1.1183

But we want the pip value in USD, so we then must multiply EUR1.1183 x (EURUSD exchange rate):

EUR 1.1183 x .8942 = $1.00

This is in fact a phenomenon you will see with any currency in which the currency is quoted first (such as EURUSD, GBPUSP, or AUDUSD): the pip value is always $1.00 per 10,000 currency units. This is why pip (or tick) values in currency futures, where the currency is quoted first, are always fixed.

Approximate pip values for the major currencies are as follows, per 10,000 units of the base currency:

USD/JPY: 1 pip = $.77; In other words a change from 130.45 to 130.46 is worth about $.77 per $10,000.

EUR/USD: 1 pip = $1.00; .8941 to .8942 is worth $1.00 per 10,000 Euros.

GBP/USD: 1 pip = $1.00; 1.4765 to 1.4766 is worth $1.00 per 10,000 Pounds.

USD/CHF: 1 pip = $.59; 1.6855 to 1.6866 is worth $.59 per $10,000.



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We are a team of successful Forex Traders and Fund Managers.

Forex is our passion. We constantly scan the markets for the best possible trade setups and our goal is to help traders to generate the best possible results. We are not a huge sales company or marketing specialists, we are working hard to make good profits in the Forex Markets and that’s why you will not find a big sales speech on this site.

If you are ready to make money you are welcome to join the Club and we will do our best make your trading more profitable. If you surf the web you will find thousands of pages with a lot of Forex fairytales, sales people which will promise you tons of pips by following their signals. The naked truth is that almost all of them have no idea what they are talking about.

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Online Forex pip

You can make more from less

You can make more from lessWhats So Great About End of Day Trading?

What's So Great About End of Day Trading?

With so many trading styles and strategies out there just waiting to be traded, choosing one to suit your personality and availability to trade can seem like a daunting task.

While it’s not our intention of imposing our end of day style of trading onto you, we will gladly share our reasons why we think that end of day trading trounces pretty much every other tradable timeframe out there. and you can then take it or leave it.

You can make more from less

Time does not equal money in trading . Far from it. In the highly likely event you’ve entertained the prospect of becoming a fulltime trader then the good news is that you can do this but from only minutes a day – in your spare time. This is one major benefit of end of day trading.

But how on earth is this possible without spending the working day in front of the screen? From trading in an end of day trading style you can still be a “full time trader” thanks to being in the flow of opportunity from just looking at the daily chart once a day. This is the sweet spot.

Opportunities in the market are very much like busses in London; they can all arrive at the same time as winning or losing trades, or not at all. But the trick is always to be in it and this depends on the timeframe which you trade in anticipation of a string of winning trades.

So you don’t have to quit your day job to do this. Why would you? Until you are able to generate consistent monthly results and have a big trading account large enough to live off , I would strongly advise you to keep it! End of day trading lets you trade alongside your day job.

It’s less risky

Putting all of your eggs in one basket is a risky business. Imagine having the double whammy of not having income from your job and losing from your trading. After all, the market will simply do “its thing” with or without you. After all, tradable opportunities in the market are random and out of those tradable opportunities, the frequency of winning trades is also random.

Picture spurning your career in exchange for a day spent in front of a screen intra-day trading only to find out that you’ve had a long dry spell of no trades, or, worse still, a drawdown for the day, week or month. Not only will you no longer have the guaranteed income from your regular work, your trading account would have sustained a loss . Even though losing patches, known as drawdowns, are part and parcel of trading they certainly will not help with cash flow.

End of day trading allows you to smash the time = money link, which is where people exchange their time for a set fee or wage (typically the case with your job where how much you earn is dependant on how many hours you work at a certain rate).

End of day trading gives you the flexibility for you to set your trades up and walk away, safe in the knowledge your money is working overtime for you while you earn money working the day job or by focusing on other income streams. Even if you have a losing patch, the income from other streams like the day job will cushion this.

It’s news resistant

News drives the market. It always has and it always will. Some traders who dare to trade news announcements get it right some of the time but no one gets it right the whole time.

Do you have to know anything about the news in order to do trade profitably? Not really. In fact, when it comes to news trading it can and does pay to have your head deeply rooted in the sand.

It is thanks to this irony that lets us End of Day Trading, Lazy Traders profit from trading the news withou t knowing or even caring what the news is or what the figures are. If there is a technical trade set-up we just place the trade regardless.

In fact, we don’t even look at the news! Whether it’s Ben Benanke, Non-farm payroll Friday or the Bank of England releasing its interest rates, it does not matter one jot. We just use the movement news causes in the market as a catalyst and are able to make money from it no matter what the news is or isn’t. There is simply no requirement to know the news for end of day trading and those who trade it.

How do you suppose this is? Traders who engage in end of day trading simply play the probabilities. With no crystal ball to hand and no psychic skill-set to speak, of we are left to rationalise that there are odds of 2:1 of the news either agreeing with my trade decision or going against it.

But thanks to a combination of keeping the risk low for every trade we place (no more than 1% per if my trading account) and only pursuing trades with a potential gain of 3% we have given myself no option but to able to lose small and win big.

If the news does cause our trade to go against us then the worst possible thing that could happen is for us to lose 1% of our capital. Conversely, if it does go in favour then the best possible outcome is a 3% gain on our trading account.

It’s no different really different that betting on the flip of a coin knowing that if it lands on your chosen side (ie: “heads”), you gain ?300 whereas if it lands on the other side (“tails”) you lose ?100. News just simply helps my trade arrive at its outcome faster, regardless of whether it’s a win, loss or breakeven trade.

Because we are trading bigger moves on the higher timeframes such as the daily and weekly charts, which require a bigger distance between entry point and our protective stoploss, we are able to have more of a buffer to protect us from the unexpected . After all, news announcements and random intra-day spikes can happen at any time so this extra leeway enables is to stay take advantage of bigger moves over a longer period of time from simply profiting from trend trading .

It’s far less stressful

End of day trading gives us a useful escape value in enabling us to transform what is experienced by many amateur intra-day traders as a stressful, loss making folly into a carefree and relaxing hobby. We can set our trades up, put the mouse down and walk away from that screen, checking back later to see how they’ve done without having to even give the market a second glance in the meantime.

Intra-day traders don’t have this luxury. After all, trading on the smaller timeframes is often an experienced by a rookie as being one of the most stressful chapters in their trading career before they either give up or move to a higher timeframe to trade, like I did.

Every flicker of movement on the chart represents an emotion in the markets while every emotion is perpetuated by greed and fear and the smaller the timeframe traded . the more stressful it’s likely going to be with the with the extra volatility and irrational behaviour that comes with it. Not to mention the longer time required to keep in the flow of opportunity!

When there is money is at stake in a live trade, the amateur will often have a strong emotional attachment to the outcome of the trade ; a feeling of euphoria and invincibility if the trade is in profit or a feeling of disdainful rejection from “getting it wrong” if the market goes the other way. Sound familiar? If it does then it's one of the tell-tale signs that you're thinking like an amateur trader .

Trading the hourly timeframe is therefore infinitely less stressful than trading the one minute chart which trading the weekly is going to be less stressful than trading the daily chart. The higher the timeframe, the less maintenance is required from analysing it through to placing and managing the trades.

Get more bang for your buck

If you are trading end of day – profitably - you can also achieve a much better return for the reduced time spent trading. This is particularly the case with end of day trading compared to the hours spent trading by intra-day traders.

Even if you are enduring drawdown, t he percentage loss will bar far lower for the time spent losing money than that of an intra-day trader who may also be doing the same.

Let’s take Jack and Jill for example, who both achieve a 5% return on their capital from trading by the end of the month. The key difference is that John trades intra-day for three hours every morning, Monday to Friday while Jill trades end of day for an average of fifteen minutes for every weekday evening.

Typically with 22 trading days in the month, this means that Jack spent 66 hours achieving his 5% gain while Jill only spent five and a half hours to get the same result!

So here’s the question: is it really worthwhile for someone like Jack to spend all this time in pursuit of this a potential gain which is not necessarily guaranteed when he could have taken a far easier route? Perhaps not. unless he had a trading account size of $100,000 perhaps, enabling him a monetary gain of $5,000.

There’s more predictability

The higher the timeframe, the more predictable and stable markets tend to be. This is great for us technical Lazy Traders because we trade with probabilities in our favour and the more obvious the pattern or trend is on the chart, the more self-fulfilling the outcome generally is.

On the higher order timeframes like the daily and weeklies, we are also far less susceptible to the adverse volatility caused by news releases, noise, and rumours circulating the market. We have the longer term position traders on side. These are the so-called “big dogs” – the banks, institutions, and hedge funds - who have far more influence in determining a direction in the market and blazing a trail for us to hop onto.

They represent the force behind big market movements whereas we private investors are the participants who take advantage of such moves by hopping onto the back of them without actually creating them ourselves.

Trading a more stable timeframe also means we can stay in the game for longer without being chopped about like a lost man at sea. All we need to do is go with the flow (ie: trading with the trend). but only if we have a technical set-up where our rules for entry have been fulfilled!

We can take trades with only the best reward potential

“It's not about being wrong, rather, it's about how much money you make when you're right and how much you don't lose when you're wrong” GEORGE SOROS

Even though the frequency of tradable opportunities on the daily chart may be less than that of a smaller timeframe, this silver lining is that we are able to profit from bigger swings in the market from the ones we do take. We can essentially make more from trading less.

What would you rather have: more trades with less reward or less trades with higher reward potential? I know which I would choose. The lazy, end of day trading option of trading less, of course! We may decide to only trade set-ups with a reward/risk potential of 3:1; which means for every 1% of our trading account risked on a trade set-up which follows our rules, we want the set-up to have the potential gain of at least 3%.

I’ve traded some of the most obvious looking set-ups on the daily timeframe, with a reward potential of as much as 15:1. and they have hit target, gaining as much as 15% in profit on my trading account on a trade which took five minutes to spot and about ten minutes to manage over the course of two weeks.

All you need is one or two of these set-ups a year and we will be doing fantastically well.

A lifestyle choice

I have a confession to make: If trading did not offer me the option to make maximum return for minimal effort, then I honestly would not have bothered with it.

Why should I? Who, apart from intra-day traders and those with an intellectual fascination with the markets actually wants to spend all day watching bars on charts moving up and down when you can potentially do as well from setting your trades up and walking away to do the things that really interest you?

Fortunately both you and I, it does. End of day trading does give us this option – one, many newcomers eventually take after nursing their battle scars given to them by the market when trying their hand at being an intra-day trader.

It is the only style of trading which enables us to both fully be in control of our trading decisions while also letting us reap the full benefits of being able to fit trading into our existing lifestyle without having to move mountains to fit our life into trading. There is a big difference between the two!

For me, it means I can do whatever the heck I want in the day, safe in the knowledge that my trading business is at work, with my capital working overtime. If I want to go out in the evening then I still can! I can either go out after my trading is done or do it first thing the next morning before the European open.

We end of day trading “lifestyle traders” have the flexibility to do what we want, when we want it and with who we want. What is more, we are fund traders who work for only 10 minutes a day. How you use end of day trading to engineer your life is up to you. I’ll leave that part to your imagination!

Trading just happens to be something that I do. Not doing so would be too big a sacrifice in missing out on the fabulous reward potential that the market routinely gives us.

I treat trading as a business – one with low overheads, low maintenance and for the most part, looks after itself.

Yes, I have other business interests outside of trading too. It spreads the risk and, frankly, I recognise the commercial benefits of being in other industries too. It’s no coincidence though that I am also able to run these other businesses on autopilot from anywhere in the world.

If end of day trading appeals to you then why not take advantage of our Ultimate forex training programme? You will have access to all of our end of day strategies and end of day trading signals as part of your membership and a satisfaction guarantee. If our forex training courses fall short of your excitations in any way, then you are entitled to a 100% refund - no questions asked! =Click here

Online You can make more from less

Forex power play review

Forex power play reviewForex Power Play Review

Check out the Traders Bulletin Forex Power Play review, a currency code strategy from Alex and Nicky Ong

What they say:

The great currency code revealed


25 regular people have already been shown how to use this remarkable “currency code” and they enjoyed a hugely successful 70% average strike rate:

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“…around 75-80% success in the first two weeks (7 trades with 2 losses total 306 pips)… was amazed as I havent experienced this kind of success with forex in the past… just followed what was on the tin and it worked!”

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“it just works. Trading can sometimes be a bit scary, but, after watching this over the last couple of weeks, I can honestly say I don’t even pause to set the trade up and leave it, because, win or lose, I know full well that I am going to come out on top.”

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Right now, I’d like to show YOU exactly what this strange equation means and prove how it could pocket you daily profits of ?15, ?36 or ?21 from any forex market – completely tax-free

Dear Reader,

Take a look at the code again…


It’s important. But at the moment, it doesn’t make much sense, right?

Hardly seems like the secret to successfully trading ANY currency pair… but when you see how this works, you’ll almost kick yourself for not realizing it sooner yourself.

Because no matter how strange this “currency code” seems right now, the fact is: BY TOMORROW, it could already be helping you to pocket daily profits of ?15, ?36 or ?21 completely tax-free.

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Member Since Sep 14, 2015 20 posts PowerPlay Robot (powerplayrobot) Sep 14 at 18:50

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Online Forex power play review

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Thursday, October 20, 2005

Nearly 20 years ago now I was happily playing Ports of Call on the Amiga. Elite was even earlier, I played it on the Sinclair Spectrum. But since then, games which are based on buying, transporting, and selling goods have disappeared. The only modern trading game I can think of right now is EVE Online, but that one has a really nasty form of PvP, where traders are often victims to player pirates.

Curiously in multiplayer online games, many people find trading morally questionable, while "killing" other players is morally okay. If you want your character to have a really, really bad reputation on a WoW server, you just need to buy blue under-priced stuff on the auction house cheap and sell it back with a profit. Soon people in Ironforge / Orgrimmar will curse your name on the general chat. That is probably the result of the transporting part of the trading game missing in these games. It is easier to accept for others that you make a profit from trading if you had to actually do an effort transporting the goods. If you buy and sell at the same place, you are portrayed as exploiting the gullible.

Can anybody suggest a good modern game which involves trading to me? Doesn't have to be a MMORPG, but should involve transport, not just buying and selling on a stock market equivalent.

I do it in WoW, but not with blues. Overpricing blues will lose you money faster than you will ever make it. People curse my name for it and call me an eBay gold seller.

Point is. I make a profit. I don't make huge profits since I do it on a limited basis, but for a casual gamer it keeps my gold needs covered without farming. It paid for my mount, my arcanite reaper, and twink gear for any alt I'll ever want. I've waste tons of gold on things I've found fun or curious and I love it :)

# posted by Heartless_. 20/10/05 13:47

I don't have the patience to trade in WoW, there are so many different goods, and I don't like to use addon software to keep track of prices.

But what earns me a good amount of money is alchemy transmutations of elemental essences. You can only do one transmutation per day, but as that earns you several gold pieces and only takes a minute, it is a good and steady income.

What I find strange in WoW is that the auction house fees are fixed to what WoW thinks is the NPC merchant value of an item. There is an additional percentage fee, but you only pay that if you actually sell the item. So putting up something with a buyout of several hundred gold pieces doesn't cost you all that much, and it only needs to work once to be profitable.

# posted by Tobold. 20/10/05 14:15

Suggestions off the top of my head are X2. the 'gone gold, but I don't think quite in stores yet' X3. or possibly Space Rangers 1&2. All single player. All complete with Starforce copy protection at least in the versions I have here in. uk.

With X2 just skip the story after doing the first couple of missions that net you some cash. This also has the added benefit of meaning you only have to watch a couple of the eye-gougingly bad cutscenes.

It's a slow paced Elite descendent. It's a hand crafted -- rather than procedurally generated -- universe with stargates between sectors, so not as big a universe as Elite, Frontier, or EVE. There's plenty of trading to do, with plenty of NPC ships flying around doing there own trade. You'll really hate it when they scoop on the best deals.

Various trade missions pop up on the station BBS's.

Be warned that the game runs on the Teladai clock, which doesn't have anything to do with your puny human days, hours, and minutes. This means it can be a bit difficult working out how long you've got for a get the required amount of goods back to your cilent when you do these missions.

You'll have to do some fighting to get your reputation up with the Split and the Paranid races if you want to trade in their sectors. My somewhat measly fortune was built up mostly trading and Chelt Meat and Silicon Wafers in the Split sectors.

Once you've amassed a sizeable enough fortune you can start building your manufacturing and trading stations stations, programming your now undoubtedly vast spacefleets to purchase and sell good from them.

I don't usually get that far before I get distracted by some other shiny piece of software entertainment.

Space Rangers 2 has a somewhat less advanced economy than the X games as your can't build your own stations,

equipment pieces aren't part of the manufacturing and trade system, and you can't run your own trade fleet. Equipment runs on a seperate buying/selling system like Elite.

However, NPCs are still in competition with you in both trade and the usually combat and reputation stakes. And the equipment system is arguably more interesting than the X games, due to diablo like randomisation and enhancement of items including the all important stat of how much cargo space they take up. Cargo space and equipment space in your ship hull will quickly become your obsession.

Space is resolutely 2D and turnbased, rather than 3D and real time. However if you fly into a black hole, you'll get a 2D arcade 'asteroids on a pinball table' combat game. There's also an 3D RTS segment for ground based combat missions, and a text-based turn-based adventure game system for important planetary missions such as surviving 80 days in jail, or winning battle of the bands, and pizza making contests.

I'm serious here, stop looking at me like that :)

# posted by SKapusniak. 20/10/05 21:17

Eve Online. If you should like to give the 14-day trial a chance, you can find an access code at least at eve-online/pelit

# posted by essi. 21/10/05 15:25

Had a good think about it, and I think EVE Online is probably the only current MMO with anything like what you describe.

The PvP is avoidable for a trading lifestyle, but you do need to be a bit savy with where you are, and what you're carrying, that sort of thing. It's not riskless, but the risk is quite manageable.

Ethic and Co on channel 'KTR' can probably give you a few pointers if you do try it.

# posted by Van Hemlock. 21/10/05 17:58

Freelancer, at least unmodded, is not much use as a trading game, because:

- All prices are completely static. The same goods are bought and sold by the same stations for the same prices throughout the game. Find a trade route between two stations and it'll work exactly the same every time you do the run.

- Moreover there is effectively infinite supply and demand at those prices. You can always buy as much as you want, and sell as much as you want.

- Space is pretty much level limited, because equipment is level limited, with each 'Empire' having their own level range of ships and equipment. This means that trading in 'next level' empire in anything but the top end ship of the 'previous level' empire is pretty much suicide, and there's usually no equipment worth buying in 'previous level' empires.

- All non-plot missions are combat missions, there are no trade missions at all.

- The 'guy walks into a bar in 3d' user interface when you are landed may add flavour but quickly gets old when you're trading

Good things about Freelancer:

- The Faction System

- The Patrol Path setting on the sector map

- The Faction System

- Voice acting that didn't make me cringe

- The Faction System

- The mouse control for piloting is the best mouse control system for this sort of game that has ever been done.

# posted by SKapusniak. 24/10/05 11:42

I agree, Freelancer isnt a patch on "X" where trading is concerned. It's rather static in that respect.

Yup, I have to agree with SKapusniak and nominate X3. It's out here (UK) on 28th October. It's not quite the same as Elite, the universe doesn't feel as big, but the economy is dynamic and you can effect it.

Definately worth a look (be warned though, X2 seemed to have a few bugs and exploits, and I dont expect X3 to be any different).

As for online? Their looking at doing an online X# game I think. As for others, surely there must be some form of independent online trading game?

# posted by Wivelrod. 24/10/05 15:15

A pretty good trading mmorpg is starsonata. starsonata/?r=goog

Has alot of trading in the game. But the graphics are sort of 2D. Its a very active game with people on all the time.

# posted by Anonymous. 9/7/06 14:32

I'm having a blast with CORPORATE TAKEOVER at globalgamenetwork it's purely industrial trading: harvesting raw materials, making intermediate materials and then finally consumer products. It's fun to figure out what the economic rules are. Games are medium-term (10 days at a time). You can play it intermittently. The time line is continuous 10 minutes per turn. Score is computed by counting all non-liquid assets. See you there!

# posted by Ari. 28/1/08 07:15

Hi all well i was looking for a trading style MMO, and stumbled apon minewars, so the basis of this game is the fact that your the leader of a so called sector and within this sector it contains a mining facility that with resources u mine per tick(hour), it adds to the coffers of said resources.

Well theres no NPC just other players on that will create alliances(clans) and in a way create a trade network of many different sorts of units used to protect or atk how ever u chose to make your strategy.

I think its better than going against NPCs, however its purely web based(no animations) :(, but its rather addicting if u find some common goal, whether it running the resource market, stealing resources with the Pirate unit, and i forgot to mention that each unit takes a certain criteria to manufacture.

Its rather complex to describe so why not check it out and get to know some long time vets who in most cases look forward to new recruits.

Also it is round based so base management is crucial!

# posted by Anonymous. 30/1/08 14:12

hi all a good but slow economic game is kapi lands on kapilands it is mmo there is no fighting. and lots of things to make and sell in factorys and mines and all that kind of stuff it is a browser game but still fun !

# posted by Anonymous. 28/8/08 13:27

The market of home commodities and appliances is the main thrust behind most of the industrial, commercial and business activities we see going around us. Home segment is generally the end of the line consumer segment, meaning that all the goods and services that are produced in the economy are finally utilized for the home consumers.

There are innumerable lines of goods and commodities that are produced for direct use of home consumers. From kitchen ware, to furniture to home appliances, electronics goods, household durables the list is endless.

The size of the home business is in hundreds of billions of dollars world over. This segment is most dynamic and buzzing some of the biggest global corporations and countless small players competing together.

Characteristically home business segment is a fast moving consumer goods market. This implies that commodities expire here soon and there is a continuous flux of buying and purchasing, keeping the market and business on move.

In recent years the home market is going out of individual retailers and distributors to mega retail chains like Wall Mart, Kroger and Metro AG. It has caused a major shift in business strategies for the large manufacture ring houses as well as varied options for consumers.

Online Free Trading is the Marketplace for international importers and exporters.

Online Free Trading is committed to provide satisfactory online trade services to the members of the website. With huge products posted on Online Free Trading, we are helping manufacturers, suppliers, importers, exporters and traders to do online business around the world.


I understand that Online Trading Academy instruction will prepare me to actively trade securities and/or other financial instruments for my own account at an appropriate financial firm which utilizes the Electronic transmissions of securities and other financial instruments orders to execute trades for its customers. I understand that this course is not preparation to be a Licensed Broker in the financial industry and will not help me get a job.

Online Trading Academy Training Program should not be construed as a recommendation or an offer to buy or sell any security or the suitability of any investment strategy for Student. The purchase, sale, or advice regarding any security, other financial instrument or system can only be performed by a licensed Industry representative; such as, but not limited to a Broker/Dealer, Introducing Broker, FCM and and/or Registered Investment Advisor. Neither Online Trading Academy nor its representatives are licensed to make such advisements. All purchasers of the Online Trading Academy Training Program or other Online Trading Academy products are encouraged to speak with a licensed representative of their choice regarding the appropriateness of investing/trading or of any particular investment/trading strategy.

Online Trading Academy training centers are independently owned and operated and each location may set its own fees for classes.

A Note About Terminology Used on our Website

As used on this Website and in our communications, the word "professional" or "Professional" is used as an adjective to describe the exceptional quality of our education and the high standards we require of our instructors and personnel in all our Centers. None of our courses will provide education to become a Licensed Broker in the financial industry, or licensing in any other profession, and no course of instruction will lead to any job, employment or professional certification.

As used on this Website and in our communications, the word "Graduate" or "graduate" means any person who has experienced Professional Trader Part 1 and Part 2 and any person who has experienced any other combination of classes which total at least seven full days of our trading and investing education.

We Help You Minimize Trading Risk

At Online Trading Academy, we understand the risks involved in short term trading and emphasize risk management in our classes. Enroll in one of our free seminars to find out more!

Understanding Trading Risks

Electronic active trading involves special risks and may not be suitable for everyone. Electronic active trading may also involve a high volume of trading activity. Each trade generates a commission and the total daily commission on such a high volume of trading can be considerable.

Electronic active trading accounts should be considered speculative in nature with the objective being to generate short-term profits. This activity may result in the loss of more than 100% of an investment, which is the sole responsibility of the customer. An electronic active trader should understand the operation of a margin account under various market conditions and review his or her investment objectives, financial resources and risk tolerances to determine whether margin trading is appropriate for them. The increased leverage which margin provides may heighten risk substantially, including the risk of loss in excess of 100% of an investment.


JANUARY 27, 1999

Chairman Arthur Levitt today issued the following statement to investors:

The Internet and other new technologies are in many ways transforming how our capital markets operate. There are clear benefits to these changes including lower costs and faster access to the market for investors. I believe that investors need to remember the investment basics, and not allow the ease and speed with which they can trade to lull them either into a false sense of security or encourage them to trade too quickly or too often.

Over the last two years, particularly in recent months, the SEC has been hearing concerns about retail, on-line (Internet) investing. In fact, the number of complaints concerning on-line investing has increased 330 percent in the last year. Some of the issues raised specifically relate to on-line trading, others are generic to all investing. The majority of them can be addressed through better education and investors ensuring that they have done their homework.

Every day, more and more Americans are investing in the stock market, and many of them are doing so through the Internet. On-line brokerage accounts account for approximately 25 percent of all retail stock trades. And, the number of on-line brokerage accounts is expected to exceed 10 million by the end of the year.

While the manner in which orders are executed may be changing, the time-honored principles of evaluating a stock have not. An investor's consideration of the fundamentals of a company-net earnings, P/E ratios, the products or services offered by the company-should never lose their underlying importance.

Investing in the stock market-however you do it and however easy it may be-will always entail risk. I would be very concerned if investors allow the ease with which they can make trades to shortcut or bypass the three golden rules for all investors: (1) Know what you are buying; (2) Know the ground rules under which you buy and sell a stock or bond; and (3) Know the level of risk you are undertaking. On-line investors should remember that it is just as easy, if not more, to lose money through the click of a button as it is to make it.

In recent months, we have begun to identify a number of issues every on-line investor should be aware of. First, investors must understand the issues and limitations of on-line investing. You may occasionally experience delays on these new systems. Demand has grown so quickly that many firms are racing to keep pace with it. In the meantime, you may have trouble getting on-line or receiving timely confirmations of trade executions. You should not always expect "instantaneous" execution and reporting. There can and will be delays in electronic systems. You should investigate and understand options and alternatives to executing and confirming your orders if you encounter on-line problems.

Second, investors may sometimes be surprised at how quickly stock prices actually move. For example, many technology stocks have recently had dramatic and rapid price movements. When many investors attempt to purchase (or sell) the same stock at the same time, the price can move very quickly. Just because you see a price on your computer screen doesn't mean that you will always be able to get that price in a rapidly changing market. You should take precautions to ensure that you do not end up paying much more for a stock than you intended or can afford.

One way to do this is to use limit orders rather than market orders when submitting a trade in a "hot" stock. The result for investors that do not limit their risk can be quite surprising. Say an investor wanted to buy a stock in an IPO that was trading earlier at $9.00 and failed to specify the maximum they were willing to pay using a limit order. That investor could end up paying whatever price the stock has moved to at the time his order reaches the market -- $60, $90 or even more. If, on the other hand, the investor submitted a limit order to buy the stock at $11.00 or less, the order would only be executed if the market price had not moved past that level. Investors should understand the risk associated with trading in a rapidly moving market and make sure that they take all possible actions to control their risk.

Third, I am concerned that investors buying securities on margin may not fully understand the risks involved. In volatile markets, investors who have put up an initial margin payment for a stock may find themselves being required to provide additional cash (maintenance margin) if the price of the stock subsequently falls. If the funds are not paid in a timely manner, the brokerage firm has the right to sell the securities and charge any loss to the investor. When you buy stock on margin, you are borrowing money. And as the stock price changes, you may be required to increase the cash investment. Simply put, you should make sure that you do not over-extend.

Fourth, while new technology available to retail investors may resemble that of professional traders, retail investors should exercise caution before imitating the style of trading and risks undertaken by market professionals. For most individuals, the stock market should be used for investment not trading. Strategies such as day trading can be highly risky, and retail investors engaging in such activities should do so with funds they can afford to lose. I am very concerned when I hear of stories of student loan money, second mortgages or retirement funds being used to engage in this type of activity. Investment should be for the long-run, not for minutes or hours.

Millions of new investors have taken advantage of the unprecedented access and individual control the Internet provides. But, new opportunities present all of us with new responsibilities, challenges and risks. The SEC will do everything it can to protect and inform investors during this time of great innovation and change. But, investor protection-at its most basic and effective level-starts with the investor. I say to all investors-whether you invest on-line, on the phone, or in-person-know what you are buying, what the ground rules are, and what level of risk you are assuming.

Important Information about trading Foreign Exchange.

Trading foreign exchange is not for everyone. Trading foreign exchange on margin carries a high level of risk, and may not be suitable for all investors. The high degree of leverage can work against you as well as for you. Before deciding to trade foreign exchange you should carefully consider your investment objectives, level of experience, and risk appetite. The possibility exists that you could sustain a loss of some or all of your initial investment and therefore you should not invest money that you cannot afford to lose. You should be aware of all the risks associated with foreign exchange trading, and seek advice from an independent financial advisor if you have any doubts.

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Zero-sum game

Zero-sum gameZero-Sum Game

DEFINITION of 'Zero-Sum Game'

Zero-sum is a situation in game theory in which one person’s gain is equivalent to another’s loss, so the net change in wealth or benefit is zero. A zero-sum game may have as few as two players, or millions of participants.

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In game theory, the game of matching pennies is often cited as an example of a zero-sum game. The game involves two players, A and B, simultaneously placing a penny on the table. The payoff depends on whether the pennies match or not. If both pennies are heads or tails, Player A wins and keeps Player B’s penny; if they do not match, Player B wins and keeps Player A’s penny.

This is a zero-sum game because one player’s gain is the other’s loss. The payoffs for Players A and B are shown in the table below, with the first numeral in cells (a) through (d) representing Player A’s payoff, and the second numeral Player B’s playoff. As can be seen, the combined playoff for A and B in all four cells is zero.

Most other popular game theory strategies like the Prisoner’s Dilemma. Cournot Competition. Centipede Game and Deadlock are non-zero sum.

Zero-sum games are the opposite of win-win situations – such as a trade agreement that significantly increases trade between two nations – or lose-lose situations, like war for instance. In real life, however, things are not always so clear-cut, and gains and losses are often difficult to quantify.

A common misconception held by some is that the stock market is a zero-sum game. It isn’t, since investors may bid share prices up or down depending on numerous factors such as the economic outlook, profit forecasts and valuations, without a single share changing hands. Ultimately, the stock market is inextricably linked to the real economy, and both are powerful tools of wealth creation rather than zero-sum games.

‘Zero-Sum Game’ Theory Background

Game theory is a complex theoretical study in economics. The 1944 groundbreaking work “Theory of Games and Economic Behavior,” written by Hungarian-born American mathematician John von Neumann and co-written by Oskar Morgenstern, is the foundational text. Game theory is the study of strategic decision making between two or more intelligent and rational parties. The theory, when applied to economics, uses mathematical formulas and equations to predict outcomes in a transaction, taking into account many different factors, including gains, losses, optimality and individual behaviors.

Game theory can be used in a wide array of economic fields, including experimental economics. which uses experiments in a controlled setting to test economic theories with more real-world insight. In theory, zero-sum game is solved via three solutions, perhaps the most notable of which is the Nash Equilibrium. put forth by John Nash in his 1951 paper “Non-Cooperative Games.” The Nash equilibrium states that two or more opponents in the game, given knowledge of each others’ choices and that they will not receive any benefit from changing their choice, will therefore not deviate from their choice.

‘Zero-Sum Game’ Economics

When applied specifically to economics there are multiple factors to consider when understanding a zero-sum game. Zero-sum game assumes a version of perfect competition and perfect information; that is, both opponents in the model have all the relevant information to make an informed decision. To take a step back, most transactions or trades are inherently non zero-sum games because when two parties agree to trade they do so with the understanding that the goods or services they are receiving are more valuable than the goods or services they are trading for it, after transaction costs. This is called positive-sum, and most transactions fall under this category.

Options and futures trading is the closest practical example to a zero-sum game scenario. Options and futures are essentially informed bets on what the future price of a certain commodity will be in a strict timeframe. While this is a very simplified explanation of options and futures, generally if the price of that commodity rises (usually against market expectations) within that timeframe, you can sell the futures contract at a profit. Thus, if an investor makes money off of that bet, there will be a corresponding loss. This is why futures and options trading often comes with disclaimers to not be undertaken by inexperienced traders. However, futures and options provide liquidity for the corresponding markets and can be very successful for the right investor or company.

It is important to note that the stock market overall is often considered a zero-sum game, which is a misconception, along with other popular misunderstandings. Historically and in contemporary culture the stock market is often equated with gambling, which is definitely a zero-sum game. When an investor buys a stock, it is a share of ownership of a company that entitles that investor to a fraction of the company’s profits. The value of a stock can go up or down depending on the economy and a host of other factors, but ultimately, ownership of that stock will eventually result in a profit or a loss that is not based on chance or the guarantee of someone else’s loss. In contrast, gambling means that somebody wins the money of another who loses it.

There are other such myths regarding the stock market, some of which include: falling stocks must go up again at some point and stocks that go up must come down, as well as that the stock market is exclusively for the extremely wealthy.

Online Zero-sum game

Using genetic algorithms in quantitative trading

Using genetic algorithms in quantitative tradingUsing Genetic Algorithms in Quantitative Trading

The question one should always asked him/herself when using technical indicators is what would be an objective criteria to select indicators parameters (e. g. why using a 14 days RSI rather than 15 or 20 days?). Genetic algorithms (GA) are well suited tools to answer that question. In this post Ill show you how to set up the problem in R. Before I proceed the usual reminder: What I present in this post is just a toy example and not an invitation to invest. It’s not a finished strategy either but a research idea that needs to be further researched, developed and tailored to individual needs.

What are genetic algorithms?

The best description of GA I came across comes from Cybernatic Trading a book by Murray A. Ruggiero. Genetic Algorithms were invented by John Holland in the mid-1970 to solve hard optimisation problems. This method uses natural selection, survival of the fittest. The general process follows the steps below:

Encode the problem into chromosomes

Using the encoding, develop a fitness function for use in evaluating each chromosomes value in solving a given problem

Initialize a population of chromosomes

Evaluate each chromosome in the population

Create new chromosomes by mating two chromosomes. This is done by muting and recombining two parents to form two children (parents are selected randomly but biased by their fitness)

Evaluate the new chromosome

Delete a member of the population that is less fit than the new chromosome and insert the new chromosome in the population.

If the stop criteria is reached (maximum number of generations, fitness criteria is good enough) then return the best chromosome alternatively go to step 4

From a trading perspective GA are very useful because they are good at dealing with highly nonlinear problems. However they exhibit some nasty features that are worth mentioning:

Over fitting: This is the main problem and its down to the analyst to set up the problem in a way that minimises this risk.

Computing time . If the problem isnt properly defined, it can be extremely long to reach a decent solution and the complexity increases exponentially with the number of variables. Hence the necessity to carefully select the parameters.

There are several R packages dealing with GA, I chose to use the most common one: rgenoud

Daily closing prices for most liquid ETFs from Yahoo finance going back to January 2000. The in sample period goes from January 2000 to December 2010. The Out of sample period starts on January 2011.

The logic is as following: the fitness function is optimised over the in sample period to obtain a set of optimal parameters for the selected technical indicators. The performance of those indicators is then evaluated in the out of sample period. But before doing so the technical indicators have to be selected.

The equity market exhibits two main characteristics that are familiar to anyone with some trading experience. Long term momentum and short term reversal. Those features can be translated in term of technical indicators by: moving averages cross over and RSI. This represents a set of 4 parameters: Look-back periods for long and short term moving averages, look-back period for RSI and RSI threshold. The sets of parameters are the chromosomes . The other key element is the fitness function . We might want to use something like: maximum return or Sharpe ratio or minimum average Drawdown. In what follows, I chose to maximise the Sharpe ratio.

The R implementation is a set of 3 functions:

fitnessFunction . defines the fitness function (e. g. maximum Sharpe ratio) to be used within the GA engine

tradingStatistics . summary of trading statistics for the in and out of sample periods for comparison purposes

genoud . the GA engine from the rgenoud package

The genoud function is rather complex but Im not going to explain what each parameter means as I want to keep this post short (and the documentation is really good).

In the table below I present for each instrument the optimal parameters (RSI look-back period, RSI threshold, Short Term Moving Average, and Long Term Moving Average) along with the in and out of sample trading statistics.

Using Genetic Algorithms in Quantitative Trading

(This article was first published on The R Trader » R . and kindly contributed to R-bloggers)

The question one should always asked him/herself when using technical indicators is what would be an objective criteria to select indicators parameters (e. g. why using a 14 days RSI rather than 15 or 20 days?). Genetic algorithms (GA) are well suited tools to answer that question. In this post Ill show you how to set up the problem in R. Before I proceed the usual reminder: What I present in this post is just a toy example and not an invitation to invest. It’s not a finished strategy either but a research idea that needs to be further researched, developed and tailored to individual needs.

What are genetic algorithms?

The best description of GA I came across comes from Cybernatic Trading a book by Murray A. Ruggiero. Genetic Algorithms were invented by John Holland in the mid-1970 to solve hard optimisation problems. This method uses natural selection, survival of the fittest. The general process follows the steps below:

Encode the problem into chromosomes

Using the encoding, develop a fitness function for use in evaluating each chromosomes value in solving a given problem

Initialize a population of chromosomes

Evaluate each chromosome in the population

Create new chromosomes by mating two chromosomes. This is done by muting and recombining two parents to form two children (parents are selected randomly but biased by their fitness)

Evaluate the new chromosome

Delete a member of the population that is less fit than the new chromosome and insert the new chromosome in the population.

If the stop criteria is reached (maximum number of generations, fitness criteria is good enough) then return the best chromosome alternatively go to step 4

From a trading perspective GA are very useful because they are good at dealing with highly nonlinear problems. However they exhibit some nasty features that are worth mentioning:

Over fitting: This is the main problem and its down to the analyst to set up the problem in a way that minimises this risk.

Computing time . If the problem isnt properly defined, it can be extremely long to reach a decent solution and the complexity increases exponentially with the number of variables. Hence the necessity to carefully select the parameters.

There are several R packages dealing with GA, I chose to use the most common one: rgenoud

Daily closing prices for most liquid ETFs from Yahoo finance going back to January 2000. The in sample period goes from January 2000 to December 2010. The Out of sample period starts on January 2011.

The logic is as following: the fitness function is optimised over the in sample period to obtain a set of optimal parameters for the selected technical indicators. The performance of those indicators is then evaluated in the out of sample period. But before doing so the technical indicators have to be selected.

The equity market exhibits two main characteristics that are familiar to anyone with some trading experience. Long term momentum and short term reversal. Those features can be translated in term of technical indicators by: moving averages cross over and RSI. This represents a set of 4 parameters: Look-back periods for long and short term moving averages, look-back period for RSI and RSI threshold. The sets of parameters are the chromosomes . The other key element is the fitness function . We might want to use something like: maximum return or Sharpe ratio or minimum average Drawdown. In what follows, I chose to maximise the Sharpe ratio.

The R implementation is a set of 3 functions:

fitnessFunction . defines the fitness function (e. g. maximum Sharpe ratio) to be used within the GA engine

tradingStatistics . summary of trading statistics for the in and out of sample periods for comparison purposes

genoud . the GA engine from the rgenoud package

The genoud function is rather complex but Im not going to explain what each parameter means as I want to keep this post short (and the documentation is really good).

In the table below I present for each instrument the optimal parameters (RSI look-back period, RSI threshold, Short Term Moving Average, and Long Term Moving Average) along with the in and out of sample trading statistics.

Online Using genetic algorithms in quantitative trading

Guild wars2trading post gw2

Guild wars2trading post gw2Guild Wars 2 Trading Post GW2

Guild Wars 2 trading post is the best game market ever created. It may seem complex, but this app can help you score some great trades and line your pockets. Search trading post prices from work or anywhere your device has a data connection.

Now you can see what the highest profit items on the trading post are. Now you will not need to log in and search through all items one at a time to see where the most profit is. If you want to look for all insignias, just type in “insignia” and you will see the markup for the highest margin insignias. You can search for “Recipe: “, “Sigil”, “Feast”, get creative. If you want to search for everything, just use a blank but be careful. If there is over 1000% markup, I find that often buyers will simply stay away or go farm the item themselves. If you can double or triple your gold, take the profit and trade again the next day.

This is my first attempt to format and make this information available publicly. Please be patient and leave feedback to help me refine this app. There are over 30k items in guildwars 2. I recommend finding your own items that you like to trade to try and avoid overlap or competition with other auction house flippers.

This app is not affiliated with or endorsed by ArenaNet even though I live in gw2 ?. This is meant to assist users with their online gaming.

Note: on small screens, the bid and ask columns may be hidden from view. The markup and name should still fit on your screen.

Key words: Guild Wars 2, gw2, mmo, wow, trading post, auction house, black lion, profit make gold auction house, current item prices

Online Guild wars2trading post gw2

Commodity market ppt

Commodity market pptPlease Upload A Seminar Or Project Report/Code/Material/Presentation Here

Commodity Market.

Commodity Market..ppt (Size: 1.08 MB / Downloads: 270)

A commodity is anything for which there is demand, but which is supplied without qualitative differentiation across a markets.

They are things of value, of uniform quality, that are produced in large quantities by many different producers; the items from each different producer are considered equivalent.

Global classification of commodities

Precious Metals: Gold, Silver, Platinum, etc.

Other Metals: Nickel, Aluminum, Copper, Zinc, etc.

Agro-Based Commodities: Wheat, Rice, Corn, Cotton, Oils, Oilseeds, etc.

Soft Commodities: Coffee, Cocoa, Sugar, etc.

Petrochemicals: High Density Polyethylene, Polypropylene.

Energy: Crude Oil, Natural Gas, Gasoline, etc.

Rare metals

The following metals are not, at present (2008), traded on any exchange, such as the London Metal Exchange (LME), and, therefore, no spot or futures market, where producers, consumers and traders can fix an official or settlement price exists for these metals. The only price information that is available globally is published by, among others, the London Metal Bulletin and is based on information from producers, consumers and traders. Germanium, Cadmium, Cobalt, Chromium, Magnesium, Manganese, Molybdenum, Silicon, Rhodium, Selenium, Titanium, Vanadium, Wolframite, Niobium, Lithium, Indium, Gallium, Tantalum, Tellurium, and Beryllium.

Agricultural products

The following Agricultural Products are not, at present (2008), traded on any exchange, and, therefore, no spot or futures market where producers, consumers and traders can fix an official or settlement price exists for these minerals. Generally the only price information that is available is based on information from producers, consumers and traders.

Fresh Flowers, Cut Flowers, Melons, Lemons, Tung Oil, Gum Arabic, Pine Oil, Xanthan, Milk, Tomatoes, Grapes, Eggs, Potatoes, and Figs.

Commodities – An Alternate Asset Class

Returns are independent of other asset classes

Low correlation with other asset classes

Its returns cannot be replicated with combination of other asset classes

Positively correlated with inflation whereas bonds equities are negatively


Have independent risk/return profile

Commodity market

Commodity market is a place where trading in commodities takes place. These are the markets where raw and primary products are exchanged.

These raw commodities are traded on regulated commodity exchanges, in which they are bought and sold in standardized contracts. It is similar to an equity market, but instead of buying or selling shares one buys or sells commodities.

Regulatory Issues

Forward Markets Commission is a regulatory body for commodity futures/ forward trade in India.

The regulation is needed to create competitive conditions. In the absence of regulation, unscrupulous participants could use these leveraged contracts for manipulating prices.

To ensure that the market has appropriate risk management system. In the absence of such a system, a major default could create a chain reaction.

The financial crisis in a futures market can create systematic risk.

To ensure fairness and transparency in trading, clearing, settlement and management of the exchange so as to protect and promote the interest of various stakeholders.

Online Commodity market ppt

Employee development

Employee developmentEmployee development

The vital importance of employee development

If you spend the same amount of time and energy developing people as you do on budgeting, strategic planning and financial monitoring, the payoff will come in sustainable competitive advantage.

Employee development as an important business tool

Employee development can help your organization:

build alignment

increase employee morale, engagement, productivity and retention

preserve organizational memory/knowledge/domain expertise

establish and maintain a competitive advantage

Employees now view their relationship with their employer as a partnership. They expect the organization to commit to developing and enriching their skills and experiences — making them more employable.

The return on this investment? Loyalty.

Online Employee development

The importance of practice and mentoring with justin krebs

The importance of practice and mentoring with justin krebsThe Importance of Practice and Mentoring with Justin Krebs

Subscribe to the Weekly Newsletter published by Online Trading Academy. Receive the full newsletter with charts!

After the Psychology show with Dr. Woody Johnson on Monday, may listeners sent in questions regarding strengths and weaknesses, both internally and in the market. Merlin and Justin Krebs look at how the art of practice can be a very powerful tool if what you are practicing is correct! Justin talks about mentoring and how he guides his students in the XLT (Extended Learning Track) to overcome the common pitfalls and practice the right way to do things. This can have a profound effect on ones trading success! Justin shares his thoughts on the current situation of the EURO, Dollar and Japanese Yen.

Online The importance of practice and mentoring with justin krebs

Thread forex certification and

Thread forex certification andThread: FOREX Certification and/or License

FOREX Certification and/or License

I've been trading for about a year. Obviously still learning alot, and while I do have TONS of questions I'll stick to just one. Recently I was looking at job applications (I am in college) and under Skills and such things, they had a drop down menu and you could select if any apply to you.

One of them was something like FOREX Certified/Licensed Trader. What exactly does that mean, and how do I go about obtaining such a certificate? I am planning on sticking with trading for a long time and it would be nice if I could somehow relay this to future employers.

I'm guessing such a certificate would be quite helpful to tell them I'm not just some random kid who's done 10 trades and calls himself a trader.

Online Thread forex certification and

A simple momentum swing trading strategy

A simple momentum swing trading strategyA Simple Momentum Swing Trading Strategy

What is Swing Trading?

Swing trading is a strategy that requires close attention to both charts and fundamental news flows. It is popular with those who like a “hands on approach”. It works by trading on the recurring movements or swings that happen in currency markets.

Swing trading doesn’t have to use a particular timeframe, even though some people define it as a trading system that holds position for less than one week. Swings happen at all timeframes so it is more logical to define it as a system that enters and exits the market during any kind of price waves.

Momentum swing trading with Triple SMA

Swing Trading Into the Trend

Most swing strategies trade in the direction of the prevailing trend. With this strategy the trader aims to enter long on rising momentum and enter short on falling momentum. They aim to time their entries to coincide with the natural market rhythm thereby buying into troughs and selling into peaks.

With a strict momentum based trading system, the swing trader will only trade in the direction of the main trend. They would not hold a short position against an upward trend. Similarly, they would not go long in a prevailing downward trend.

Many swing traders say this is more logical because there is less chance of being “wrong sided” when a short-term trend changes direction.

Swing Trading Against the Trend

Many compare swing trading against the trend to picking pennies off a busy highway. Because it involves moving against the tide of the market, this approach runs a higher risk of failure.

The aim of the trading style is to work on the upswings that take place counter-to the main trend. That is, in an uptrend, the swing trader will enter the market as the price drops through a short-term correction. In a downtrend, the strategy will enter long into the short-term upswings.

Why use this method when it seems prone to failure? The attraction for those using this technique is that corrective swings against the main trend can be more powerful and rapid than swings into the trend.

There is also the bonus of potentially catching an explosive breakout that takes place when the main trend changes course. In these events, the price can move percentage points within a short space of time. In reality, many reverse swing traders miss-out on these moves because they close positions as soon as there’s a modest profit.

Momentum Swing Trading

With swing trading, good timing is essential to profitability. With each swing, the amount of profit captured is relatively small. A trader will usually target at least 20 pips on each swing. With lower amounts, the spread and fees will absorb a high percentage of the profits.

This makes swing trading a system that relies on skillful use of charting tools. combined with a sound fundamental viewpoint .

The trading rules for momentum swing trading

Several technical indicators are helpful for swing trading. However, the most basic preferred by many are a combination of moving average lines and support/resistance levels .

To use this system you will need to plot three moving averages on the chart.

Main trend line

Fast trend line

Slow trend line

Because three moving averages are used, traders sometimes call this a Triple SMA system (triple simple moving average) or a just crossover system. Some traders use other averages such as the exponential or the weighted. In my experience, simple moving averages will work just as well as the more complex ones.

It works as follows:

Enter long side only when the price is above the main trend line . Generally, this is the 200 period moving average. This indicates strong upward momentum.

Enter the short side only when the price drops below the trend line. This indicates strong downward momentum.

The entries as signaled by crossover of the fast and slow line. With momentum swings, the system trades in the general direction of the trend.

This makes certain that when a trend is rising the strategy is long, and when falling it is short.

A value based swing strategy does the opposite to the above. That is, it buys when the price is below the trend line and sells when above. The belief is that the price will revert to the mean over time.

That is when above the main trend line it must be overvalued and the price should fall. Conversely, when the price is below the trend line the currency pair is undervalued and should rise back towards the mean.

Figure 1 shows the momentum strategy in action. Here there are three moving average lines shown on the chart.

Trend line – the 200 period simple moving average (black)

Fast line – The 8 period moving average (orange)

Slow line – The 25 period moving average (green)

Buy side entry signal:

The price should be above the main trend line

A buy order is placed when the fast line crosses upwards through (or close to) the slow line

Buy side exit signal:

The fast line crosses downwards through (or close to) the slow line

Alternative, when the trade passes a certain profit target – for example 30 pips.

Some traders also wait for a confirmation that the closing of the next bar does in fact re-establish the crossover.

Figure 1: Buy signals - Accelerating upward momentum

Figure 2 below shows the same action, in reverse. That is trading a downward trend.

Sell side entry signal:

The price should be below the main trend line.

A sell order is placed when the fast line falls downwards below the slow line.

Sell side exit signal:

The fast line crosses back upwards through the slow line.

Alternatively, close occurs after the position reaches a set profit target.

Figure 2: Sell signals - Accelerating downward momentum

Don’t Forget Support/Resistances

One thing to keep in mind when using chart strategies like this is the price action itself. The more complex indicators can sometimes detract from the basics of examining price movements, support and resistance levels or in analyzing other related markets.

Using basic support and resistance lines will greatly improve your success rate. This will help you to determine where price levels are likely to “stick” and encounter an impasse. This can be useful in deciding where to placing stops or even when to avoid the trade altogether.

Dealing with False Signals

As with any technical strategy, swing traders have to learn to deal with false signals. Moving averages like other chart indicators tend to create a lot of noise and this will generate false entry and exit points from time to time. A failure rate of around 20-30% is the norm.

False positives happen when the signal indicates an entry but it fails to produce a profitable outcome. False negatives happen when the signal fails to indicate an entry that would have produced a profitable trade.

Figure 3 below shows some typical examples of false signals.

The first area shows a set of “noisy” false buy signals. The fast line moves up through the slow line but the price immediately reverses and pulls back towards the trend. On falling back, the price rises again and creates a second false signal. Staying out of the trade when the price is moving closely down to (or up towards) the trend line is one way to avoid this.

The second example shows two potentially ambiguous sell signals. The fast line moves above the slow briefly and then falls to create a false signal. The price however changes direction and moves higher, back above the trend line. Again, avoiding entries when the price is close to the trend line can overcome these kinds of false starts.

Figure 3: Ambiguous signals - False buys and false sells.

Trend Reversals

While some swing traders use purely technical systems, the more successful ones are those who use a fundamental overlay.

One of the skills a swing trader needs to learn is when and if the sentiment or fundamentals have changed. Trend reversals normally do not happen without good reason. Major trends turn either:

When the economic fundamentals affecting the currencies have changed (or those of related currencies)

When the price has overshot fair value and enters a corrective phase

Also, don’t suppose that the market will turn immediately on a new piece of economic data. Sometimes it can take time to assimilate and for the trend to reverse. These present good opportunities.

Profitable swing traders use economic fundamentals as the backstop to their strategy and this helps them anticipate trend behaviors.

For example, an upside breakout is far more likely when the central bank has increased its growth forecasts, or when its interest rate policy is revised upwards. Similarly, a downside break is more likely after a downbeat economic forecast.

Swing Trading Versus Buy and Hold

If you’ve scanned around the Internet, you’ll probably see that there have been extensive studies comparing the performance of swing traders with buy and hold traders. All of the reputable ones that I’ve seen show that over the long haul very few swing traders (or any kind of in/out traders) are able to outperform a simple buy and hold system.

They do however point to the fact that a small minority of traders are able to buck the trend and turn a profit over the year even after adding in trading fees. Whether these are just outliers, who’ll return to below average returns over time is not known.

Buy and hold traders claim that the most profitable way to capitalize on any trend is to simply enter early and hold your position until the trend slows or reverses. Less trade volume also avoids mounting trading costs.

The risk to the swing trader is that by dipping in and out of the market they can miss the big moves.

Which system you choose is a matter of choice.

Online A simple momentum swing trading strategy

Free training

Free trainingFree Training

Proper training is crucial. Traders need to have the right preparation and expertise before attempting to trade currencies with real funds.

Our firm puts a lot of emphasis into the training, development and mentoring of our traders.

Our training program was created to teach our clients a step-by-step strategy to trade foreign currencies.

Learn the key to trading Forex successfully. Great for those who want to know how to trade professionally for a living.

Here are the next available dates for our online training sessions:

To Be Announced (TBA): Register below and we will notify you when the next webinar is scheduled.

The times above are the same as the times in the popular countries/regions below:

TBA (London, England)

TBA (New Delhi, India)

TBA (Sydney, Australia)

TBA (Lagos, Nigeria)

Time in New York If your city is not listed above, please compare your local time to the current time in New York and use the time difference to calculate your exact date and times for the Free Webinar.

Who Qualifies for this Training?

Everyone. No qualification is required to participate. All you need to do is to fill out the form to register for the training. Learn more .

What About if You Dont Want to Trade Your Own Money?

Dont worry. You can open a robot account with as little as US$10,000 and let it trade your account for you, 24-hours a day, 6 days a week.

If you do want to trade, open an account with $250 or more and receive our powerful trading e-book designed by our professional traders - a practical, step-by-step strategy to trade FX.

This strategy will show you when to enter and exit a trade, how many lots to trade, and how to manage your position from beginning to end. Even though it is not as extensive as our live training, the e-book was designed by our in-house trading team and is very easy to understand.

Who Can Benefit from Our Free Training?

When we designed our training program, we realized that we would not only come across beginners that wanted to learn how to start day trading, but also more experienced traders that already had some stock or futures trading experience. The following list indicates who are some of the people that our training is for:

Investors who want to learn how to trade for the first time.

Day traders with stock market or futures trading experience that want to give Forex trading a try.

Traders or investors who are struggling and want to learn a systematic way to trade currencies.

What Does the Complete Training Program Consist of?

Our hand-son training program is designed to give new and experienced traders alike all the necessary tools to start buying and selling currencies in the foreign exchange market. Some of the topics covered are:

Information about how the FX market works and how investors and traders can benefit from it.

How to use the trading platform, including:

1. Interpreting Forex quotes and other financial information.

2. Mastering the different types of orders available to buy and sell currencies.

3. Using different charts and technical studies.

A step-by-step strategy to trade foreign currencies, which includes:

1. Determining when to enter a trade to buy or sell.

2. Setting and managing stop losses.

3. Using proper money management and risk control.

Free e-book with training materials. This will serve as a great reference for traders. The e-book will be emailed to customers.

Online Free training

Online trading malaysia

Online trading malaysiaOnline Trading Platform CyberTrade Overview

CyberTrade is a comprehensive web-based, real-time Electronic Client Ordering System (ECOS) that facilitates clients with the ease and convenience of online share trading for all securities listed on Bursa Malaysia. Through this service, clients can place orders through our affiliate stock broker, A. A. Anthony Securities Sdn. Bhd. through the internet.

Here’s a quick look at what you’ll discover inside CyberTrade :

Trading on Bursa Malaysia:

Live Stock Quotations for All Securities

Live Order Confirmation *

Intraday Stock Tracker

Stock Alerts

Profit/Loss Calculator

Favorites List

Off-Market Deals

Company Financials

Key Market Indices

Market Statistics Scoreboard

Market Trade Monitor

Up-to-Date Market Stock Announcements/News

Bernama News

Client PMS provides reports, real-time calculations, multiple account management, online updates of all order status and mark-to-market profit loss on all your outstanding stock portfolio/s. It is an excellent tool for investors to manage their portfolios and trading histories.

*. Applicable only to trading clients

Technical Analysis Solutions

Technical analysis (TA) describes different ways of predicting the future of the stock market based on its history. Unfortunately, technical analysis is not an exact science. Many prominent scientists label it as voodoo science. They claim that due to market efficiency, if you use TA to find your entry positions, you’re no better off than someone who chooses those positions randomly. Market efficiency means that all the available information is already priced in to the stock, and that you can only guess how the price will behave in the future.

The voodoo science theory would make sense if it wasn’t for the fact that there are a significant number of investors/traders who are able to consistently make profits in the stock market. These investors/traders use technical analysis as their main tool. Since any investor/trader has or can have access to the same TA tools, we have to ask how a small group of investors/traders can consistently win and the other larger groups, more or less, consistently lose money in the stock market. What is it that winning investors/traders know about technical analysis that gives them the upper hand?

The answer is simple: Technical Analysis works but not necessarily for the reason most people believe. Many successful investors/traders don’t want to share this secret. TA works because many people use it, and successful investors/traders are able to predict how other people will react on the different TA indicators and signals. In other words, while the losing investors/traders are using TA to determine their positions, the winning investors/traders are winning because they know how the losers are going to react based on this data. For example, when the price of a stock goes below one of the key moving averages, (MA’s) many investors sell that stock to protect themselves against additional losses. By doing so, they will drive the price of that stock lower and that will prompt some investors/traders to start short selling that stock in anticipation of further declines. Prices continue their downward trend, forcing investors/traders who were long on that stock to sell their positions because it is going below their stop limits. This creates a domino effect as the price continues to decline. However, at this point, successful investors/traders realize that most of the current price action was created artificially. They start to enter positions on the buy side and more often than not the price starts to reverse. The losing investors/traders have already sold their positions based on the TA indicators and/or signals. The winning investors/traders buy the stock because they understand that the fluctuation was temporary, and they seize the opportunity based on the losing investors’/trader’s reactions.

No TA indicator by itself will give you reliable buy or sell sigals. There is no Holy Grail or magic black box that will give you the perfect, accurate signal. However, the combination of the right group of TA indicators with discipline and adequate trading capital has been the road to fortune for many investors/traders.

Forex - The Forex Online Market In Malaysia

Welcome to the world of forex online trading. With the advent of the internet, much of what was once the playground of the few have now become accesible to the general public. In Malaysia, anyone with a Streamyx account can begin trading forex online. And many have. The boom of forex online trading in Malaysia carries on year by year with more and more individuals entering the forex exchange market.

A far cry from the days when forex trading was limited to only two methods. Phone trading via your broker of choice or floor trading yourself. While some still place their orders through the telephone (Mainly high rollers that want a voice confirmation), only a few have the skills and nerves required for floor trading. For the rest of us living in Malaysia, there's forex online trading. Forex brokers today have made it extremely easy for anyone to begin trading on the forex online market. All you need is a credit card, paypal account or a bank account to wire funds into your account.

Unfortunately there is a downside to the forex online trading situation. Due to the ease of which anyone can begin forex trading, the vast majority of budding forex online traders never make consistent profits. This is because most people do not take the time to learn the important aspects of the forex exchange market. Too many beginners are too eager to dump in credits into their forex online accounts and begin trading. Here are Forextrading. my we feel that upwards of 90% of all new forex online traders will go one to blow at least 3 accounts in their first year. And when that happens they quickly change strategies or sign up for any promising courses or forex signals. Thus, the cycle begins with the forex online trader continously hopping from one strategy to another until they are finally out of credits to trade with. In such a scenario, there are only a few winners (Brokers) and many losers (Us). We see this happening time and time again without any sign of change. Beginner starts, wins a bit of money (strangely), dumps in more money and gets fried.

The staff at forextrading. my highly recommends that all beginners to the forex online market here in Malaysia take no less than 6 months to a year to demo trade. During this period you will undoubtledly learn that most strategies do not work all the time over longer periods of time. It is also here that you will learn the importance of money management, restraint and self-discipline. Combine these three traits with a solid forex trading strategy and you have already won half the battle.

Its also important to remember that to become a good forex online trader, you must be in it for the long haul. Trying for a few months will not get you anywhere. Since new techniques are constantly being developed, the forex online trader is constantly learning and augmenting their system to adapt to current conditions. The modifications are usually minor once the forex trader develops a solid system that does well over the course of a few years.

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Data retrieval from video youtube

Data retrieval from video youtubeData retrieval from video youtube

avram said: 01-12-2014 03:51 PM

Data retrieval from video youtube

I have a problem and I can not solve it.

The problem is, if I have a video (youtube) that contains its ID (-) as dMzbvz-nBqI, the code skips it and does not display data.

function youtubeFeedCallback(data)

var img = data. entry. media$group. media$thumbnail[3].url;

var title = data. entry. title.$t. replace('forexonline1', '');

var dur = Math. floor(data. entry. media$group. yt$duration. seconds / 60) + ':' + (data. entry. media$group. yt$duration. seconds % 60);

var rating = ra ;

var view = data. entry. yt$statistics. viewCount;

var des = data. entry. media$group. media$description.$t. replace(/ /g, '<br/>');

var url= data. entry. media$group. media$player. url;

document. write('<div style=width:200px; height:150px; border: #666 1px solid; margin:5px; float:right; text-align:right;>');

document. write('<a href='+url+'><img src='+img+' width=200px height=150px></a><br>');

document. write(title+'<br>');

//document. write(dur+'<br>');

document. write(rating+'<br>');

document. write(view+'<br>');

//document. write(des+'<br>');

document. write('</div>');

document. write('<scr'+'ipt type=text/javascript src=gdata. youtube/feeds/api/videos/'+vv+'?v=2amp;alt=json-in-scriptamp;callback=youtubeFeedCallback ></scr'+'ipt>');

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Enigma forex team

Enigma forex teamForex Trading Software

Enigma Trading Software is the innovative program keeping the customer updated of any appropriate new investing opportunities on the forex and idnices markets. The Software is fully automated and you will be informed about forex news and forex live signals with no delays. Our Forex signals are suggestion for entering a trade on a currency pair, usually at a specific price and time. Enigma Trading Software alert you to trade opportunities in the market. As a trader, no matter how diligently you watch the market you simply can't follow the market 24 hours a day. And depending on what part of the world you live in it may be more difficult to trade certain markets. Our Trading Software will help you not to miss any trading chances.

Free Forex Signals

© 2015 - Mario - Enigma Forex Team ·

Disclaimer: Trading foreign exchange (“Forex”), Commodity futures, options, CFDs and SpreadBetting on margin carries a high level of risk, and may not be suitable for all investors. Before deciding to trade foreign exchange (“Forex”), Commodity futures, options, CFDs or SpreadBetting you should carefully consider your monetary objectives, level of experience, and risk appetite. The possibility exists that you could sustain a loss of some or all of your deposited funds and therefore you should not speculate with capital that you cannot afford to lose. You should be aware of all the risks associated with foreign exchange, Commodity futures, options, CFDs and SpreadBetting trading, and seek advice from an independent advisor if you have any doubts. Past returns are not indicative of future results.


You understand that there is no trading system or recommendation service that is free from the risk of loss. Enigma Forex does not imply or guarantee that you will make a profit and you agree that neither Enigma Forex nor any of its officers, directors, employees, consultants, agents or affiliates will be held responsible for the performance of the signals generated by third parties and transferred by the Application to Your brokers trading account or trading losses in your account. If you do not agree with the terms of the Disclaimer, please exit the website and do not use any of its products and services.

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Forex broker lots

Forex broker lotsForex Broker Lots

Updated: May 16, 2013 at 10:25 AM

In the forex market, the term "lot" usually refers to the minimum transaction amount for a particular currency pair. Lot sizes will usually be expressed in terms of the base currency for that pair, but might also be denominated in U. S. Dollars due to the overwhelming prevalence of trading in that currency.

The Interbank forex market does not generally have lots or lot sizes since virtually any amount can deal in the over the counter or OTC forex market.

Instead, the concept of lots seems to have been borrowed by retail forex brokers from the futures market where currencies have traded in lots for years.

Pros and Cons of Lots

By having to use fixed lot sizes when they trade, a trader's work is simplified to some extent since they can deal and think in terms of the number of lots rather than the exact amount of currency traded.

Nevertheless, trading in lots does somewhat reduce a trader's ability to fine tune the sizes of their positions to the precise amount of trading risk they wish to take.

Lot and Account Sizes

Mini accounts generally involve trading lots one tenth the size of those traded in standard accounts, while micro account lots are usually one tenth the size of mini account lots.

Since trading standard lots that consist of 100,000 units of the base currency can be extremely capital intensive in an under funded account, many online forex brokers also offer mini accounts with 10,000 unit lot sizes and where the minimum value fluctuation is just $1.

Some online forex brokerages even offer micro accounts which have lot sizes one tenth the size of a mini account or 1,000 units and have a minimum fluctuation of $0.10. This type of account can be ideal for a beginner that wants to learn about trading forex without risking large amounts of money.

Lots and Leverage

A typical online retail forex broker will offer a 100:1 leverage ratio which means that only a margin deposit of 1% is required to hold a given position. In the U. S. the maximum leverage is 50:1 for majors and 20:1 for minors.

Taking advantage of this sort of leverage, a forex trader could control a position in one standard 100,000 base currency unit lot with only a 1,000 base currency unit balance in their account.

Of course, this would make holding a leveraged position at a ratio of 100:1 in such a standard lot with only 1,000 base currency units on deposit extremely risky to hold.

In fact, a sudden spike or downturn in the market adverse to your position could easily wipe out the entire account balance with a 100 pip move - just one U. S. cent or 0.0100 in the EUR/USD currency pair - which is not an uncommon size of move seen in the forex market on a daily basis.

A trader in such a loss situation would probably have their position automatically closed by their retail forex broker. Also, further trading would generally be put on hold until additional funding was provided to the account to be used as margin for trading positions.

Risk Statement: Trading Foreign Exchange on margin carries a high level of risk and may not be suitable for all investors. The possibility exists that you could lose more than your initial deposit. The high degree of leverage can work against you as well as for you.

Online Forex broker lots

Thread harmonic pattern recognition software

Thread harmonic pattern recognition softwareHarmonic Pattern Recognition Software

Join Date Nov 2007 Location BC, Canada Posts 3,191

I really recommend this thread 30 Pips A day Keeps the your money at bay for explaining how to use fibs and helping you master them. It's a huge thread but just focus on the first few or so pages and watch the video, then scan the rest which are mostly examples of others learning too. Also you could consider getting the book Trade What you See, and I recall other reference sources being linked to in the thread too.

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Online trading academy reviews uk binary option platform

Online trading academy reviews uk binary option platformOnline trading academy reviews uk. Binary Option Platform

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Leaps trading strategies powerful techniques for options trading success

Leaps trading strategies powerful techniques for options trading successLeaps Trading Strategies: Powerful Techniques for Options Trading Success

Investors are increasingly turning to LEAPS (Long-Term Equity AnticiPation Securities) to combine the advantages of options trading with the benefits and security of a longer time frame. Here, Marty Kearney of the Options Institute at the Chicago Board Options Exchange examines the wide range of practical and effective strategies for managing LEAPS, and shows you how to match these strategies to your own risk profile. Learn how to tailor your options program using LEAPS and devise key strategies to improve profitability, protect paper profits, and avoid losses in long stock positions. Use LEAPS to produce monthly income Identify key elements in determining LEAPS prices Master LEAPS symbols and expiration cycles Insure your portfolio against market pullbacks Manage year-end tax consequences Establish security positions with little risk Kearney walks you through the inner workings of LEAPS and shows you compelling strategies for incorporating them into your overall approach to market. With instant access to the online video, you'll have everything you need to begin profiting with LEAPS. Read Less

Customer Reviews

Publisher Marketplace Books

Publisher Marketplace Books

LEAPS Trading Strategies: Powerful Techniques for Options Trading Success


Run Time:  82 minutes. Investors are increasingly turning to LEAPS® to combine the advantages of options investing with the benefits and security a longer timeframe offers. Now, the popular Options Industry Council instructor Marty Kearney of the Chicago Board Options Exchange walks you through the inner workings of LEAPS® (Long-Term Equity AnticiPation Securities), outlining key strategies for incorporating this powerful tool

into your overall investment strategy.

With a comprehensive online support manual, Kearneys hands-on presentation focuses on a full range of methods for using LEAPS® to reach your investment goals. Youll learn to use LEAPS® as a substitute for stock ownership, for beefing up your portfolios profit picture, and for simultaneously reducing your overall cash outlay. Kearney goes on to detail a variety of advanced strategies for using LEAPS® for everything from producing added monthly income and insuring your portfolio against

market pullbacks, to managing year-end tax consequences and establishing security positions with little risk. Viewers get an invaluable set of strategic lessons for mastering the most effective, most current LEAPS® trading techniques.

Benefit from Kearneys expertise and insight as he helps you

Identify the key elements involved in determining LEAPS® prices.

Understand the confusing nature of LEAPS® symbols expiration cycles.

Deal with time decay - the key to profiting on your options trades.

Recognize the advantages of LEAPS® over short-term options.

Protect your long positions by marrying them to LEAPS® puts.

Use LEAPS® to protectively collar stock positions at zero cost.

Whether viewed as a stand-alone workshop or a companion to Kearneys bestselling book, Understanding Leaps, this in-depth presentation puts LEAPS® investing firmly within the grasp of every active investor.

LEAPS Trading Strategies: Powerful Techniques for Options Trading Success


Investors are increasingly turning to LEAPS (Long-Term Equity AnticiPation Securities) to combine the advantages of options trading with the benefits and security of a longer time frame. Here, Marty Kearney of the Options Institute at the Chicago Board Options Exchange examines the wide range of practical and effective strategies for managing LEAPS, and shows you how to match these strategies to your own risk profile.

Learn how to tailor your options program using LEAPS and devise key strategies to improve profitability, protect paper profits, and avoid losses in long stock positions.

Use LEAPS to produce monthly income

Identify key elements in determining LEAPS prices

Master LEAPS symbols and expiration cycles

Insure your portfolio against market pullbacks

Manage year-end tax consequences

Establish security positions with little risk

Kearney walks you through the inner workings of LEAPS and shows you compelling strategies for incorporating them into your overall approach to market. With instant access to the online video, you'll have everything you need to begin profiting with LEAPS.



Investors are increasingly turning to LEAPS(r) to combine the advantages of options investing with the benefits and security a longer timeframe offers. Now, the popular Options Industry Council instructor Marty Kearney of the Chicago Board Options Exchange walks you through the inner workings of LEAPS(r) (Long-Term Equity AnticiPation Securities), outlining key strategies for incorporating this powerful tool into your overall investment strategy. With a comprehensive online support manual, Kearney's hands-on presentation focuses on a full range of methods for using LEAPS(r) to reach your investment goals. You'll learn to use LEAPS(r) as a substitute for stock ownership, for beefing up your portfolio's profit picture, and for simultaneously reducing your overall cash outlay. Kearney goes on to detail a variety of advanced strategies for using LEAPS(r) for everything from producing added monthly income and insuring your portfolio against market pullbacks, to managing year-end tax consequences and establishing security positions with little risk. Viewers get an invaluable set of strategic lessons for mastering the most effective, most current LEAPS(r) trading techniques. Benefit from Kearney's expertise and insight as he helps you. * Identify the key elements involved in determining LEAPS(r) prices. * Understand the confusing nature of LEAPS(r) symbols & expiration cycles. * Deal with time decay - the key to profiting on your options trades. * Recognize the advantages of LEAPS(r) over short-term options. * Protect your long positions by "marrying" them to LEAPS(r) puts. * Use LEAPS(r) to protectively "collar" stock positions at zero cost. Whether viewed as a stand-alone workshop or a companion to Kearney's bestselling book, Understanding Leaps, this in-depth presentation puts LEAPS(r) investing firmly within the grasp of every active investor.

Learn powerful, proven LEAPS trading strategies from a leading expert. The Options Industry Council's popular instructor, Marty Kearney of the Chicago Board Options Exchange, presents an in-depth LEAPS trading workshop that covers it all, from the basics to more advanced techniques for incorporating LEAPS into your overall investment strategy. With a detailed online companion manual, you'll learn everything from the key elements for determining LEAPS prices, to methods for using LEAPS to produce monthly income, insure your portfolio against market pullbacks, manage year-end tax consequences and establish security positions with little risk. A thorough stand-alone workshop, it's also a great companion to Kearney's bestselling book "Understanding Leaps." Investors are increasingly turning to LEAPS to combine the advantages of options investing with the benefits and security a longer timeframe offers.

Now, the popular Options Industry Council instructor Marty Kearney of the Chicago Board Options Exchange walks you through the inner workings of LEAPS (Long-Term Equity Anticipation Securities), outlining key strategies for incorporating this powerful tool into your overall investment strategy. With a comprehensive online support manual, Kearney's hands-on presentation focuses on a full range of methods for using LEAPS to reach your investment goals. You'll learn to use LEAPS as a substitute for stock ownership, for beefing up your portfolio's profit picture, and for simultaneously reducing your overall cash outlay. Kearney goes on to detail a variety of advanced strategies for using LEAPS for everything from producing added monthly income and insuring your portfolio against market pullbacks, to managing year-end tax consequences and establishing security positions with little risk. Viewers get an invaluable set of strategic lessons for the mastering most effective, most current LEAPSa trading techniques. Benefit from Kearney's expertise and insight as he helps you. Identify the key elements involved in determining LEAPS prices.

Understand the confusing nature of LEAPS symbols & expiration cycles. Deal with time decay - the key to profiting on your options trades. Recognize the advantages of LEAPSa over short-term options. Protect your long positions by "marrying" them to LEAPSa puts. Use LEAPS to protectively "collar" stock positions at zero cost. Whether viewed as a stand-alone workshop or a companion to Kearney's bestselling book, Understanding Leaps, this in-depth presentation puts LEAPS investing firmly within the grasp of every active investor.

Online Leaps trading strategies powerful techniques for options trading success