Developing aholistic corporate training strategy-interview with arthur carmazzi

Developing aholistic corporate training strategy-interview with arthur carmazziDeveloping a Holistic Corporate Training Strategy - Interview with Arthur Carmazzi

carmaz Started The Discussion:

Greetings Friends

Here is a recent interview that was done by HR Magazine

I know this will be considered Controversial to some of the more Traditional HR practitioners and will be happy to reply to comments and make clarifications.

Arthur, I am in complete agreement with your theories. And I would like to ask a few clarifications.

1. in the case of a culture focused initiative, is it required to train everyone? If so, how do you work within budgetary constraints?

2. in the statement: Training, all training whether it is hard skill or soft skill, MUST have elements of a psychology foundation and how the learning affects and applies to Group Dynamics (most people do not work alone and their skills need to coordinate with others workers or department or even organizational objectives).

How can you incorporate this psychology foundation in a hard skills training?

Looking forward to hearing from you.

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Smartquant is afinancial software company developing end-to-end algo trading infrastructure for qua

Smartquant is afinancial software company developing end-to-end algo trading infrastructure for quaSmartQuant is a financial software company developing end-to-end algo trading infrastructure for quantitative hedge funds and institutional trading groups.

OpenQuant. SmartQuant's current flagship product, is an Algorithmic and Automated Trading System (ATS) Development Platform.

OpenQuant features an IDE (Integrated Development Environment) that provides quants and traders with an industrial strength strategy research, development, debugging, backtesting, simulation, optimization and automation.

QuantDesk is a complete end-to-end solution for a quant fund of any size. It includes OpenQuant IDE. QuantRouter (feed replication, consolidation, aggregation, transformation and smart order routing), QuantBase (real time feed capture and centralized data management) and QuantTrader (production deployment engine for automated trading strategies developed with OpenQuant) applications.

QuantController is a new server application which complements the QuantDesk to enable an efficient management of SmartQuant's distributed trading architecture.

The main difference between the quantitative and the discretionary trading style is the systematic nature of the quant approach. While discretionary traders are like artists, quants tend to run a complex production process, and therefore need an industrial-strength infrastructure without which they cannot maintain the necessary degree of systematic discipline. Unfortunately, being a start-up does not exempt one from this rule. But fortunately, one does not really need to build the whole factory from the ground up. Using the SmartQuant algo trading infrastructure allows the emerging managers to focus on their primary objective, which is the development of investment strategies, while benefiting from a reliable framework to implement and deploy them in the market.

Sure, we still spend a lot of time experimenting, trying and testing different strategies. Having a good development environment does not necessarily allow you to skip that step. The real advantage of a well designed framework is in cutting the time between testing and production to a minimum, and in the scalable nature of the infrastructure, which can grow with the firm from managing a small seed capital to truly institutional levels. With a system like this, emerging managers can feel on a level playing field while trading in the same market as much larger competitors, and can fully realize the inherent advantages of being agile and adaptive.

Arthur M. Berd

Founder and CEO, General Quantitative, LLC

SmartQuant is a financial software company developing end-to-end algo trading infrastructure for quantitative hedge funds and institutional trading groups.

OpenQuant. SmartQuant's current flagship product, is an Algorithmic and Automated Trading System (ATS) Development Platform.

OpenQuant features an IDE (Integrated Development Environment) that provides quants and traders with an industrial strength strategy research, development, debugging, backtesting, simulation, optimization and automation.

QuantDesk is a complete end-to-end solution for a quant fund of any size. It includes OpenQuant IDE. QuantRouter (feed replication, consolidation, aggregation, transformation and smart order routing), QuantBase (real time feed capture and centralized data management) and QuantTrader (production deployment engine for automated trading strategies developed with OpenQuant) applications.

QuantController is a new server application which complements the QuantDesk to enable an efficient management of SmartQuant's distributed trading architecture.

The main difference between the quantitative and the discretionary trading style is the systematic nature of the quant approach. While discretionary traders are like artists, quants tend to run a complex production process, and therefore need an industrial-strength infrastructure without which they cannot maintain the necessary degree of systematic discipline. Unfortunately, being a start-up does not exempt one from this rule. But fortunately, one does not really need to build the whole factory from the ground up. Using the SmartQuant algo trading infrastructure allows the emerging managers to focus on their primary objective, which is the development of investment strategies, while benefiting from a reliable framework to implement and deploy them in the market.

Sure, we still spend a lot of time experimenting, trying and testing different strategies. Having a good development environment does not necessarily allow you to skip that step. The real advantage of a well designed framework is in cutting the time between testing and production to a minimum, and in the scalable nature of the infrastructure, which can grow with the firm from managing a small seed capital to truly institutional levels. With a system like this, emerging managers can feel on a level playing field while trading in the same market as much larger competitors, and can fully realize the inherent advantages of being agile and adaptive.

Arthur M. Berd

Founder and CEO, General Quantitative, LLC

SmartQuant is a financial software company developing end-to-end algo trading infrastructure for quantitative hedge funds and institutional trading groups.

OpenQuant. SmartQuant's current flagship product, is an Algorithmic and Automated Trading System (ATS) Development Platform.

OpenQuant features an IDE (Integrated Development Environment) that provides quants and traders with an industrial strength strategy research, development, debugging, backtesting, simulation, optimization and automation.

QuantDesk is a complete end-to-end solution for a quant fund of any size. It includes OpenQuant IDE. QuantRouter (feed replication, consolidation, aggregation, transformation and smart order routing), QuantBase (real time feed capture and centralized data management) and QuantTrader (production deployment engine for automated trading strategies developed with OpenQuant) applications.

QuantController is a new server application which complements the QuantDesk to enable an efficient management of SmartQuant's distributed trading architecture.

The main difference between the quantitative and the discretionary trading style is the systematic nature of the quant approach. While discretionary traders are like artists, quants tend to run a complex production process, and therefore need an industrial-strength infrastructure without which they cannot maintain the necessary degree of systematic discipline. Unfortunately, being a start-up does not exempt one from this rule. But fortunately, one does not really need to build the whole factory from the ground up. Using the SmartQuant algo trading infrastructure allows the emerging managers to focus on their primary objective, which is the development of investment strategies, while benefiting from a reliable framework to implement and deploy them in the market.

Sure, we still spend a lot of time experimenting, trying and testing different strategies. Having a good development environment does not necessarily allow you to skip that step. The real advantage of a well designed framework is in cutting the time between testing and production to a minimum, and in the scalable nature of the infrastructure, which can grow with the firm from managing a small seed capital to truly institutional levels. With a system like this, emerging managers can feel on a level playing field while trading in the same market as much larger competitors, and can fully realize the inherent advantages of being agile and adaptive.

Arthur M. Berd

Founder and CEO, General Quantitative, LLC

Portrata partners with smartquant

Portrata partners with smartquantPortrata Partners with SmartQuant

About the company:

Portara is a trading technology application that wraps itself around the whole of CQG Datafactory databases and allows the extraction of continuous back-adjusted data down to the 1 minute resolution. Data output is homogenous ASCII/CSV/TXT is platform neutral and is guaranteed to operate through any database repository. Portara has the largest reach of data access globally covering all futures FX and cash market exchanges. View Portara's extensive databases


Portara infrastructure has been built in collaboration with CQG to solve the huge cost burden associated typically with institutional database modelling of this nature. Data is from inception 1968 for Daily - 1983 for 1 minute bar. Portara's $3m+ CQG Datafactory databases are available via flexible subscription at many 100x fold less in cost than conventional data purchases. Portara has many of the world's top CTA's, banks and hedge funds who have provided testimonials and have Portara integrated into their daily trading solutions.

Partnership with SmartQuant:

Portara has partnered with SmartQuant so that professional traders hedge funds and institutional trading groups can combine a verifiable world-class data source into the SmartQuant framework. Portara has developed an API for SmartQuant professionals to allow programmatic calls direct to CQG databases from within the framework itself Watch the SmartQuant and PortaraAPI Video The API may also be used within SmartQuant for users wishing to research sell-side strategies.


OpenQuant 2014 Passes Currenex FIX Certification

We are pleased to announce that OpenQuant 2014 Currenex FIX plugin has passed official certification. This plugin is available as a native OpenQuant 2014 plugin.


OpenQuant 2014 Passes HotSpot FIX Certification

We are pleased to announce that OpenQuant 2014 HotSpot FIX plugin has passed official certification. This plugin is available as a native OpenQuant 2014 plugin.

OpenQuant 2014 Public Beta

We are pleased to announce that OpenQuant 2014 beta goes public.

Download OpenQuant 2014 public beta and send us your comments and suggestions or discuss in OpenQuant 2014 section of SmartQuant public forum.

SmartQuant Joined Trading Technologies TT Connected Partner Program

We are pleased to announce that SmartQuant passed TT conformance test and joined TT Connected Partner Program

The TT Connected Partner designation means the partner product has passed conformance testing conducted by TT and has been deployed in production with TT end users.

SmartQuant's QuantDesk platform includes OpenQuant IDE, which enables trading strategy research, development and simulation, QuantTrader, a production deployment engine for automated trading strategies developed with OpenQuant, QuantRouter for feed replication, consolidation, aggregation, transformation and smart order routing, and QuantBase for real-time feed capture and centralized data management.

Phone: +1 646.546.5648

Email: arthur. berdsmartquant

Website: smartquant

Founded in 2003, SmartQuant Ltd develops end-to-end algo trading solutions for quantitative hedge funds and institutional trading groups. SmartQuant's mission is to provide emerging quant managers with an industrial strength strategy development, back testing, optimization and automation platform.


SmartQuant Introduces QuantController Solution

As the algo trading infrastructure grows along with the growth of the quant team and with more strategies being designed and backtested in the development environment (OpenQuant) and traded live in the production environment (QuantTrader), the efficient management of the distributed infrastructure becomes an important task.

The typical institutional setup includes several OpenQuant and QuantTrader instances, as well as additional server applications such as the QuantRouter. distributing the market data feeds between strategies and routing orders between the trading boxes and the (possibly multiple) brokers, and the QuantBase. capturing real time data into historical database and enabling the centralized management of the historical data. These components can reside on the same or different computers on the local network, run in the cloud or be co-located on the broker servers.

QuantController is a new server application in the SmartQuant family of products designed specifically to monitor and manage such a growing distributed trading setup and to enable additional reporting capabilities across multiple applications.

Please contact us for more details at infosmartquant.


SmartQuant at Trading and Investment Risk Conference

Arthur M. Berd, SmartQuant Strategic Partner, will be speaking at the inaugural Trading and Investment Risk conference in London on April 1-4, 2014, where he will speak about "Building the quant factory - an industrial approach to investment management". The conference features many of the best known investment and risk management experts in the world from both buy-side and sell-side. The organizers have also asked Arthur to share his views in an exclusive interview, which can be found at the following link: tradingandinvestmentrisk/static/interview-2


SmartQuant Passes Trading Technologies TT FIX Adapter Conformance Test

We are pleased to announce that in addition to the CME, CBOT, Eurex & LIFFE Future & Option Products and CBOE Future Products, SmartQuant applications now support Future and Option Products on ICE IPE Exchange.

SmartQuant Source Code License

We are pleased to announce that the source code license is now available for selected customers. The source code license is an enterprise-wide license and covers SmartQuant framework and SmartQuant Algo Trading Infrastructure product suite (OpenQuant, QuantTrader, QuantBase and QuantRouter).

OpenQuant 2014 Launch

We are pleased to announce the launch of completely redesigned SmartQuant framework and OpenQuant 2014 IDE.

You are welcome to contact us at infosmartquant to get a copy of OpenQuant 2014 preview and to take part in the beta testing program.


SmartQuant Partners with LightSpeed Institutional

SmartQuant has partnered with LightSpeed Institutional to provide to its clients that employ algorithmic trading strategies a streamlined access to LightSpeed Gateway solution and the best possible access to the markets without the stringent requirement of co-location and with the flexibility of choosing their own market data subscriptions and other elements of modular strategy implementation. Using SmartQuant products, these clients can develop and deploy their own strategies across any of the asset classes offered by LightSpeed.


Happy Holidays and Best Wishes!

We wish you a very successful and prosperous 2013, and hope that our products will help you make the most of the investment and trading opportunities next year. And we would like to offer you a little contribution to make it all possible -- a special holiday discount for the OpenQuant products if you purchase them until January 14, 2013


SmartQuant Passed TT FIX Adapter 7.8 Conformance Test

SmartQuant Ltd. the leading provider of end-to-end algo trading solutions, is happy to announce that its suite of algo trading products has successfully passed TT FIX Adapter 7.8 conformance test.


SmartQuant at the Quant Invest New York

SmartQuant Ltd. is happy to announce that Arthur M. Berd, Strategic Partner in charge of its business development and institutional sales, will be speaking at the Quant Invest New York. a major industry conference to be held in New York on December 4-5 together with a simultaneous "co-located" conference HFT World New York.

On Tuesday December 4, the conference will feature a joint session where leading investment managers and institutional investors will discuss all aspects of quantitative investment process, from algorithmic trading to behavioral and artificial intelligence models and from risk management to big data analysis.

On Wednesday December 5, the conference will feature two streams, a stream on High Frequency Trading, and a stream of Quant Investing, where Arthur M. Berd will give a presentation on "Navigating Macro Risks: Prediction, Protection and Profit".

If any of our clients wish to attend this conference, please feel free to register using Arthur's exclusive speaker discount of 15%, by contacting the organizers via the conference link and providing them the promo code: FESE


SmartQuant at the Global Derivatives USA

SmartQuant Ltd. is happy to announce that Arthur M. Berd, Strategic Partner in charge of its business development and institutional sales, will be speaking at the Global Derivatives USA. a major industry conference to be held in Chicago next week, November 13-15.

On Tuesday November 13, the conference will host a High Frequency Trading Summit where a number of industry experts and academic researchers will present on topics ranging from backtesting of algorithmic strategies and modeling the market impact to inventory management and overview of structural changes in the marketplace.

On Wednesday November 14, the conference will feature a stream on practical techniques in portfolio and risk management, where Arthur M. Berd will participate in a panel discussion entitled "Creating Optimal Hedging Strategies For 2013 & Beyond". Other streams of the conference will feature presentations on advanced volatility modeling and trading techniques, on practical innovations in valuation, and on the latest developments in derivatives regulation.

On Thursday November 14, Arthur M. Berd will give a presentation on "The Impact Of Tail Risk Protection On The Investment Management Industry". Besides the stream on portfolio management, the conference will also feature on that day the streams on volatility, interest rates, FX, inflation and commodities trading and modeling.

If any of our clients wish to attend this conference, please feel free to register using Arthur's exclusive speaker discount of 15%, by contacting the organizers via the conference link and providing them the VIP code: FKN2342EMSPK


SmartQuant Releases QuantTrader Application

Paper and live trading of compiled strategies imported from OpenQuant as dll.

QuantTrader is a lightweight version of the OpenQuant designed specifically as a production deployment engine. It has the same paper and live trading capabilities, including portfolio and strategy monitoring, but does not offer the simulation mode or ability to change the code (strategy parameters can still be changed).

Once the strategy is defined and optimized in the OpenQuant integrated development environment, it can be compiled and exported into a package together with its relevant settings. This package can then be imported into QuantTrader and run in various production environments: from trading server, in co-location, etc.

Being lightweight, QuantTrader is also more robust and suitable for automated trading. The strategy source code is invisible, allowing for more secure deployment in shared environments such as co-location, or other situations where confidentiality is required.

Importantly, QuantTrader is also less expensive, which is particularly relevant when deploying potentially many different strategies produced by the same researchers.


SmartQuant Releases QuantBase 2.0 and QuantRouter 2.0 Products

We are pleased to announce the next generation of QuantBase and QuantRouter applications - two core building blocks of SmartQuant End-to-End Algo Trading Infrastructure.

New versions of QuantBase and QuantRouter products are developed on top of SmartQuant institutional framework and thus offer connectivity to a variety of market data and execution providers available in the framework.

These new products work hand to hand with OpenQuant IDE for algo trading strategies development, back-testing and optimization and offer unparalelled flexibility, scalability and performance to quntitive hedge funds and institutional trading groups.


S&P IQ Capital Acquires QuantHouse

S&P Capital IQ, a business line of The McGraw-Hill Companies (NYSE:MHP) offering global multi-asset class data solutions, market research and portfolio risk analytics to global investors, announced it has acquired QuantHouse, an independent global provider of market data and end-to-end systematic trading solutions.

We congratulate QuantHouse on this acquisition by S&P. SmartQuant framework and a suite of institutional products was licensed by QuantHouse in 2007. It is an honor for SmartQuant to see that our products and ideas will be employed and further developed by S&P.


SmartQuant Institutional Framework is Back!

We are pleased to announce availability of SmartQuant institutional framework in our automated trading products.

Coming soon.

OpenQuant Standard Edition

develop trading strategies with OpenQuant API.

OpenQuant Professional Edition

use SmartQuant API within OpenQuant IDE to gain access to every functionality of the core SmartQuant Framework in your trading strategies.

OpenQuant Enterprise Edition

use SmartQuant framework to develop institutional quality stand alone quantitative trading applications.

1997-2014 SmartQuant Ltd infosmartquant

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The influencer change framework

The influencer change frameworkThe Influencer Change Framework

If you’ve ever struggled to get ideas adopted or change the system you’re in, read this.

I had the privilege of taking some extreme training on influence.

Influence is about changing hearts, minds, and behavior to produce meaningful, sustainable results.

The Influencer Change Framework at a Glance

The Influencer Change Model is about changing behaviors to achieve measurable results. And you change behavior by changing motivation and ability across personal, social, and structural aspects.

The beauty of the model is that it scales up and down from personal life style changes, such as losing weight, to global changes, such as eliminating diseases. I like it because its a simple lens to look at those persistent problems where change seems impossible. Rather than bump your head against a glass ceiling or spin your wheels without traction, its a systematic approach to diagnose and implement change.

Start by Clarifying Meaningful Results

The key is to clarify measurable results, finding vital behaviors, and analyzing six sources of influence. Most change efforts fail because they look at only one source of influence or they dont focus on the vital behaviors. Vital behaviors get specific on what actions to take that produce exponential results.

Change efforts also fail because they dont identify crucial moments which are when the right choices matter.

When you know these things, and you have a model, you can dramatically improve your effectiveness.

Its skilled change.

Im sharing my notes as a forcing function to help me boil down and distill the insights. While the model is simple, the challenge is putting it into practice so my first step is summarizing the lessons in a way I can turn into action. Its the beginning of the journey. I see it as a life long quest. Im on the path now, with the right instructor and the right techniques to pursue a black belt in change management.

Change is Tough

To kick things off, we started the class with some highlights of failure to influence:

Eighty-five percent of corporate change efforts fail Arthur D. Little

2 out of 3 criminals are rearrested within 3 years U. S. Dept. of Justice

Two years after receiving coronary bypass surgery to save their lives, 90 percent of patients are back to old behaviors Dr. Edward Miller, John Hopkins University.

Change is tough. You can dramatically improve your chances of success, when you have a model.

The Influencer Model

Here is a mock up of the influencer model we walked through during class:

The main flow of steps is:

Step 1. Clarify measurable results.

Step 2. Find vital behaviors.

Step 3. Use six sources of influence.

Step 1. Clarify Measurable Results

Don’t waste time on how to create change until you’ve clarified what you want, why you want it, and when you want it. An effective result is:

1. Specific and measurable. It is quantitative not qualitative.

2. What you really want. It’s the outcome that matters.

3. Time bound. It comes with a completion date.

So what? Now what? Right level?

Are the results specific and measurable?

Is it what you really want?

Is it time bound?

Step 2. Find Vital Behaviors

Vital behaviors exponentially improve your results. If crucial moments tell you when it’s time to act, vital behaviors tell you exactly what to do and how to do it. Vital behaviors tend to stop self-defeating and escalating behaviors. They often start a reaction that leads to good results. Here are the keys:

Behaviors are actions.

Behaviors are not results or qualities.

Not all behaviors are equal.

Only a few are genuinely vital.

Some is not a number.

Soon is not a time.

Examples of vital behavior and results

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The elearning coach

The elearning coach10 Ways To Organize Instructional Content

People who create online learning get involved in many types of content development tasks. In addition to researching and developing content for courses, you may find yourself creating training manuals for webinars or the classroom, writing web copy, making reference materials, and developing Electronic Performance Support Systems, Help documentation, presentations and so on.

During all of these tasks, you will be organizing content at a high level to give it a meaningful structure. A meaningful structure is logical, helping people to comprehend and retain the content as well as helping them quickly find the content they need.

Assuming that youve sufficiently wrapped your mind around the content, use the list below to find the most effective strategy for organizing it. Sticking to one high-level strategy will help streamline the design process and it helps learners and users understand the larger framework of a course, website or document. The content on this page is organized alphabetically.

1. Alphabetical

A conventional but important organizing principle for content is alphabetical order. Because most people learn how to use alphabetical order in childhood, its nearly intuitive. Alphabetical order allows for quick and easy access to information. Example: Help documentation, glossaries, lists like this.

2. Categorical

Some content has a flat structure. There is no hierarchy, no sequence and all of the topics are more or less at the same level of difficulty with no prerequisites. In this case, you can organize the content by category in a nonlinear structure. For example, content can be organized by tasks (e. g. teaching all of the editing functions in Word) or by products (e. g. information about cell phones with high-end cameras). Example: A course for teachers presenting the rules of various childrens games might be organized by games for preschoolers, games for early elementary years and games for older children.

3. Cause and Effect

Organizing content by cause and effect may not be the first approach you think of, but it can be effective when used for the the right purpose. When the content presents problems and solutions, then a cause and effect structure is appropriate. Example: A course on troubleshooting a network for IT professionals could be arranged by problems and solutions.

4. Inherent Structure

Often content has its own structure that is cognitively natural to the subject. If the content presents events in a time line, then a chronological order is self-evident. If the content revolves around various geographical areas, then organization by location is natural. Example: A course teaching agriculture extension agents about soil could be organized by soil layers, starting with the topsoil.

5. Order of Importance

In a flat structure without hierarchy, the most effective approach for organizing content might be by the order of its importance. Because learners usually pay the most attention to the beginning and end of a topic, you have quite a few options for arranging the content. You can either: 1) place the most important content at the start AND the end or 2) proceed from the least important to the most important content or 3) go from most important to least. This last approach is my favorite. An analysis of your content will help you figure out which approach to choose. Example: In an online presentation for new employees, Human Resources might first want to introduce critical security issues and how to safeguard company information prior to discussing less important issues, such as the office holiday party.

6. Simple to Complex

Instructional content can be organized from the simple to complex even when the simpler content is not subordinate or prerequisite to the complex content. This strategy provides a slow initiation into a subject, building the learners confidence and knowledge base. Example: A course on personal finance might teach how a savings account works prior to teaching how to balance a checkbook. Although the savings account content is not prerequisite for balancing a checkbook, its an easier concept to grasp.

7. Sequential

When youre presenting a process or procedure, its often most effective to structure the content as a series of steps. The structure of sequential content provides hooks for learners to remember the steps of the procedure. Example: A course that teaches how to draw blood from a patient would require a sequential structure.

A spiral approach might be difficult to implement in a single course, but it is certainly appropriate for a curriculum. A Spiral structure revisits each topic in a systematic way at a more detailed and complex level each time. Example: A typical mathematics curriculum uses the spiral approach.

9. Subordinate to Higher Level (Hierarchical)

When the content requires that a learner master subordinate skills or knowledge to advance to a higher level skill, a hierarchical structure is effective. This is one of the most well-used structures for courses because much of what people learn is based on prerequisite knowledge and skills. Example: As a prerequisite to learning how to handle difficult customers at a call center, learners would first need to know the basics of effective customer communication.

10. Whole to Parts

An excellent approach to organizing content is to introduce the big picture or system view first and then to delve into the parts of the system. Providing the big picture helps adult learners make sense of information. It also provides a framework for fitting information together in memory. The whole to parts organization is similar to a general to specific structure. Example: In a course or in documentation about computer repair, first present the higher-level systems of the computer and then present the components of each system.

If Ive omitted any approaches that you use, please add them to the Comments below.

Pamela says

I think spatial needs to be added here like anatomy front, back, from the skin-in from the internal organs out, top to bottom.

Connie Malamed says

Bob Roggio says

Interesting. Gave me some ideas that I can use in the future.

Metacognition And Learning: Strategies For Instructional Design

Do you know how to learn? Many people dont. Specifically, they dont know how to look inward to examine how they learn and to judge what is effective.

Thats where metacognitive strategies come in. They are techniques that help people become more successful learners. Shouldnt this be a crucial goal of instructional design?

Improved metacognition can facilitate both formal and informal learning. It can improve the performance of new tasks on the job and help teams problem solve more effectively.

But lets start at the beginning. Here are some things instructional designers should know about metacognition.

What is metacognition?

Metacognition is often referred to as thinking about thinking. But thats just a quick definition. Metacognition is a regulatory system that helps a person understand and control his or her own cognitive performance.

Metacognition allows people to take charge of their own learning. It involves awareness of how they learn, an evaluation of their learning needs, generating strategies to meet these needs and then implementing the strategies. (Hacker, 2009)

Learners often show an increase in self-confidence when they build metacognitive skills. Self-efficacy improves motivation as well as learning success.

Metacognitive skills are generally learned during a later stage of development. Metacognitive strategies can often (but not always) be stated by the individual who is using them. For all age groups, metacognitive knowledge is crucial for efficient independent learning because it fosters forethought and self-reflection.

The Two Processes of Metacognition

Fortunately, many theorists organize the skills of metacognition into two components. This makes it easier to understand and remember.

According to theory, metacognition consists of two complementary processes: 1) the knowledge of cognition and 2) the regulation of cognition.

Knowledge of cognition has three components: knowledge of the factors that influence ones own performance; knowing different types of strategies to use for learning; knowing what strategy to use for a specific learning situation.

Regulation of cognition involves: setting goals and planning; monitoring and controlling learning; and evaluating ones own regulation (assessing results and strategies used).

Metacognition and Expertise

Many experts cannot explain the skills they use to elicit expert performance. (Perhaps this is due to the automatic functioning of the expert.)

Metacognitive strategies often separate an expert from a novice. For example, experts are able to plan effectively on a global level at the start of a task—a novice wont see the big picture.

Some adults with expertise in one domain can transfer their metacognitive skills to learn more rapidly in another domain.

On the other hand, some adults do not spontaneously transfer metacognitive skills to new settings and thus, will need help doing so.

Examples of Metacognition Skills You May Use

Successful learners typically use metacognitive strategies whenever they learn. But they may fail to use the best strategy for each type of learning situation. Here are some metacognitive strategies that will sound familiar to you:

Knowing the limits of your own memory for a particular task and creating a means of external support.

Self-monitoring your learning strategy, such as concept mapping, and then adapting the strategy if it isnt effective.

Noticing whether you comprehend something you just read and then modifying your approach if you did not comprehend it.

Choosing to skim subheadings of unimportant information to get to the information you need.

Repeatedly rehearsing a skill in order to gain proficiency.

Periodically doing self-tests to see how well you learned something.

Metacognitive Strategies

Metacognitive strategies facilitate learning how to learn. You can incorporate these, as appropriate, into eLearning courses, social learning experiences, pre - and post-training activities and other formal or informal learning experiences.

Ask Questions. During formal courses and in post-training activities, ask questions that allow learners to reflect on their own learning processes and strategies. In collaborative learning, ask them to reflect on the role they play when problem solving in teams.

Foster Self-reflection. Emphasize the importance of personal reflection during and after learning experiences. Encourage learners to critically analyze their own assumptions and how this may have influenced their learning.

Encourage Self-questioning. Foster independent learning by asking learners to generate their own questions and answer them to enhance comprehension. The questions can be related to meeting their personal goals

Teach Strategies Directly. Teach appropriate metacognitive strategies as a part of a training course.

Promote Autonomous Learning. When learners have some domain knowledge, encourage participation in challenging learning experiences. They will then be forced to construct their own metacognitive strategies.

Provide Access to Mentors. Many people learn best by interacting with peers who are slightly more advanced. Promote experiences where novices can observe the proficient use of a skill and then gain access to the metacognitive strategies of their mentors.

Solve Problems with a Team: Cooperative problem solving can enhance metacognitive strategies by discussing possible approaches with team members and learning from each other.

Think Aloud. Teach learners how to think aloud and report their thoughts while performing a difficult task. A knowledgeable partner can then point out errors in thinking or the individual can use this approach for increased self-awareness during learning.

Self-explanation . Self-explanation in writing or speaking can help learners improve their comprehension of a difficult subject.

Provide Opportunities for Making Errors. When learners are given the opportunity to make errors while in training, such as during simulations, it stimulates reflection on the causes of their errors.

In summary, metacognition is a set of skills that enable learners to become aware of how they learn and to evaluate and adapt these skills to become increasingly effective at learning. In a world that demands lifelong learning, providing people with new and improved metacognitive strategies is a gift that can last forever.

Hacker, Douglas J. John Dunlosky and Arthur C. Graesser (Eds.). Handbook of Metacognition in Education . 2009. Pashler, H. et al. Organizing instruction and study to improve student learning. IES practice guide . 2007. ies. ed. gov/ncee/wwc/pdf/practiceguides/20072004.pdf Smith, Cecil M. and Thomas Pourchot. Adult Learning and Development: Perspectives From Educational Psychology . 1998. White, Barbara and John Frederiksen. A Theoretical Framework and Approach for Fostering Metacognitive Development. Educational Psychologist . 40(4), 211–223, 2005. Wilson, Arthur L. and Elisabeth Hayes, Handbook of Adult and Continuing Education by American Association for Adult and Continuing Education. Handbook of Metacognition in Education Douglas J. Hacker, John Dunlosky and Arthur C. Graesser (Eds.).

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Gillian Walter says

Great article. Over the past year I have tried your technique of metacognition with my children and new interns. Once they discover how they learn best, when I gave them new work or when my children studied for a test it wouldnt be such a hassle. Thank you for all your help. I look forward to the outcomes Ill get when introducing your technique to others.

Lana Ludovico says

After reading this article, I now have a better appreciation of how important it is to understand information processing. I appreciate the simplicity and the clear and concise explanation of how the instructional designer can facitate learning how to learn by incorporating the suggested strategies. I also realize that students can also enhance their own learning by developing their own metacognitive processing strategies. This site can be very useful to any new instructional designer, and I will return for future reference,

Adrienne Brown says

Your article is very informative and easy to read. It gives a clear and detailed understanding of metacognition and the role of the learner in his/her learning process and how to develop such skills. Duell, Flavell and Wellman in their studies on the topic determined variables influencing metacognition, the learner, task, and strategy. The learners’ abilities help in their task of knowing how to learn and recall the information and their understanding of what strategies to use for learning for the best outcome. (Ormrod, J. Schunk, D. Gredler, M. (2009). Learning theories and instruction (Laureate custom edition). New York: Pearson. pp.101,102.)

syed mohiyudeen says

you have explained in depth. thanks for the support providedim able to learn more easy now

Vasheti Turner says

This article has been very informative and has validated thoughts I had regarding learning how to learn. One thing I have noticed over the year during both my educational and professional career is that individuals process information and learn differently. Once an individual recognizes the best learning method for themselves, learning does not seem like such of a difficult task. My personal experience has been that I do not learn very quickly just by listening to a lecture or even just reading material. I learn by seeing examples and tactfully working through problems. In addition to these strategies, I also ensure I understand fresh material by reviewing it via various methods. For instance, when I first began to learn about learning theories, I was experiencing a difficult time with understanding the differences. I quickly searched for other media to learn the material. I found that interactive videos and YouTube videos were very helpful with explaining the different theory. Once I gained insight on the material, I was able to go back and read a book with understanding. My sister on the other hand was fully understood the material by simply reading a book. In conclusion, it’s very imperative that we understand how we learn in order to make learning experiences more rewarding and successful.

Connie Malamed says

Your comment is very insightful and will probably help many people become more aware of how they learn. And how important it is to figure it out. Ive noticed that for me, it depends on what Im trying to learn. So I need different strategies for different types of skills and knowledge. Thanks for your comment.

Online trading partners with tradescape,townsend analytics,tradeportal,on-site trading and moment

Online trading partners with tradescape,townsend analytics,tradeportal,on-site trading and momentOnline Trading Academy Partners with TradeScape, Townsend Analytics, TradePortal, On-Site Trading and Momentum Securities/Irvine.


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MLA style: "Online Trading Academy Partners with TradeScape, Townsend Analytics, TradePortal, On-Site Trading and Momentum Securities/Irvine.." The Free Library . 2000 Business Wire 16 Nov. 2015 thefreelibrary/Online+Trading+Academy+Partners+with+TradeScape%2c+Townsend. - a064351833

Chicago style: The Free Library . S. v. Online Trading Academy Partners with TradeScape, Townsend Analytics, TradePortal, On-Site Trading and Momentum Securities/Irvine.." Retrieved Nov 16 2015 from thefreelibrary/Online+Trading+Academy+Partners+with+TradeScape%2c+Townsend. - a064351833

APA style: Online Trading Academy Partners with TradeScape, Townsend Analytics, TradePortal, On-Site Trading and Momentum Securities/Irvine. (n. d.) >The Free Library. (2014). Retrieved Nov 16 2015 from thefreelibrary/Online+Trading+Academy+Partners+with+TradeScape%2c+Townsend. - a064351833

Business Editors/High-Tech Writers

Online Trading Expo 2000

IRVINE, Calif.--(BUSINESS WIRE)--Aug. 18, 2000

Major Direct Access Leaders Agree to Global Alliance with

World Leader in Trading Education -- Press Conference Today

Online Trading Academy, the recognized leader in Direct Access Trading(TM) (DAT)(TM) education, today announced a global alliance with many of the largest firms in the industry to focus on the educational needs of traders and investors. The alliance was reflected in Letters of Intent for the partners to acquire an interest in Online Trading Academy. The officials from TradeScape, Townsend Analytics, TradePortal, On-Site Trading and Momentum Securities/Irvine are dedicated to meeting the educational needs of the investing public through this global alliance. The partnership will deliver education through a web-centric model and actual physical classroom experiences. Online Trading Academy offers the most advanced educational tools and techniques in the industry and has an outstanding curriculum with an extensive focus on risk management.

John O'Donnell, Chief Executive Officer of the Irvine, California based trading education facility, said, "We are pleased to announce that several major industry partners have come together to focus on the needs of investors to learn the intricacies and risk management techniques for successful trading. The need for trading education is phenomenal. There are traders out there thirsty for education."

This alliance shows an industry wide commitment to education and training, a need that has been articulated repeatedly in the press by U. S. Securities and Exchange Commission Chairman Arthur Levitt, U. S. Department of Treasury Secretary Lawrence H. Summers along with Frank Zarb, Chairman NASD, and many others.

The Online Trading Expo, onlinetradingexpo, this weekend at the Ontario Convention Center, Ontario, California, is one of the biggest events that brings traders of all levels together to learn from some of the best people in the industry.

"Trading Knowledge, your most valuable form of Capital(TM)," is the Academy's motto and emphasizes it in all their teachings. "It was inevitable we would have some type of alliance," O'Donnell said, and added, "Traders need to have the tools and information and use strict risk management discipline when trading. They must have a formal trading education and direct access to the market, enabling efficient trade executions, before putting their money on the line, especially during unpredictable times."

Online Trading Academy is well known in the industry for their famous "Boot Camp," five intense days of hands-on training -- including practice with real data and quotes on state-of-the-art trading simulators. Students are introduced to the professional trading environment and learn the tools and techniques used by the industry pros. They learn how to read Level II screens and how to spot trading opportunities by watching the actions of the market makers.

The company just came out with a new "Introduction to Direct Access Trading Level II Preview Course" CD. This is part one of a 12-module series to start learning the fundamentals of direct access trading with engaging interactive multimedia.

The Online Trading Academy is the World's Largest Trading Education Company and has plans to open over 100 facilities in the near future, including locations in Japan, Hong Kong, Canada, London, and the United States. Their website, onlinetradingacademy, is one of the most visited sites for direct access trading education.

Online Trading Academy is also the home of the Strategic Trading Center(TM) which offers a Virtual Mentoring(TM) continued education program presented by David Janti and Kevin Green. It is an educational, membership-based, live, interactive, online audio and visual traders' chat room. Members from all over the world get to see, listen and interact with professional traders in their million dollar "virtual" trading room, equipped with state-of-the-art technology and proprietary software that is typically available only to market makers, mutual funds, and institutions.

About The Partners

Townsend Analytics is the global pioneer in direct access platforms. Townsend Analytics has achieved industry acclaim for its data delivery and electronic and Internet-based trading platforms. RealTick(TM), the company's signature product, was the first real time trading platform for the Internet and is the de facto industry standard. taltrade

TradeScape is a major Direct Access Broker with 100 million funding from Softbank and owns the ECN MarketXT. tradescape

On-Site Trading is a major Direct Access Broker based on the east coast. They have 22 branch offices and feature the Redi Plus platform along with it's "Virtual Trading Desktop(SM)" featuring all the leading financial quote vendors and analytical tools. onsitetrading

Tradeportal is a leading Direct Access Broker that was awarded "editors choice" for best customer service whose equity partner is Primark Corp. a major provider of financial data content. tradeportal

Momentum Securities/Irvine, CA, owns and operates for the past 3-1/2 years the largest Direct Access Trading floor on the west coast. The floor is open to the public. soes

A Press Conference is scheduled for Friday, August 18, 2000, 11 AM, Online Trading Expo, Ontario Convention Center, Ontario, California.

For more information please visit their website at OnlineTradingAcademy.

For interviews with CEO John O'Donnell, please contact Cathy Vlad, Press Agent, Online Trading Academy at 909-283-9818 or 949-713-9065, or John O'Donnell, CEO Online Trading Academy, 949-678-6158.

2000 Business Wire

Iol strength and conditioning

Iol strength and conditioningTraining Periodization — Workout Cycling Plan

I cant emphasize enough how effective a good cycling plan — periodization — can be in getting off a plateau. Its not just a plateau-buster, either; its a way to live.

1. Keep your routine simple, using just a few multi-joint moves. Try Squat, Row, and Bench for the first few cycles; DL, OHP, and Chin for the next few.

2. Work out three times a week in a whole-body routine.

3. Use a Heavy/Light/Medium weekly mini-cycle.

4. Make your heaviest set on Week 1s heavy day (say, Monday)

85 percent of your 5RM and do 5 on that heavy set. Do one more work set with 90 percent of that first set.

5. Monday on Week 2 should see you using

92.5 percent of your previously-established 5RM.

6. Monday on Week 3: 100 percent.

7. Monday on Week 4: Go for a new 5RM and lay off the rest of that week.

8. Week 6: Start over using the new 5RM as the basis of the next cycle.

9. Use 80 percent of Week 2/Mondays heavier set for Week 1/Wednesdays heavier set; 90 percent of Week 2/Mondays heavier set for Week 1/Fridays heavier set. Follow that template for each of the first 4 weeks.

Poundages go up with this simple cycle. You get big and strong.

Some of the basics are what youll read from other people, like using a full-body routine, using multi-joint moves. and very few of those at a time.

The point I like to harp on is cycling. I first read about cycling in the 1970s, but I couldnt make myself exercise at anything less than full-bore intensity. That was a legacy of my Nautilus days. Even when a coach in New Hampshire named George Elder was writing great articles on the concept in Iron Man . Id flirt with cycling for a short while but then revert to driving every set to failure.

Never think an old dog cant learn new tricks, though. And, hey, it only took me a few decades. Pavel Tsatsoulines outline of cycling in his book, Power to the People! was what finally brought me fully over to using cycling.

The cycling he advocates is different from what I toyed with in the early 1980s and gained a lot from (amazing how even success wont convince the person whos been so thoroughly educated in and convinced by another school of thought!). It forms the basis for one method of gaining strength without much mass and another method combining strength and mass. Both approaches, which are based on the same foundation, guide you to real success.

The idea behind cycling is nudging the body into greater and greater accomplishment, rather than trying to force it. Like all of life, growth in strength and size comes in cycles.

Stimulus is followed eventually by growth. And because growth can happen as the result of some unknown minimum of intensity (percent of 1RM), cycling poundages up and down but with an overall increase, allows the body to recover enough to respond.

In Power to the People . Pavel states that a good cycle lasts between 8 and 12 workouts. If you exercise 3 times per week, thata€™s an overall upward increase in poundage used over 2.5 to 4 weeks. If you follow that with a week of low intensity a€“ exercising with resistance and reps that feel pretty light a€“ recovery is enhanced. A full layoff might be even better, if the HST crowd is correct . because it allows you to strategically decondition (soften up for gains, a la McCallum ). A good compromise might be to go light on Week 4 (and later, on Week 8) and lay completely off after 2 or 3 cycles (at about the three-month mark).

Linear cycling

A linear cycle is one in which the weights just go up from session to session. This is what I did a€“ or intended a€“ during 2 productive periods of my training life. One was when I progressively pushed my bench press way beyond where itd been before. But I got stuck with a double at my highest poundage. Unfortunately, the things Ia€™d read about cycling hadna€™t really penetrated my sometimes-thick skull, and I hit an impasse. If Ia€™d known what I was doing, Ia€™d have backed off to about 85 percent of that and gone slowly up again, doing triples or slightly more reps. But I was dumb and impulsive, and I turned my attention in another direction.

Another productive time was when I decided to give deadlifting a go. I was busy and chronically tired from getting up early and battling Beltway traffic, to get to work by 7:00. I worked on DLing for a few months, never having really concentrated on them before, and I added chins late in that game. Both were cut short by medical need, but not before making really good progress. My DL got pretty good for a few monthsa€™ work, and the cycle was rarely modified from a small increase almost every session.

Step cycling

On the few occasions that my DL progress slowed, I kept the poundage the same for another session. I didna€™t really think about it, but it was a form of defacto step cycling. Stepping is simply alternating an increase in poundage (over several workouts) with keeping the poundage the same. So, 8 sessions might look like this: 225, 230, 235, 235, 240, 245, 245, 250.

Wave cycling

Dona€™t confuse this with wave loading. The best way to think about wave cycling is to look at the tried-and-true heavy-light-medium weekly mini-cycle. My favorite way of doing HLM is to make Wednesdaya€™s heaviest set 80 percent of next Mondaya€™s heaviest set. Friday would be 90 percent of next Mondaya€™s.

Why next Mondaya€™s heaviest set and not this Mondaya€™s? Ita€™s a small detail, but if youa€™re planning out the cycle in advance, youa€™re going to know what each heavy daya€™s going to look like anyway. And I like making this weeka€™s light and medium days a run-up to next weeka€™s heavy day.

I like wave cycling the best, because (especially as you get stronger) the light and medium days help with recovery and still stimulate muscle growth to varying extents. Thata€™s important both for advanced weight trainers and older weight trainers, because both populations need to pay attention to recovery issues.

A lot of people might look at the 3-session/week nature of HLM and dismiss it, because they prefer more volume over fewer workout days in the week. I think frequency is important, though. Like everything in this art, it is a variable, but in general, I think that if youa€™ve got a choice between less frequency and more, and overall volume is the same, more frequency is generally the way to go. The body likes repetition when ita€™s training to get stronger.

Next I want to discuss how a simple cycle can serve both for neural training and muscle-growth training, but let me sidetrack for just a moment to respond to a comment of Fred Fornicolas:

Along the lines of cycles, those who really understand high intensity training (or as I prefer to refer to it as simply hard work) utilize some type of cycling as well. Its not as formalized or planned out but I dont feel anyone can make progress banging it too hard all the time it just becomes counter productive.

Its my opinion (based on several conversations with those who were there in the beginning and just my own feelings) that Arthur Jones was still discovering and experimenting and never really took his concept to the next level. The next level I am referring to is how to implement the level of intensity to the recreational lifter as well as the older trainee. AJ would recommend significant layoffs to recover which I feel is counterproductive. I believe a smart coach/trainee understands that you dont need to bury yourself into the ground to make progress (progress defined as your own, specific goals not someone elses) and that you learn how and when to accelerate and when to brake. Basically, using your head to cycle your training.

I have implemented this approach over the last few years and have had good success with the people I work with. Its amazing what little amount of exercise is truly needed if applied intelligently.

During one of the conversations I had with Ell Darden about 15 years ago or so, I asked him his opinions about cycling. He didnt think it was necessary to plan such a thing out, even if you do back off every so often. (The big exception to that would be his recommendation of cycling higher-volume — but still high-intensity — work for specific bodyparts throughout the year.)

I said, Well, what about some of Arthurs earlier writings, which advocated making Wednesday a session using lower intensity than on Monday or Friday?

Thats for when a trainee progresses to the point where his recovery ability cant keep pace with his strength.

I knew that, but I pressed him: But isnt that a tacit admission that some level of intensity below 100 percent can still yield muscle-building results?

Well, those workouts are more to prevent losing gains than making them.

Which makes it a matter of degree, right? I mean, if 85 percent intensity prevents me from backsliding, thats sort of like progressing, but slower. The thing that keeps me from losing progress is progress. Its just relatively less progress.

There was one of those long pauses you get in a conversation with Darden, and it doesnt mean hes confused. It means hes choosing his words. or mulling over your words. Finally, he said, You can put it that way, yes.

So, if one day a week is sub-maximal, and you plan that, its really a kind of cycling of intensity.

Well, you can say that, but bear in mind Arthurs changed a bit on that recommendation. At that point, we began talking about working out twice a week, rather than three times. It was a direction of Nautilus theory that I embraced for a few years and ultimately rejected; frequency, I began to understand, really is important to continued progress, especially on the neural level. It requires less than 100 percent effort on a high percentage of your workouts, but thats not necessarily a bad thing.

Back on track, herea€™s the foundation of the program.

This is the neural piece.

Getting strong is accomplished partly by getting a better neural connection to your muscles and partly by getting bigger muscles. The neural connection is more than just skill, though skill is probably its biggest component. Ita€™s increasing what Arthur Jones called neurological efficiency. Jones said that NE was fixed at birth (actually, at conception). He said most people have around 30 percent NE, meaning that 3 muscle fibers out of 10 are contracted at any single moment during a maximal effort. On either end of a bell curve, youa€™ve got a€?genetic freaks, a€? who have 50 percent NE, like Paul Anderson and Casey Viator . and a€?motor morons, a€? who have only 10 percent NE.

The history of the strength sports seems to contradict Jones, though, concerning the fixed nature of neurological efficiency. Weightlifters are able to get stronger and stronger over a period of years without leaving their weight classes, for example. Beyond questions of drugs and motivation, there appears to be a good case for NE improving with the right kind of training.

Tension and strength

So, first, what is the right kind of training to get stronger on the neural level? Neural training is the same thing as training for high levels of muscular tension. Such tension is the end result of that kind of training. So, the statement we can work with is: Acquire the skill to generate more tension.

Like any skill, this takes repetition. You dona€™t learn to play the guitar like Eric Clapton overnight, and you dona€™t learn how to lift a large barbell over your head overnight, either. Both involve learning and practicing a set of smaller skills. In the latter case, theya€™re the skills involved in creating more and more muscular tension.

The five key conditions for training these skills, creating high levels of muscular tension, are:

1) moving slowly

2) consciously maximizing muscular tension, as though youa€™re posing

3) using heavy weights most of the time

4) minimizing fatigue

5) using specific techniques: a . power breathing, b. hyperirradiation, c. pre-tension, d. successive induction

Slow motion

Force/tension drops off rapidly when velocity increases. When you have to deal with resistance over several seconds, rather than for a fraction of one second, you just get better overload. Lifting heavy weights will always trump throwing things for building strength. One reason is because to get sufficient overload, you need resistance greater than what you get in something you can throw.

Arm-wrestlers and powerlifters are good examples of athletes who move slowly and get very, very strong. There are exceptions to this slow-speed rule, but the general principle holds. (Ia€™m not talking about super-slow training here, by the way.)

Does this mean youa€™ll slow down for some other sport youa€™re engaged in? Not necessarily. I think the important thing to do in such cases is not to make strength training the main thing you do (it doesna€™t take long, and, done right, it doesna€™t exhaust you, so this shouldna€™t present a problem). Spend most of your time training the fast thing you do. Keep those skills highly honed. The small investment of time using slow, heavy weights wona€™t, in my opinion, take away from the fast skills you work on at other times.

Maximizing tension

Even if youa€™re using a light weight, ita€™s good practice to handle it as though it weighs a lot, if youa€™re aiming at training yourself to create high muscular tension. Tense the muscles on purpose. Youa€™re using dynamic tension, which can build a lot of neural strength.

Using heavy weights

Wea€™re talking about the 85-95 percent range of your 1RM. There are at least three reasons for using heavy weights.

One, you build strength in the connective tissues and joints. An added benefit is the effect using heavy weights has on inhibiting your mechanoreceptors, the governors of your bodya€™s strength. Those guys say a€?okaya€? to your using heavy weights, once theya€™re used to them through repetition.

Two, you need to experience real, live resistance to gain skill at creating high tension levels in your muscles. Electrical and chemical signals in your body are generated in response to heavy resistance, and experiencing that on a regular basis builds the skill wea€™re talking about.

And three, Hennemana€™s Size Principle states that motor units are generally recruited in order of smallest to largest (fewest fibers to most fibers, as well as slowest-contraction to fastest-contraction fibers) as contraction increases. And this is in response to greater and greater resistance.

You might see that these three reasons overlap. Regardless, they build a strong case for using heavy weights when youa€™re training for the skill of strength.

Minimizing fatigue

Fatigue is your friend when youa€™re training for size, and wea€™ll get to that. For the neural part of the equation, though, ita€™s your enemy. Dona€™t worry; therea€™s a simple way of both avoiding it and using it in the same workout, and thata€™s coming up.

Next, Ia€™ll talk about minimizing fatigue.

Using specific techniques

Power breathing: Hold your breath as the weighta€™s coming down and going back up again, until the last part of the concentric, when you blow roughly half of it out. Or blow it out after the rep is completed. If, for some reason, youa€™ve been advised not to hold your breath under the load of a barbell, try this alternative: Instead of holding your breath, blow out through pursed lips at the beginning of the concentric and whoosh it out hard on the last part. Dona€™t completely empty the lungs; keep enough air in there to stabilize the spine. In other words, keep abdominal pressure high. Make your ab wall hard but not bulgy.

Hyperirradiation, in a nutshell: HI is purposeful tensing of muscles other than the ones directly responsible for the task youa€™re doing. Although wea€™re really talking about tensing the whole body during any one lift, there are three key points: the grip, the abs, and the glutes. If you grip the bar as if to squeeze juice out of it (on upper body drills) and you make a shield of your ab wall and you mentally try to grip a coin with your butt muscles, youa€™ll generate more strength in your lift. Therea€™s a big neural stimulus sent to your working muscles when you simultaneously tense the ones here. As an added benefit, you create a safer foundation for exercising, preventing hyperflexion or hyperextension in your joints and properly aligning your body in the process.

Pre-tension: Stay tight. Keep in mind the high correlation between tension and strength. Tensing up before unracking the bar has a strong effect on creating tension and strength.

This might be one reason why walk-outs are so effective. If you load a squat bar with weights you cana€™t actually squat with, unrack it and walk backward a step or two, as though youa€™re going to squat, and then, after standing there a sec, walking back and re-racking it, your squat workout a few minutes later can noticeably improve. Part of that is psychological: Youa€™re less scared now. But I think youa€™ve also disinhibited a bunch of your neural protective mechanisms, too.

Successive induction: What this means is when youa€™re doing the negative part of a press, for example, youa€™re not just lowering the weight (or dropping it). Youa€™re actively pulling it down with your biceps and lats, as though doing a pulldown. This is actually an extension of pre-tension. You start by tensing before unracking; you finish by pulling down on the bar during the eccentric contraction with the muscles that oppose those that do the concentric part. The power of this technique probably has to do with the body saying to itself, a€?Hey, I dona€™t have to protect this guy by inhibiting his power; hea€™s protecting himself. a€?

Again, therea€™s a safety windfall: Your joints are stabilized way beyond what theya€™d be if you made it a habit to drop the bar on the eccentric or swing the bar up and down. A lot of us old-timers have joint problems. Maybe the young turks among us wona€™t be dazzled by the safety promises of a lot of this material, but if they see immediate and long-term strength gains by following the principles, theya€™ll appreciate the safety aspect in the years to come.

Your strength dance is your safety dance.

Were going to talk about minimizing fatigue in neural training, but I swear to you the very next part will get to the size-building part of this equation. I wanted to go through neural training first, because it really is foundational.

Why minimizing fatigue? Because, as Pavel puts it,

a€?Fatigue and strength/tension are mutually exclusive! Metabolic waste products like lactic acid hamper further powerful contractions. Cardiovascular insufficiency forces you to prematurely terminate your set. Mental fatigue from doing too many reps or sets prevents you from generating required intensity. The a€?communication linesa€™ between your brain and your muscles get overworked and no longer conduct your orders effectively. a€? p 18, Power to the People!

Those weaned on the writings of Arthur Jones and Ell Darden will see what looks like a big departure of opinion here. It starts with definitions, specifically of the term intensity. For Jones, it was perceived effort. For Pavel and the researchers he cites, ita€™s percentage of 1RM. This is something I brought up with Darden a long time ago. First of all, percentage of 1RM is much more friendly to accurate measurement than is perceived effort, and measurement is foundational to science. Perceived effort changes daily and even hourly. One-rep max also changes, but ita€™s not as subject to emotional and psychological states as is the perception of effort.

I asked Darden about something he wrote in one of his books, a variation on a theme running through just about everything hea€™s written. My question concerned what Jones called a€?the rush factor. a€? I understood its role in metabolic conditioning, but I questioned its efficacy in creating strength gains. I pointed out the importance of overload, one of the very principles Darden himself said was essential for effective strength training (the other being progression). I asked him how a person could overload in a given exercise when hea€™s gasping for air after doing several exercises full-bore and back-to-back. He said that it didna€™t matter that a person could only press, say, 80 pounds for 8 in the middle of this fast-paced workout, when normally he could do 100 for 8. What mattered was that he hit failure with that 80.

Then he added, a€?Besides, youa€™re going to meet and exceed your old numbers soon enough. a€? He offered, I should add, abundant proof, including the results of the West Point study in 1975, in which the participating members of the football team really did exceed their old PRs by a long shot, and they did this working out with fifteen seconds max between exercises.

Another apparent wrinkle here is that Pavel himself cites a couple of studies in his first kettlebell book, showing how the use of moderate poundages in the competitive KB lifts yielded tremendous performance results. In a 1983 (I think) study, comparing a KB-only group with a control group using more traditional exercises, the KB guys outperformed the control group in the very exercises the control group had been working on the whole time.

So, is Pavel contradicting himself, and has Arthur Jones been right all along? Well, the contradiction is only apparent. The KB observations and the Nautilus studies noted improvements in muscular strength. Growth in that area has a neural component (through motor skill refinement), but the improvement is essentially made through growth of muscle. On the continuum that joins strength-through-purely-neural-means and strength-through-growth-o f-tissue, neural strength training really does prefer a low-fatigue environment. It might even require it.

The advantages of working for metabolic conditioning (something we can talk about at another time) include physical improvement across the board (e. g. various types of strength, systemic endurance, and local muscular endurance). The advantages of a slower, low-fatigue approach to strength include being able to stick with a routine that doesna€™t threaten to kill you every time you follow it.

Now, Ia€™ll get to the promised nuts and bolts of minimizing fatigue in order to build neural strength.

Part of the challenge of reporting on Power to the People! is the fact that ita€™s not a well-organized book. It jumps around a bit. But Pavel does organize some things well, and this is one of them. He lists 5 ways to minimize a€?various types of fatigue. a€? Here they are.

1. Keep your reps low

Pavel advises reps in the same range Bill Starr does, up to 6. Both simplify by saying, a€?Five. a€? Although he spells out why he likes low reps better in other writings, essentially ita€™s for a couple of reasons:

a. You dona€™t exhaust the stabilizer muscles, which — in a high-rep set — tend to give out before prime movers, making an exercise more dangerous. This was a point made by a chiropractor friend who was also a muscle-head way back in the early 1990s. When I made mention of 20-rep squats, he said, a€?I wouldna€™t do more than 10, and even thata€™s high. a€? His reasoning was that the lower back muscles, which are held in isometric contraction during the set, fatigue faster than the muscles of the thighs — and that they tire unevenly. So, when one side of your spinal erectors begins to fail before the other, your spine begins to tilt. This is dangerous under a heavy load. For his part, Pavel recognizes the usefulness of 20-rep squats but says not to stay on such a routine for long.

b. Doing five reps prevents the possibility of overdoing sarcoplasmic hypertrophy. Pavel calls such growth fake. While some of such growth will occur, especially in the Bear-style training Ia€™ll get to, myofibrillar growth is responsible for the greatest growth. Why? Because Bear-style training emphasizes heavy weights and low reps, even while going for a pump.

2. Keep rest intervals up around 3-5 minutes

ATP stores are depleted during exercise, and, while short rest periods are good for creating a cumulative breakdown of muscle tissue, longer ones are better for doing consistently heavy work for several sets of an exercise.

3. Keep the number of sets low

Fatigue will eventually set in, even when your reps are low and your rest intervals are longish. So, for neural strength training, dona€™t do a high volume of work. Hit it fairly hard and heavy, and then go home. The PTP! template involves two work sets per exercise: The first one conforms to the overall cycle, and the second one is 90 percent of that first set.

Pavela€™s caveat is that such a percentage is not precise. Just take some plates off and do a second set. Bam, thata€™s it.

4. Pause and relax between reps

This is something I remember reading Larry Scott did when working his biceps. Each rep was its own thing: Hea€™d rest for a moment at the top of preacher bench curls before lowering the weight for another rep. That short rest allows you to a€?generate higher values of muscular tensiona€? as your set progresses. The ATP thing mentioned above is a big reason why.

5. Lift frequently but not too frequently

Tsatsouline likens exercising to practicing. And practicing any skill requires repetition. He cites numerous studies and lots of historical examples for practically everything he writes, and for this principle, he tells about Bob Peoples, the great deadlifter, who practiced his pet lift 4 to 5 times a week. You can be assured that these sessions were heavy but not intense the way Arthur Jones described intense. Peoples didna€™t carry a lot of muscle, and his training style shows one reason why. He didna€™t try to exhaust muscle; he just practiced lifting progressively heavier weights.

How Pavel combines neural training with higher volume, fatigue-oriented work to yield an effective size-building approach: Get a pump with heavy weights .

Thata€™s the gist of size building, according to the Energetic Theory of Muscle Hypertrophy. It rings true for me. Although I tried lots of set/rep protocols when I was a pup, thata€™s the one that delivered the most for me.

How does it work? There are two main things going on when you train heavy, using multiple sets and comparatively brief rest periods (compared, that is, to the intervals I described for neural training): tension and fatigue.

You get tension by using heavy weights. By using five reps per set with weights thata€™ll allow 6 or 7 reps (if you went to failure), you can use heavy loads. Also, there are the tension producing techniques mentioned above.

You get fatigue by doing multiple sets and keeping rest intervals brief. Forget all the chemical things going on in your muscle cells; youa€™re getting a pump. Ted Arcidi called a high-rep pump a a€?suck pump. a€? I dona€™t know how he came up with such an interesting term, but it reveals his attitude. Arcidi was a very strong, very big man. Whether his size was pure accident or intentional, I dona€™t know. I do know that a low-rep pump, one utilizing heavy weights, is one even that power man would respect.

Combine the previous principles

Remember when we talked about creating high levels of muscular tension? Well, doing that over several sets creates a real nice growth stimulus. Ita€™s almost like posing with a barbell. Employ all the performance principles mentioned in my above posts for multiple sets.

Herea€™s how the set/rep approach is done.

Youa€™ve set up your cycle already. Leta€™s say youa€™re going to follow the HLM weekly mini-cycle. Also, youa€™re going to go increasingly heavy for 3 weeks, back off somewhat for one, then hit that pattern again. Thata€™s a good, solid approach, time-honored and proven.

So, leta€™s say todaya€™s first set is 92 percent of your 5RM. Never mind that ita€™s 92 percent of what you can do today, ita€™s your a€?money set. a€? You do one set of 5 with it. Rest for 3 minutes or 5 minutes or anything in between: your call. Now, take 10 percent off the bar and do another set of 5. Thata€™s 90 percent of todaya€™s heavy set, not of your 5RM.

If you were going for strength without size, youa€™d leave it at that. Instead of going for workout volume, youa€™d go for frequency throughout the week. You could get away with training the lift 5 times a week, if you cycled properly. None of those sets would be limit sets. Youa€™re training a skill, remember: the skill of being strong.

For size, though, you dona€™t stop at those two sets (and you dont train the exercise 5 times per week; stick with 3, when youre using this kind of workout volume). After you finish the second set, you strip another 10 percent off the bar and start doing sets of 5. Rest 30-90 seconds between these sets and do as many as you can. This means you keep doing sets until 5 reps wona€™t go up anymore. Thata€™s when you call it quits.

So, ita€™s:

Set 1: poundage indexed to your cycle.

Set 2: 90 percent of Set 1

Remaining sets: 80 percent of Set 1

Some people end up able to do a lot more of the 80 percent sets than others can do. A lot of that has to do with the muscle fiber types making up the involved muscles. The more fast-twitch fibers youa€™ve got, the fewer sets youa€™ll be able to do (all other things, like rest intervals, being equal). Theya€™re strong, but they have little endurance.

The reason Pavel has you doing 2 a€“ or at most, 3 a€“ exercises in this approach is that youa€™ve got to account for recovery factors. His recommendation for exercises is the deadlift and the side press. Id do rows, too, but I wouldnt do Bear-style sets (all those 80 percenters) on all 3 exercises. Id do them with 2 movements at most, doing just the 2 strength sets (Set 1 and Set 2) for the third. After a cycle or two, change out which 2 you do Bear-style.

Pavela€™s simple advice is to pound protein. Remember when I wrote above that using heavy weights increases tension? Thata€™s because, as Pavel writes, tension increases amino acid uptake by the muscles. The more tension there is and the longer the muscles stay under tension (always balanced by adequate recovery), the better, for the purposes of getting big muscles. He likens it to throwing scoops of protein into your muscles with every rep and bigger weights make bigger scoops.

Well, combine that with actual, literal protein. According to PTP. to build muscle, you need extra protein and a lot of it. I remember Bob Simpson writing essentially the same thing in Iron Man many years ago. Neither Pavel nor Bob sells protein (to my knowledge), so their words arena€™t backed by a profit motive. Pavel urges the reader to experiment both with sources and amounts of protein to find what works best.

Adequate rest is the last — but not the least important a€“- leg of the stool. Train to be calm when youa€™re awake, and rest well when youa€™re asleep. By resting well, I mean for example that you can knock yourself out with a lot of booze, but it isna€™t a restful sleep. Be healthy. There are lots of quality-of-life reasons for that, and one of them is building a big, strong body.

Not just one way

The point should be made here that this is not Pavela€™s only recommendation for gaining size. Hea€™s got a whole book out there called Beyond Bodybuilding . which describes many approaches toward building size. What they all have in common, though, is that they also build strength. He even goes on to say in an interview that an advanced bodybuilder can use any routine he likes; just add the breathing and high-tension techniques described above (if you dona€™t already do them), and youa€™ll have a greatly improved routine.

My addendum is that the minimalist approach (3 exercises) described in PTP! is a valuable one to consider, due to stress-and-recovery balance issues. Too often, we drive too hard for too long, and we defeat ourselves, because wea€™re not recovering enough. You dona€™t have to fully recover, I dona€™t believe (anymore), but you have to recover enough over time to make progress. If you measure progress on, say, a monthly schedule (rather than a workout-to-workout schedule), you might end up doing better. There will be some over-reaching, and there will be a nice overcompensation as a reward.

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Thinking made easy

Thinking made easy3 Changes and Development in Human Resource Approaches

Due to the different changes in the business environment, most of the businesses or organizations are focusing on the importance of the labor force or human resource as the most important resources. Thus, Human resource development or HRD plays a vital role in the modern organizations, this is due to the fact that HRD is the organized learning activities that were arranged in the organization to improve the performance as well as personal growth in order to improve the performance, personal growth that will help to improve the job, individual as well as the entire organization.

Currently the HRD environment is facing different problems as well as conflicts that make the HRD profession one of the challenging careers. This is due to the fact that inside the workforce, the entire demographics are changing, thus many organizations are realizing that the workforce diversity is considered as one of the most important source of competitive advantage (Sims 2006). The said condition shows that changes in the HRD are enormous. This is connected to the different issues about ethnicity, cultural and languages as well as prejudice that are related to the said subjects, or in simple term it is associated with differences. As a result, it shows that the different developmental opportunities are being focused not just on the organizational learning but also on the different acculturation process between the foreign and old employees. Another important thing that must be considered is the growing number of populations of women that are emerging or entering the workforce. Thus, it is important for any company to consider that the interests of the women in the process of seeking positions must be considered, and their vulnerability must be protected. Above all, it is also important to consider the ageing workforce that will push different HRD programs to focus on the needs and demands of younger as well as older employees (Sims 2006).

Aside from that said demographic changes, it is also important to consider the two most important and visible factors that affect the entire HRD and pushes the intensive TD program: globalization and competition. This is due to the fact that it changes the process of HRD, and it is helpful in order to ensure maintenance of both global and local balance. This is due to the fact that companies nowadays are discovering that it is always important not only to focus on the global changes, but also focus on the different local events and trends in order to communicate with their customers. Thus, HRD must also hit the different process of sharing information as well as transfer of knowledge that will drive the process of research and innovation (Sims 2006).

As a result, it is important to align the HRD with the technical and technological requirements, thus the needs for more knowledgeable, experienced as well as skilled workers is vital. In connection to that, different technological trends like the demand and growth of more knowledge-intensive goods as well as services; changes in the competencies of human; global network; streamlining of business; rapid response; quicker innovations; quality improvement as well as revolution, shows that companies and organizations as of now are more connected with each other, thus must synergized (Sims 2006).

The said development is connected with the TD processes and programs, this is due to the fact that most of the organizations nowadays are focusing on improving the knowledge and abilities of the individual. As a result, the process of closing the skills gap is considered as one of the most critical and crucial area of HRD for any organization in terms of penetrating the market in continuous manner. This is because skills gap can threatens the productivity as well as competitiveness in the level of organization and operation that requires the entire HRM professional to start on cultivating the workforce from the period of recruitment. On the other hand, the said process is not easy because there are different works that require customization of different skills, that not all of the newly hired employees acquire social skills aside from the basic skills (Sims 2006).

Above all, it is important to take note that the process of building the organization is considered as a vital for existence and the survival of the organization in the modern industry. Time and time again, most of the companies must invest on the different internal customers and employees that help them to take advantage of the entire human capital management. In addition, the sense of ownership is a vital aspect that requires the HRD professionals to develop different strategies that will guarantee superior knowledge, skills as well as experience that must be settled inside the workforce. This can be done by focusing on the different learning skills that will put the skills enhancement and will develop assignment and focus on the process of developing career and empowerment (Sims 2006, p. 19).

4 Roles of Different Entities in TD

4.1 Employers

The main responsibility of the employer is to ensure that the TD process are connected to their entire strategy and goal. It is also important for the employers to ensure that the TD program to be implemented is beneficial not only for the company but also for employees’ individual development growth. It is also the responsibility of the employers to inform the employees regarding the TD process and how it can affect their position or their performance in the company. This is to prevent any conflict and misunderstanding.

Above all, it is the responsibility of the employers to hire or employ training professionals that is suitable to the current organization and inform them regarding the different issues that are connected with the different rules and regulations as well as policies of the company.

4.2 Training Professionals

In the entire TD program and process, the training professionals have the most important role this is due to the fact that they are the one that set the pace of the program. Aside from that, they are also responsible in guiding and giving assistance to the trainees and employees, and focuses on furnishing the subject-matter expertise. Above all, they are accountable or responsible in the process of evaluating the entire training and development program (Sims 2002, p. 177).

That is why, an effective instructors must have the ability to deliver the different content of the TD program in manner that they assists and make the entire learning process easier for the trainee employees. This focuses on the different skills such as the ability to: speak well, write convincingly, systematize and put into order the different works of other, creative, imaginative and inventive, and more importantly encourage others in greater performance and success and smoothen the progress of the climate for learning (Sims 2006, p. 176).

4.3 Employees

Employees play one of the most vital roles in the process of TD, due to the fact that they are the direct player or beneficiaries of the program. Thus, it is important for the employees to focus on how they can help themselves in acquiring or absorbing the different subjects and knowledge that are being offered by the training professionals.

As a support to the effort of the employer and the training professionals it is important for the employees to participate in the entire program. This is because learning is considered as quicker and more long-lasting when the learner can participate in active manner (Sims 1990).

4.4 Labor Unions

Labor union is considered as an organization of workers that have banded and gathered together in order to accomplish common goals in different areas like wages, hours as well as working conditions. Through the leadership of the labor union, it deals and negotiates with the employers (Lewis 2001). As a result, it is the responsibility of the labor unions to make sure that the different policies and rules and regulations that are connected with the training or development process or initiatives, are fair for the employees. It is also their responsibilities to ensure that the programs that are being implemented are conducive for the learning process and flow of the employees, in connection to good working environment.

4.5 Government

The government plays a very crucial or vital role in the entire process and aspect of human resource or HR. This is due to the fact the government focuses on ensuring that a respective organization or firm is following the given standards or procedures of the local as well as international law. Thus, the government is responsible in ensuring that the entire TD process, together with the policies and procedures are following the standard of both the local, national as well as international standards.

5 Application and Benefits of TD

There are different organizations and companies that are focusing on the process and programs of TD in order to improve the products and services that they are offering towards their customers. All of them are realizing that it has a great impact over their performance.

One of the most well-known brand or figure in the field of TD is Motorola. It is the company that brings up the popularity of applying Six Sigma in their management process. As a result, the company had been able to establish their Motorola University that focuses on developing the learning process and knowledge of their employees, as well as outsiders regarding the benefits of Six Sigma. Motorola University has long been the equivalent of Harvard or MIT in the organization. It is considered as highly respected in terms of corporate universities due to the fact that it offers leading-edge thinking that is related to the goals of Motorola. It was crafted as an internal development course to be used in a blended learning environment. Thus, the principles about leadership are all explained in different practical terms that are easily translated and applied in the actual workplace (Motorola Inc. 2009).

As a result, TD programs are not just valuable for the organization alone, but also for the individual employees, due to the fact that it helps to develop the current abilities and skills.

TD development helps to improve the profitability as well as positive attitudes towards profit orientation that eventually leads to improvement of the job knowledge and skill all levels of management in the organization. Aside from that, it can also help to improve the morale of the workforce, therefore helps the employees to identify the goals of the organization. On the side of the employees, it can help individual to make better decision and have an effective problem solving technique that helped them to encourage and achieve self-development as well as self-confidence that will help individual to handle stress, tension, frustration as well as conflict. This will increase the satisfaction of the employee that will cause motivation for better performance (Sims 1990).

6 Conclusion

TD process and program focuses on improving the performance of each and every individual employee by feeding them new skills and information that will help them to grow. As a result, when employees are more skilled and knowledgeable, they are intended to develop more self-confidence and self-esteem that enables them to work and perform well.

7 References

Arthur, D 1995, Managing Human Resources in Small Mid-Sized Companies, AMACOM Div American Mgmt Assn

Buhler, P 2002, Streetwise Human Resources Management: All Information You Need to Manage Your Staff and Meet Your Business Objective, Adams Media

Motorola Inc. 2009, Motorola University, viewed 2 January 2008, < motorola/content. jsp? globalObjectId=3084>