Strategies to use with forex algorithmic trading

Strategies to use with forex algorithmic tradingStrategies to Use with FOREX Algorithmic Trading

Strategies to Use with FOREX Algorithmic Trading

Submitted by adil on Wed, 07/08/2015 - 16:51

Tagged as: Forex Trading School. Forex Trading

It is a fact that major banking institutions agreed to and did manipulate forex currency rates especially of USD and EUR from 2007 and 2013. Four renowned banks were pronounced guilty of voluntarily adjusting forex rates in a bid to lure more traders with promises of high returns and low risks. Since then, accountability and security agencies are keep a close eye on all forex trading happening all over the world.

Importance of algorithmic trading

Many people are not aware that every day, transactions worth $5-trillion are made. Current systems rely on human intervention that can lead to corruption or bias. Therefore regulators are now favouring the implementation of algorithmic trading. This trading is based on an electronic platform that executes forex trades in the real financial market with the help of mathematical models. Without any direct human involvement, algorithmic trading offers better efficiency and transparency.

Many trading strategies are compatible with algorithmic forex trading. The most popular strategies are described below:

Auto Hedging:

Hedging is one of the most common way to reduce the risks involved in forex trading. In algorithmic forex trading, hedging can be automated so the trader will lose less in case the market starts behaving unexpectedly. The automated hedging trades are generated using specific mathematical models as pre-set when the trader adjusts the trade risk portfolio. The most common hedging trades include spot contracts and currency options.

There are also other trading opportunities that a forex trader can only take advantage from by using automated trading. One of such occasions is arbitrage opportunities when for some seconds, currency prices remain misaligned due to technical reasons. Traders can benefit from such opportunities by using triangular arbitrage but of course will need the help of automated algorithmic forex trading.

Statistical Analysis:

Statistical analysis is very popular among advanced forex traders. It helps in predicting future price movements of a security through analysis of current and past data. Price actions have patterns, but to find out the pattern, a huge amount of data needs to be analysed quickly which is impossible manually. Special computer tools are now available that perform statistical analysis on market data according to predefined indicators such as MACD and RSI. After analysis, the tools predict the best time to start a trade on specific currencies.

Algorithmic Executions:

Fund managers perform bulk trading on large number of securities in a short interval of time. They require more control with fast execution. Good trading opportunities exist for a short interval of time in a forex market and to perform bulk trading on various assets is only possible for seasoned forex trader. But, automated algorithmic forex trading has now enabled even the new traders to reap the complete benefits of forex trading by using special automated trading tools that trade faster and more accurately.

High frequency Trading:

Advanced algorithms can be complex to understand and implement, but have their own advantage. It has become extremely popular among forex traders to perform trades within seconds or milliseconds of each other. Traders can perform completely risk-free trades as technical limitations of the forex market has a standard price movement.

The scandals related with major financial and banking institutions are still fresh in many minds. The majority wants a more transparent system that automated algorithmic forex trading can facilitate.



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The holy grail of investing combining value and momentum

The holy grail of investing combining value and momentumThe Holy Grail of Investing: Combining Value and Momentum

By Jim Fink on May 24, 2013

A long literature finds that, on average, value stocks outperform growth stocks and stocks with high positive momentum outperform stocks with low positive momentum.

Clifford Asness. AQR Capital Management

Every investor wants to “beat the stock market ,” but we all know that it is easier said than done. Becoming a superior value investor like Warren Buffett is probably the best and most sustainable way to outperform index investing, but Buffetts version of value investing requires years of experience and expertise in fundamental analysis that most will never attain.

Outside of Buffett-like prowess, the holy grail of investing is finding a quantitative and mechanical methodology based on a simple set of screening criteria that anybody can follow. In my previous article Mechanical Investing and Fundamental Indexing: Be a Quant! . I provided a few examples of pre-defined stock screens that have good back-tested results. Looking back, Ive found a few of the most important characteristics of the stocks selected from these successful screens:

1. Low valuation (based on ratios of market price to cash flow, earnings, or sales )

2. Small company market capitalization

3. Price momentum

In Buy Small-Cap Stocks Before They Grow Up . I discussed the Fama-French Three-Factor Model (TFM). which successfully predicted 95% of a stock portfolios future return based on the first two factors listed above (value and small size), as well as stock price volatility (i. e. beta ).

In The Great Investment Truth Behind Simple Arithmetic . I discussed how downside volatility is much more destructive of wealth than upside volatility is beneficial, so the higher a stocks beta, the greater the chance that the stock will suffer a large stock decline that destroys wealth. Investors should require a higher return potential from such stocks to compensate for this risk (the fact that they dont is one of the great anomalies of finance ). Similarly, small-cap stocks are arguably more vulnerable to economic recessions (due to fewer financial resources to weather bad times) and low-valuation stocks arguably sport low valuations because their businesses are distressed and thus at risk of never recovering to full health.

Small-Cap Stocks

Advocates of market efficiency argue that these added risks cause stock prices of these companies to sell at a discount and subsequently generate abnormally-large returns if the companies end up succeeding. On the other hand, advocates of market inefficiency, argue that small-cap and value stocks outperform for irrational behavioral finance reasons rather than the rational discounting of increased risk. Specifically, small-cap stocks are underfollowed and ignored by Wall Street brokers/analysts because they earn their money from advising large institutional investors that focus on large companies. Since many individual investors unfortunately rely on Wall Street broker-salesmen for “advice” (despite the fact that these salesmen are not fiduciaries ), individual investors also unjustly ignore small caps.

Value Stocks

Value stocks that arent troubled but simply slow growers are similarly ignored unjustly because investors emotionally overpay for high growth (the “growth trap ”) and underpay for companies with lower growth. Its the essence of human emotion to engage in overshooting and undershooting behaviors and in the context of the stock market this means selling stocks until their market prices are pushed below intrinsic value and buying stocks until their market prices are pushed above intrinsic value. Shrewd investors then swoop in to take advantage of these stock-price inefficiencies by buying negative-momentum value stocks and selling positive-momentum stocks.

Momentum Stocks

Momentum is a fascinating investment phenomenon because it can be exploited in two completely opposite ways. Value investors profit if they successfully bet that the momentum has gone too far and will reverse direction, whereas momentum investors profit if they successfully bet that the momentum will continue in the same direction. Isaac Newtons first law of motion is:

An object in motion tends to remain in motion, and an object at rest tends to remain at rest.

Newtons experience in 1720 investing in the South Sea Company demonstrated both the promises and pitfalls of momentum investing. He initially bought some South Sea stock and then sold it after momentum had earned him a 100 percent profit. Presumably, he sold the stock because he thought the stocks momentum was about to reverse. But the stock kept going up and Newton decided to jump back in right at the top, expecting the momentum to continue, only to watch the momentum peak and reverse and he ended up losing not only all of his earlier profit but much, much more. Newton famously stated: “I can calculate the motion of heavenly bodies, but not the madness of people.”

Momentum by its very nature continues in the short term and reverses in the long term. A rubber band can stretch very far, but it eventually snaps back. Academics Fama and French recognize that momentum in stock prices exists, but have argued that the effect only lasts a few months and requires so much trading that the transaction costs eat up all of the abnormal returns. On the other hand, in a 2011 paper. they concluded:

We find strong momentum returns everywhere, except Japan. Last years winners show positive momentum returns in all size groups, but persistence is stronger for small stocks, especially microcaps (pp. 9, 11)

The evidence of short-term momentum is so strong that Fama and French appear ready to update their three-factor model to a four-factor model to incorporate momentum effects.

Combining Value and Momentum is the Holy Grail

The holy grail of investing involves finding investments that individually produce strong returns over time, but that also have a negative correlation with each other that reduces or eliminates downside volatility of the portfolio as a whole and smooth out returns. Benefiting from momentum both ways as a short-term continuation trade (a. k.a. momentum investing) and as a long-term reversal trade (a. k.a value investing) — may be the holy grail.

In a 2012 paper entitled Value and Momentum Everywhere . hedge-fund manager Clifford Asness of AQR Capital studied value (low price to book value) and momentum (12-month price appreciation) characteristics in the stock markets of eight different countries and found that both significantly outperform everywhere in the world (except that momentum doesnt work in Japan):

We find consistent and ubiquitous evidence of value and momentum return premia across all the markets we study. We also highlight that studying value and momentum jointly is more powerful than examining each in isolation. The negative correlation between value and momentum strategies and their high positive expected returns implies that a simple combination of the two is much closer to the efficient frontier than either strategy alone, and exhibits less variation across markets and over time.

Asness found that a value portfolio rebalanced annually and a momentum portfolio rebalanced monthly both outperformed the overall stock market (Figure 2, page 42), with momentums outperformance almost double values outperformance. But what was truly amazing is that a 50/50 combination portfolio of both strategies performed best of all by almost double the momentum strategys outperformance! The reason for the combos superiority is that the value and momentum strategies sport an amazingly negative (i. e. good) correlation of -0.65 (best possible is -1.00). This negative correlation makes sense because momentum works when price continues in the same direction and value works when price reverses.

The fly in the ointment is the short-term nature of momentum, which requires costly portfolio balancing each month (pp. 29-30). Asness admits that his studys gross returns of the momentum strategy would be less if transaction costs were taking into account, but argues that “we focus on an extremely large and liquid set of equities in each market (approximately the largest 17% of firms), where trading costs and price impact and capacity constraints are minimized.”

52-Week Highs: A More Sustainable Measure of Positive Momentum

Asness doesnt claim that measuring momentum by 12-month price appreciation is the best value of momentum (pp. 31-32), but wanted to keep things simple. Fortunately, there is another measure of momentum that offers robust outperformance and yet is much more long-lasting and doesnt require monthly rebalancing to work!

As I mentioned in January Effect and 52-Week Highs/Lows: How to Beat the SP 500 . measuring a stocks price momentum by the relationship of its current price to its 52-week high is more powerful in predicting future returns than the magnitude of 12-month price appreciation. In fact, in a 2010 paper. the authors discovered that whereas positive momentum based on 12-month price appreciation peters out and reverses after the following 12 months (interestingly, negative momentum based on 12-month price depreciation is longer lasting), positive momentum based on closeness to the 52-week high does not reverse even after the following 24 months! (pp. 2158-2161).

Two Distinct-Style Portfolios or One Composite Portfolio?

The impressive results from Asness value and momentum study involved a 50%-weighting to one group of pure value stocks and a 50%-weighting to another group of pure momentum stocks. But another way to construct a value and momentum stock portfolio to search for a single set of stocks that possess both value and momentum characteristics. As I wrote in ”What Works on Wall Street” and Trending Value: Best Stock Screen of All Time! . author James OShaughnessy has formulated a stock screen called “Trending Value” that filters stocks in two stages. First, it screens for value stocks based on a composite of six different low-valuation criteria (e. g. price-to-earnings, price-to-sales, price-to-free cash flow). Second, from this list of value stocks, it selects the value stocks with the highest six-month price momentum. Consequently, it is a value screen first and foremost with a secondary sorting by price momentum.

The back-tested performance of the “Trending Value” screen is impressive and the rationale behind the screens criteria are persuasive: value stocks with some price momentum are not value traps of deteriorating businesses destined to remain cheap, but are companies investors have started to buy because they recognize that the distressed business is “on the mend.” In other words, the price momentum vindicates the cheap valuation. Similarly, the cheap valuation vindicates the price momentum. Because the stocks are still valued cheaply, they are not growth traps, and the price momentum that has occurred is likely just the beginning and will last much longer than the price momentum on stocks that already sport expensive valuations that reflect unrealistic expectations of future growth.

But none of the performance or rationale behind OShaughnessys “Trending Value” screen proves that its single, composite portfolio of value stocks sorted by price momentum is better than Asness 50%/50% combined portfolio of two pure groups of value and momentum stocks. For one thing, Asness methodology benefits from the awesome -0.65 negative correlation between the two separate stock groups, whereas OShaughnessys single portfolio of stocks enjoys no such benefit. Of course, stocks that exhibit both value and momentum characteristics are probably much more stable and suffer less downside volatility than pure value and pure momentum stocks, so one could argue that the Asness stocks need the negative correlation effect much more than OShaughnessys stocks would.

A second factor in favor of Asness is that pure-bred value and momentum stocks may simply perform better than composite stocks that are restrained by their mixed nature from exhibiting brilliance. This is especially true with regard to momentum stocks since OShaughnessys stock screen is really a value screen that only secondarily sorts by price appreciation and thus treats momentum as a second-class citizen. Asness gives momentum the equal credit with value it deserves.

On the other hand, pure value stocks will have a much larger percentage of value traps and pure momentum stocks will have a much larger percentage of growth traps that a composite model would have weeded out. Furthermore, Asness rebalanced the momentum stocks monthly which likely increases transaction costs substantially whereas OShaughnessy rebalances his single portfolio of stock hybrids annually.

Bottom line . A small-cap equity portfolio composed of 50% value stocks and 50% momentum stocks based on 52-week highs may turn out to be the holy grail of stock investing.

Fama and Frenchs fourth possible outperformance risk factor — beta — is problematic because of the anomalous conflict between theory and experience. so Ill have to think more about that factor before including it in any stock-picking methodology.

What do you think of this article? Please post your feedback in the “comments” section below!

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What is apip on the forex market

What is apip on the forex marketWhat is A PIP on the Forex Market?

Definition of a PIP

PIP is an acronym for percentage in point. This percentage in point represents the smallest value of measurement for currencies on the forex market. Unlike dollars and cents which are calculated up to two decimal places, the currencies on the forex market are calculated up to the fourth decimal point. The smallest move that a PIP can have is .0001, which represents 1/100th or commonly referred to as 1 basis point. The one exception to the fourth decimal point is the Japanese Yen, which is only calculated up to two decimal places.



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Nifty iron condors strategy and adjustments with live example

Nifty iron condors strategy and adjustments with live exampleNifty Iron Condors Strategy and Adjustments with Live Example

by Dilip Shaw on July 11, 2013

Iron condors is my favorite strategy to trade nifty options month after month. Well if you want to know the winning percentage – its close to 70%. But whats more important is how to handle the 30% losses. If you are willing to take less profits you can also trade iron condors with 90% winning probability – and that’s the best strategy for beginners.

First thing first – What is an Iron Condor?

An iron condor is a trade of two credit spreads – one on a call option and one on the put option – sold on any underlying for the same month. Since I always trade on nifty, henceforth all my examples will be restricted to nifty only.

If you don’t know what credit spreads are, this article will help you to know about credit spreads. Read that first and then come back here.

In short in credit spreads, one near option is sold and the further OTM option is bought for insurance. Since the sold option has more points, a credit is done to your account. You actually buy the OTM option from the money you get by selling the near option. That is why the number of sold options should be equal to the bought options.

Now what if you think in this month nifty will not close beyond 6000 and not fall below 5500? you can sell an iron condor for that month. You can sell a credit spread on 6000 call by selling 6000 call and buying either 6100 call or 6200 call according to your risk capacity. Similarly you can sell a 5500 put and buy 5400 or 5300 put as per your risk. Remember the more gap you give between the sold and the bought options – the more money you make but more risky your iron condor becomes. Justified, isn’t it?

How to do it? Ok let me take a live example from one of my trades:

This trade was done in the month of May 2013. My view was that nifty will not go beyond 6000 and not go below 5700 in the May 2013 series. So I sold an iron condor for lets suppose four lots (I trade more lots but this is to simplify). Here are the details:

1. Buy 6100 Call Option: 31.70 * 100 (2 lots) = -3170 (debit)

2. Sell 6000 Call Option: 65.90 * 100 (2 lots) = 6590 (credit)

3. Buy 5600 Put Option: 12.75 * 100 (2 lots) = -1275 (debit)

4. Sell 5700 Put Option: 23.45 * 100 (2 lots) = 2345 (credit)

Here the profit and loss graph of an Iron Condor:

You can see in the graph that profit and loss is limited in Iron Condor. But the risk in the Iron condor is more than the reward you get. However Iron Condors are profitable most of the times. The rest of the times the risk needs to be managed aggressively. If you take my course I will tell you exactly how I manage the risk much better than how most traders manage it. I actually take a trade that is successful 95% of the times after my Iron condor hits a stop loss. This ensures I get back losses made in the Iron Condor trade plus I end up making a small profit because I double the lot in the second strategy.

Ok, lets get back to the strategy I was discussing in this article.

Net Credit in my account: 6590+2345-3170-1275 = Rs. 4490.00

Now lets calculate the ROI if I win.

For 6000 call and 5700 put option sold investment required: 15000*4 (lots) = 60000.00

For options bought= 3170+1275 = 4445.00

So 60000.00 + 4445.00 = 64,445.00 this is approx cash locked in my account for this trade for margin money.

If all of the options expire worthless I keep 4490.

ROI: (4490/64450) * 100 = 6.96% in 30 days – not bad!

Now lets calculate the losses:

If Nifty expires at 6100: -3170-3410-1275+2345 = -5510

If Nifty expires at 6200: 6830-13410-1275+2345 = -5510

If Nifty expired at 6300: 16830-23410-1275+2345= -5510

If Nifty expires at 5600: -3170+6590-1275-7655 = -5510

If Nifty expires at 5500: -3170+6590+8725-17655 = -5510

Loss ROI = (5510/64450) * 100 = 8.54%

It means my maximum loss in this trade is 5510 wherever nifty closes and maximum profit is 4490 if it closes between 6000 and 5700. Does that makes sense? Yes it does if I risk 8.54% of my capital to make 6.96% in 30 days.

Now this discussion will get even interesting. What happens if my view goes for a toss and nifty starts to move in one direction and my real fears come true? Well it did and that is the reason I took this months example. A loosing one and not an easy win.

As soon as put the trade on 26-Apr-2013 – nifty started to rise – a worst case scenario. Nifty was already in a bull run since 9-Apr-2013 from touching of a low of 5487. It had reached almost 5900 when I put on the trade. I thought it wont raise any further or start to fall soon. As you can see I got more premiums from my calls than my puts. When nifty or any stock is rising the system makes the calls costlier and vice verse. This I done to make an even field for buyers and sellers. If the sellers are not getting a good premium for selling options why would they sell in the first place?

Long story short – my short call was in trouble and I had to adjust or get out or hedge my position to make sure I at least do not lose a lot on my trade.

How to adjust an iron condor?

We will come later to what I did, but lets first discuss what you can do when your iron condor is in danger:

1. The most common option done by traders – rollover the condor one step up if the underlying is going up – or roll down if its going down . In my case I should close the 6000/6100 leg and sell/buy the 6100/6200 calls. Depending on profits I should also close my puts and bring them up one position to make more money. However please note that this should be done early as otherwise it will get costly to close the condor. Idea is to lose less and make more.

2. Close the losing leg in small loss (in my case the sold call) and let the other leg expire worthless. Note that the bought calls will bring in some money and offset the losses. So I don’t lose 5510 – my max loss. I lose much less. In reality if your losses are less than you can make from the leg that expires worthless you make money and not lose it. Though your ROI will be less. However the problem with this strategy is that what if nifty nose dives back in the opposite direction after you close the losing leg?

3. Take a small loss before it escalates. Close the condor before you smell trouble. You can put on the condor again and get your money back.

4. Buy more OTM calls or puts depending on which leg is in trouble. However the same problem exists here – what if nifty starts heading south?

As you can see all the above three adjustments to iron condors come with their own risk. However one thing is clear – you should take action before you start losing a lot of money. Even though you know your maximum risk but why wait if you can recover the same money in that month and lose nothing?

If you actually lose nothing in that 30% of the times when an iron condor is in trouble – you will see that in a year your investments have bought in around 30-50%. And that is very good.

Now you would like to know what I did? I closed my call leg for a small loss of around 1000 and sold 6300/6400 JUNE call option. Technically this is not a iron condor as I shifted to next month, but its all fair in the game as I have to do what will make me money. The put ones expired worthless in may and I waited for nifty to go down. It did and I closed the June credit spread at a good profit. Nifty started to go down after reaching 6146. My profits actually exceeded my max profit but it took a little more time and patience. Yes patience is important in any trade. Nothing happens in a day or even two. You have to have patience while trading. Eventually the win will come.

As you can see iron condors can be profitable even if your view is wrong. And since one leg is guaranteed to make money . will expire worthless – you can use some strategy to make sure you come out winner of the other leg. However its easier said than done. What if nifty would have kept creeping up? My losses would have been much more than my max loss.

Another thing you should keep in mind when trading iron condors is that you should go as far deep OTM as possible if that makes sense. The further you go, the probability of wining be more. It depends on how experienced you are. A 700 points wide iron condor will have a 80-90% probability.

One more point: Sometime volatility will drop after you have traded an iron condor – and you will be in good profit in few days. In that case don’t wait till expiry – just book your profits. Whats wrong in making 2% in 10 days? You can make the rest in the remaining days. These small profits will add up to big profits in a year.



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Beginners’online trading course with one month’s live trading feed access for€19at forex121(97

Beginners’online trading course with one month’s live trading feed access for€19at forex121(97About this deal

Although sound advice, buying low and selling high is often regretted by mountaintop traders. Reach the peak of knowledge with todays Groupon €19 for an online trading course with one month’s live trading feed access from Forex 121. Designed to help firsttime stock stackers evolve into seasoned veterans of the trading floor, this indepth online course broaches all the key topics needed to excel in the testing world of Forex trading. Each student is equipped with a hefty eBook to tackle each aspect of the practice, with more than 25 online videos also on hand to keep portfolios brimming with tailored tips. Customers can get some knowhow during a halfhour onetoone session with a trading maestro, before enjoying a month’s access to a live trading feed, beamed straight to PCs or nifty smartphone gadgets. The Specifics • Online trading course tailored to beginners • 100 page eBook covering major aspects of currency trading • More than 25 online video lessons • Includes one month’s access to a live trading feed • Half hour onetoone session with a trader • Performance fee of 121 GBP included for first month; payable monthly thereafter if traders make over 121 pips or at least 2% per calendar month More About Forex 121 Founded by stock market virtuosos with experience trading across the globe, Forex 121 strives to educate all levels of trader with online materials and a wide range of tailored courses. How It Works 1. Buy your Groupon 2. After the deal ends we email you the Groupon, containing your Groupon code 3. Your Groupon activates at 8pm; check Groupon PDF voucher for start date 4. Go to forex121/joinnow 5. In the checkout, enter your Groupon code, Security code, and REF number; this information can be found on the voucher PDF To find out more about Groupon Goods, see the FAQ.



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Udemy-stock trading strategies using adart

Udemy-stock trading strategies using adartUdemy - Stock Trading Strategies Using a D. A.R. T.

Udemy - Stock Trading Strategies Using a D. A.R. T.

English | 5h | AVC (.MP4) 1280x720 30fps | AAC 44.1KHz 2ch | 396 Mb

Genre: eLearning

In 1988 the first WSJ Dartboard appeared. in 2004 Professional Trader, Jimmy Slagle made it a career. Now you can too.

What are the requirements?

For students to get the most out of this introductory training it would be helpful if they had a basic understanding of technical analysis and basic options strategies.

What am I going to get from this course?

Over 5 lectures and 50 mins of content!

Understand the simple process that Dart-Throw Traders use to select, evaluate, and choose the right stocks and options strategies based on our

proprietary D. A.R. T. Method

What is the target audience?

This course is meant for anyone who wants to discover a unique and profitable way to trade stocks using options.



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Commodity trading strategies for today

Commodity trading strategies for todayCommodity Trading Strategies for today

Global trend of precious metals gold and silver is on down side. These both commodities are trading with the moderate losses in the domestic as well as the overseas market. At comex the gold has seen a sharp drop of 0.30% although the price of comex gold is above the 1600 dollar. Silver is trading with 0.5 percent decline and is at $ 27 per ounce. MCX gold in domestic market closed with substantial growth of 1 percent and reached to the 29840 while the silver arrived at 53429 with a gain of 1.14%. On MCX Crude oil declined by 1 percent stuck at 4950.

Commodity Trading Strategies for Today

Gold (MCX) is likely to trade in the range 29,800-30,020. Go for long of mcx gold at around Rs 29,800, place a stop loss of 29,720. MCX Gold may see the upper resistance level of 30,000 or even 30,020.

Buy MCX Silver at around 53,350. Place a stop loss of 53,260 It is likely to see the upper price evel of 53,700.

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How to make money day trading

How to make money day tradingIgnore the naysayers: Day trading could bring you great wealth.

Nov 25, 2014 at 10:00AM

This article was updated on August 12, 2015.

Frankly, I'm tired of hearing how dangerous and unprofitable day trading is. After doing a little research, I've found several ways to make good money at it.

Data: Yahoo! Financial

The most volatile stocks in the market are often "penny stocks," which trade for $5 or less per share, like those above. With its beta of 4.1, National Bank of Greece could rise (or fall) 4.1 times as fast as the market if the market's value begins to rise (or fall). Day traders like that potential for speedy gains, as they hope to ride each volatile stock for only a short while. (Of course, many get burned when things don't go their way.)

Also: note the high trading volume of these stock market minnows, which can both attract and reflect day trading activity. Given their small size, many penny stocks see huge trading activity as a percentage of their market capitalization.

Day trading is an intense occupation. Photo: Flickr user David Blackwell.

Where the money is

If you think these penny stocks present the best opportunity for potential day-trading profits, you're wrong. There's actually an 80% chance you'll fail at day trading. So how can you make money from day trading?

For starters, you could start a company that runs day trading seminars, charging people $3,000 or $5,000 to learn about something they're likely to fail at. You certainly wouldn't be the first! Alternatively, you could sell trading software or research services to further capitalize on the many failing day-traders out there. You only need to enroll 200 students in a $5,000 course in order to rake in a million dollars!

If you'd like an even juicier return, you could run a brokerage that gets paid commissions for every purchase or sale a day trader makes. Even at a cost of just $1 per trade, a single day trader placing 30 trades per day for 200 days per year will bring you $6,000 per year. (A thousand day traders? That's $6 million!) To further increase your profits, let day traders borrow from you on margin. You could make more than $2,000 annually in interest payments on every $25,000 they borrow. Clearly, day trading can be extremely lucrative!

And if all of that sounds like too much work, you could always just become an agency authorized by the U. S. government to tax day traders -- like the IRS. The IRS taxes day-trading profits at ordinary income tax rates, because they're considered short-term capital gains. For example, day traders in a 28% tax bracket will pay $14,000 on $50,000 in gains -- as opposed to just $7,500 if they held on to their investments long enough for long-term capital gain rates to apply.

As I hope it's becoming clear to you, the only people reliably profiting off of day trading are those who don't actually day trade. You're much more likely to profit by taking your time, doing your homework. and investing in well-run companies with real competitive advantages -- for the long run. You might not get rich quick, but you'll stand a much better chance of getting rich. period.

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Is mean reversion dead

Is mean reversion deadTesting Universe: Top 1,000 stocks by dollar-volume with closing price greater than $1. No ETFs included.

Date Range: 1/1/2001 to 8/30/2013

RSI(2) < 5

Entry on Close

I performed an “All Days” test. This means we can have multiple entries in the same stock at the same time. In a situation where an oversold stock continues on a journey downward day after day-the test will take each trade each day as a new independent trade if the stock continues to meet the filter criteria.

The Results

Number of trades

The first question is as a percentage are there fewer stocks becoming oversold?

The blue line is the percent of stocks with RSI2 < 5 compared to all the stock for a given year. This has hovered between 5.1% in 2009 and 8.0% in 2008. The green line is a liner regression of the data. We can see that the trend has been down since 2001 but not a lot. The trend from 2005 to 2007 compared to the trend from 2011 to 2013 looks very similar. Is this trend because we are in the same cycle of a bull market? Is mean-reversion in hibernation? Given the trade data, I would say yes. Nothing appears out of the ordinary.

Average % profit/loss

What has been happening to average % profit/loss over the years?

This chart surprised me. The blue line is the average % profit/loss of all the trades with RSI2 < 5 and the exiting when RSI2 > 70. The green line is a linear regression of the data. The last thing I expected was an up sloping linear regression line. The 2013 average % profit/loss is .94% substantially less than the 2008 and 2010 values of 1.58% and 1.57% respectively. But 2013 returns are higher than 2011 and 2012 and substantially higher than 2007’s value of .33%.

Conclusion – Mean Reversion is coming out of hibernation

We are at the low of the number of sold off stocks per year but the average # profit/loss is the middle range. The numbers do not tell me anything is out of whack with mean reversion. Mean reversion is not dead but it looks like it is coming out of hibernation. I have more ideas on how I want to slice this data and additional tests I will be doing over the coming weeks.

So, there you go Steven. Mean reversion is not dead, but it has been sleeping and it appears that it is ready to come out of hibernation.

Comments , suggestions or ideas on further tests on this topic? Put them in the comments window below!



Online Is mean reversion dead

Simple trading strategies that work kindle edition

Simple trading strategies that work kindle editionSimple Trading Strategies That Work [Kindle Edition]

Product Description

Product Description

Do you believe there are patterns in the financial markets that can be taken advantage of?

What if you could see patterns in the financial markets that less than 1 in 1000 day traders were aware of?

I'll never forget the first time I (Richard) lost significant money in trading. It was early 2010 and I bought TLT after it had taken a significant run up. After I bought it, it began to decline almost daily for the next month. When the pain was more than I could bear, I sold it, locking in what for me was a huge loss. To pile on, not long after I sold it, TLT reversed course and began to rise. Why did I buy TLT when I did? Because of certain things I saw in the charts, and macroeconomic considerations. I was very wrong.

Our background is physics, and physicists like to understand what's going on underneath the hood when they observe a system evolving. For things like the stock market and bonds, economics seems to be a place to start. But this is often only true in the long run, and as Keynes said, "In the long run, we're all dead".

So to prevent the TLT fiasco from happening again, we decided to answer the question, "Is there a systematic way to profit in the financial markets, using an algorithm, so that the computer tells us when to buy and sell?" At least it would alleviate some of the emotional burden, and maybe even produce profits.

This is our motivation, remove emotion and discretion from trading, while simultaneously being profitable. The approach we have taken in this quest is a search for patterns. For flexibility and applicability, we wanted to keep our assumptions to a minimum:

1) There are simple models which can be used to describe the behavior of financial markets.

2) The models have statistical patterns associated with them that can be taken advantage of.

3) The patterns may change over time, but there are trading strategies that can adapt to the changes.

"Simple Trading Strategies That Work" isn't for everyone. Here are 4 reasons why you may decide not to buy this book:

1) You don't believe there are patterns in the financial markets that can be used to trade profitably.

2) You don't like thinking quantitatively, and you don't know a thing about programming (programming is useful to go beyond the simplest strategies).

3) You want to continue to lose money like most other traders.

4) You're happy to run with the herd and do what everyone else is doing.

Here is what Perry Kaufman, author of "New Trading Systems and Methods" has said about a previous version of this ebook:

"One of the basic principles of trading is that certain events cause predictable price reactions. In many cases, related markets react the same way. Stefan and Richard Hollos have written an extremely clear book on how to identify and profit from these moves. Although this falls short of giving us the perfect system, it does give us tools and understanding that every serious trader should have. It will make you look at the markets differently. It's a fast read and I recommend it."

The strategies revealed in this ebook do not require large amounts of historic data, and can be implemented on any time scale.

They say that to solve a difficult problem, sometimes all you need is a change in perspective. This ebook provides a view of financial data you won't find elsewhere.

Disclaimer

These results are based on simulated or hypothetical performance results that have certain inherent limitations. Unlike the results shown in an actual performance record, these results do not represent actual trading. Also, because these trades have not actually been executed, these results may have under-or over-compensated for the impact, if any, of certain market factors, such as lack of liquidity. Simulated or hypothetical trading programs in general are also subject to the fact that they are designed with the benefit of hindsight. No representation is being made that any account will or is likely to achieve profits or losses similar to these being shown.

Simple Trading Strategies That Work [Kindle Edition]

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Customers Who Bought This Item Also Bought

Product Description

Product Description

Do you believe there are patterns in the financial markets that can be taken advantage of?

What if you could see patterns in the financial markets that less than 1 in 1000 day traders were aware of?

I'll never forget the first time I (Richard) lost significant money in trading. It was early 2010 and I bought TLT after it had taken a significant run up. After I bought it, it began to decline almost daily for the next month. When the pain was more than I could bear, I sold it, locking in what for me was a huge loss. To pile on, not long after I sold it, TLT reversed course and began to rise. Why did I buy TLT when I did? Because of certain things I saw in the charts, and macroeconomic considerations. I was very wrong.

Our background is physics, and physicists like to understand what's going on underneath the hood when they observe a system evolving. For things like the stock market and bonds, economics seems to be a place to start. But this is often only true in the long run, and as Keynes said, "In the long run, we're all dead".

So to prevent the TLT fiasco from happening again, we decided to answer the question, "Is there a systematic way to profit in the financial markets, using an algorithm, so that the computer tells us when to buy and sell?" At least it would alleviate some of the emotional burden, and maybe even produce profits.

This is our motivation, remove emotion and discretion from trading, while simultaneously being profitable. The approach we have taken in this quest is a search for patterns. For flexibility and applicability, we wanted to keep our assumptions to a minimum:

1) There are simple models which can be used to describe the behavior of financial markets.

2) The models have statistical patterns associated with them that can be taken advantage of.

3) The patterns may change over time, but there are trading strategies that can adapt to the changes.

"Simple Trading Strategies That Work" isn't for everyone. Here are 4 reasons why you may decide not to buy this book:

1) You don't believe there are patterns in the financial markets that can be used to trade profitably.

2) You don't like thinking quantitatively, and you don't know a thing about programming (programming is useful to go beyond the simplest strategies).

3) You want to continue to lose money like most other traders.

4) You're happy to run with the herd and do what everyone else is doing.

Here is what Perry Kaufman, author of "New Trading Systems and Methods" has said about a previous version of this ebook:

"One of the basic principles of trading is that certain events cause predictable price reactions. In many cases, related markets react the same way. Stefan and Richard Hollos have written an extremely clear book on how to identify and profit from these moves. Although this falls short of giving us the perfect system, it does give us tools and understanding that every serious trader should have. It will make you look at the markets differently. It's a fast read and I recommend it."

The strategies revealed in this ebook do not require large amounts of historic data, and can be implemented on any time scale.

They say that to solve a difficult problem, sometimes all you need is a change in perspective. This ebook provides a view of financial data you won't find elsewhere.

Disclaimer

These results are based on simulated or hypothetical performance results that have certain inherent limitations. Unlike the results shown in an actual performance record, these results do not represent actual trading. Also, because these trades have not actually been executed, these results may have under-or over-compensated for the impact, if any, of certain market factors, such as lack of liquidity. Simulated or hypothetical trading programs in general are also subject to the fact that they are designed with the benefit of hindsight. No representation is being made that any account will or is likely to achieve profits or losses similar to these being shown.



Online Simple trading strategies that work kindle edition

Trading strategies in commodity market,base metals and precious metals

Trading strategies in commodity market,base metals and precious metalsTrading Strategies in commodity market, base metals and precious metals

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Online Trading strategies in commodity market,base metals and precious metals

Xiv trading strategies practice binary options

Xiv trading strategies practice binary optionsXiv trading strategies. Practice Binary Options. ohashisushi. ar

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Backtest trading strategies r

Backtest trading strategies rBacktest trading strategies r

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Online Backtest trading strategies r

Example trade1electronic arts(erts)

Example trade1electronic arts(erts)Example Trade 1: Electronic Arts (ERTS)

The most requested thing that I get through my email is "Can you provide more trading examples?". Yes, I can! Here is an example of shorting a stock using the Traders Action Zone strategy (TAZ).

On June 15, the market was overbought. This means that I will be putting all my efforts into short setups.

Take a look at the following chart:

The 10 SMA is below the 30 EMA and Williams %R is overbought (higher than -20). That tells me that the market has a higher than average probability of falling. So, it is time to look for short setups.

I run a TAZ scan near the end of the trading day and I find ERTS:

This stock has rallied up into the Traders Action Zone and has formed a bearish engulfing pattern. Nice. But first I want to look at the hourly chart. And here it is:

The arrow is where I shorted it. But, the important thing on this chart is the area that I circled. That consolidation is what is going to protect me from a loss (my stop will go above that.) It would be very difficult for traders to move the price above that resistance level. Why? Because prior to that consolidation was a huge run-up. So, the traders that were long during that run-up are now faced with an important decision.

Should I sell?

And the answer is yes! They should sell because the previous momentum has stalled. So, this selling pressure is what moves the trade in my favor.

So, that is why I shorted ERTS. Swing trades don't always work out this well but many of them do.

You could make swing trading more difficult that this. But why?



Online Example trade1electronic arts(erts)

My binary options trading

My binary options tradingBacktesting your Binary Options Strategy

Back testing is where traders test the effectiveness of their trading strategies using historical price data before putting any capital at risk. Instead of trading with new unproven trading strategies, a binary options trader can use relevant price data to simulate conditions to test the effectiveness of their newly developed strategy. The logic is that if a trading strategy has performed well in the past, the probability of it performing well in real live market is also high.

Back testing is a critical part of trading system development as it offers statistical data, useful to gauge the accuracy of the strategy being tested. For example, if a trading strategy is based on the assumption that a certain asset tends to bounce-off a few points from its 20-day moving average, before sliding back to it, proper backtesting using past data can reveal valuable information about prospective profit and loss, projected returns and the trading success ratio. Before back testing a strategy, it is important to get the correct mix of technical indicators so that the process will yield significant results.

Another point to remember is to test your strategy over a relatively long period of time. This is to avoid “over optimization” where the strategy doesn’t work over a longer time frame. Also, when back testing a binary options strategy, it is important to consider the specific asset being tested. Different assets yield different test results when pitched against the same market conditions. For example, a U. S. stock market index would test quite differently in comparison to testing a Forex pair.

Traders need to remember that the entire process of back-testing a binary options strategy is to determine just how effective it is. As a result, each test trade needs to be set up using identical parameters as they would be if they were actually trading, and those parameters should be followed over and over again until a broad picture of the effectiveness of the strategy can be derived. Any variations will skew the test, as well as the end results. Since back testing can be done without investing any real money, it may be enticing for the trader to deviate from the parameters of the trading system. This should be avoided so that trades simulated during the backtesting process exactly mimic potential real live trading scenarios. Also, while evaluating outcomes, experienced traders take the time to calculate the profit percentage of a new trading system. If a strategy is not delivering in the money outcomes more than half the time, then you really need to consider whether using it will be profitable.

It is important to note that backtesting binary options strategy is not always full-proof in terms of measuring the efficacy of your trading rules. There are instances of binary options trading strategies that fared well in the past, but failed to perform in live market conditions. Past performance of your strategy cannot always define future results. Therefore, before you take your binary options strategy live, paper trade for a while to make sure that the strategy still applies in real time. You can also use a demo trading account provided by the broker in order to test your strategies.

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Online My binary options trading

The handbook of pairs trading strategies using equities,options,&futures

The handbook of pairs trading strategies using equities,options,&futuresThe Handbook of Pairs Trading: Strategies Using Equities, Options, & Futures

Synopses & Reviews

Publisher Comments

Pairs trading?and other market-neutral strategies?have been around since the organization of listed markets. Once used only by large institutional investors and hedge funds, this approach has recently been adopted by many individual traders looking to take money out of the markets.

In The Handbook of Pairs Trading, financial professional Douglas Ehrman combines his extensive knowledge and experience within this field to provide you with the tools and techniques necessary to successfully begin managing your own pairs trading portfolio.

Divided into five parts, The Handbook of Pairs Trading explores pairs trading from a variety of angles, each with the joint goal of illustrating both the general tenets of the strategy and presenting the particular approach that Ehrman believes to be superior to all others. In the first three parts, Ehrman explores the elements that make up the trading of equity pairs and the requisite skills that accompany that endeavor. You'll receive a brief history of this discipline, and then learn about some of the most important features of pairs trading, including market neutrality, arbitrage, and technical analysis. After exploring each of these three major components independently, Ehrman spends time pulling them all together?through Unified Pairs Trading Theory?so you can begin to integrate pairs trading into your own investment or trading style.

While pairs trading is easiest to understand when considering equities, the discussion of options, futures, and currencies in the final two parts gives you an expanded collection of tools by which to manage your portfolio. Here, Ehrman explores the application of Unified Pairs Trading Theory to these alternate asset classes and securities types, and takes you step by step through a series of trade examples across various asset classes?to both highlight the nuances of each and to solidify your understanding of the theory.

The Handbook of Pairs Trading clearly explains the theory and practice of this important discipline, and breaks down its strategy so you can gain a firm understanding of the underlying dynamics of pairs trading. Filled with in-depth insight and expert advice, The Handbook of Pairs Trading is a comprehensive resource for those looking to implement this proven and profitable trading strategy.

The Complete Book of Pairs Trading explains both the theory and practice of pairs trading. It discusses how pairs trading is a subset of a market neutral approach – an investment philosophy which involves buying and selling related securities in an attempt to profit from the changing price relationship. The author breaks down the strategy into its component parts, so that the reader gains a bottom-up understanding of the underlying market dynamics of pairs trading, why it is consistently profitable, and how an investor can apply the strategies in their own trading. The book will cover pairs trading involving stocks, single stock futures, and options on stocks and will provide a comprehensive discussion of pairs trading strategies.

The Handbook of Pairs Trading explains both the theory and practice of this discipline. The author breaks down the strategy into its component parts so that the reader can gain a firm understanding of the underlying market dynamics of pairs trading; why it is consistently profitable; and how an investor can apply the strategies in their own trading. This guide covers pairs trading involving stocks, options on stocks, and futures contracts, and explains how it allows readers to profit from the changing price relationship of securities. In addition to its comprehensive discussion on the theories involved, this guide also includes concrete, practical examples that will help readers both assimilate the information and put it into practice.

Praise for The Handbook of PAIRS TRADING

"The Handbook of Pairs Trading gives you the understanding necessary to unlock opportunities that often present themselves in the stock market but are usually only recognized by some of the most successful technical traders on Wall Street. Utilization of Doug's system has been instrumental in building our model at Alchemy Research and aiding in the profitability of our clients."

—Steven A. Chananya Managing Partner and Institutional Sales Alchemy Research, Gotham Equities, D&S Capital

"Doug has outlined a clear roadmap on pairs trading, which can be used as a resource tool for both novices and experienced professionals alike. His attention to detail indicates a clear understanding and strong and controlled approach to the sophisticated trading approach that this book explains. I found the approach to be elegant and entertaining as he married the technical text-type material with the philosophical interludes introducing various chapters."

—James F. Hamilton independent market observer and former CBOE market-maker

"I enjoyed Doug's Sherlock Holmes approach as he unraveled each concept and strategy. The Handbook is a valuable resource for the investor, trader, and fund manager while the implementation of these strategies is a necessity in today's market conditions."

—Rob Friesen CEO, PairCo, LLC



Online The handbook of pairs trading strategies using equities,options,&futures

Options strategies for high volatility markets

Options strategies for high volatility marketsOptions Strategies for High Volatility Markets

Options involve risk and are not suitable for all investors. For more information, please review the Characteristics and Risks of Standard Options brochure available at tradeking/ODD before you begin trading options. Options investors may lose the entire amount of their investment in a relatively short period of time.

Online trading has inherent risks due to system response and access times that vary due to market conditions, system performance and other factors. An investor should understand these and additional risks before trading.

$4.95 for online equity and option trades, add 65 cents per option contract. TradeKing charges an additional $0.35 per contract on certain index products where the exchange charges fees. See our FAQ for details. TradeKing adds $0.01 per share on the entire order for stocks priced less than $2.00. See our Commissions and Fees page for commissions on broker-assisted trades, low-priced stocks, option spreads, and other securities.

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Online Options strategies for high volatility markets

Section7developing training programs for staff

Section7developing training programs for staffChapter 10 Sections

Why run a staff training program?

When should you run a staff training program?

Who should be in charge of the staff training program?

How do you actually plan and run a staff training program?

Let's look at two community-based organizations, the Princeton Parenting and Health Center (PPHC) and the Gooseneck Parent and Child Support Project (Gooseneck). They do similar work -- community education in mother and child health and parenting -- in similar communities. Each has hired a new staff member to make contact with and provide services to new parents.

Elaine, who has a degree in psychology but has never done this specific type of work before (and has no children of her own), has relocated to Princeton to take her job with PPHC. On her first day, after showing her her desk and introducing her to some of the folks she'll be working with, the director gives her a town map and a list of the names of the families she will be responsible for, and wishes her luck. After lunch, Elaine sets out to contact the families in her caseload, a little worried about what she'll do or say when she meets them.

Mark has credentials similar to Elaine's, and has just been hired by Gooseneck. When he reports for work on his first day, he learns that, for the next week, his job will consist of orientation and training. Over several days, he is introduced to everyone in the organization, to several of the families he'll be working with, and to the community.

Mark spends parts of two days going on family visits with veteran staff members, and discusses with them what they did and why. He reads and discusses with other staff some social work theory and a lot of material on parenting education and child nutrition. He role-plays some situations with other staff members, and gets some direct instruction from the program director in social work practice and community health education, and in the specific ways those are interpreted by Gooseneck. He also gets a chance to work with the families he's met, and to get feedback directly from them and, later, from his supervisor, who's accompanied him on his first visits. By the following week, when he's on his own, he feels he has a pretty good idea of what he needs to do, and how to go about it. And he knows that his training will continue.

Which situation would you rather be in? One where you're thrown into the thick of things with no training whatsoever and expected to figure it all out from scratch, or one where your training has prepared you for the work you're going to do? You probably don't have to think too hard about the answer to that question.

This section will help you think about how to plan and run a training program for all the people in your organization, so that they not only begin their jobs with the tools to do them well, but continue to develop their skills for as long as they continue in those jobs.

What is a training program?

For starters, a good training program is just that -- an actual program, which looks at training as not just a one-time event. What makes a training program different from an orientation program is that it covers a much broader area.

Orientation is an introduction to the organization, the job, the target population, and the community. Even if it goes on through the first few months of employment, it is only an introduction, meant to get a staff member used to her new job.

Training is directly related to the skills, knowledge, and strategies necessary to do a particular job. It can include teaching staff members new skills, exposing them to unfamiliar ideas, giving them the chance to practice and get feedback on particular techniques or styles of working with people, or simply encouraging them to discuss their work with one another. And it can, and should, be ongoing throughout a staff member's employment.

What is included in a training program?

As with much of the Community Tool Box, what follows here is an ideal. Most small grassroots and community-based groups probably don't have the resources to do everything, or perhaps even most of the things, on this list. You can do something, however. The literacy program the author ran for several years used the talents of its own staff members for a lot of its ongoing training, for instance, and took advantage of opportunities to partner with other organizations as well.

A comprehensive training program might include the following:

Training for new staff who've never done this particular work before.

Training for new staff who may be experienced in the work of the position, but not in the particular method or style which your organization uses.

An adult literacy program that had pioneered a particular method of using whole language reading instruction for adults often hired people who had taught reading before, but in different ways. Whole language theory and practice were therefore the subject of much of their initial training, as well as of ongoing staff development.

Staff development: ongoing training for all staff.

Professional development. While this term is often used interchangeably with staff development, we've chosen to define it as leading either to specific new knowledge, or to the next level of expertise. Professional development might encompass several possibilities:

College or graduate courses.

Attendance at conferences.

Study circles: groups of professionals who meet regularly to discuss readings and/or members' writing and research on topics of mutual interest. A study circle may have a facilitator to help guide reading and discussions, or members may take turns acting as facilitator.

Field-generated courses or workshops: courses or workshops that grow out of the needs of practitioners, who find people to teach them.

Institutes: Courses run by non-academic institutions, often involving observation and hands-on practice instead of or in addition to lectures, discussion, and reading.

Both staff and professional development require a certain amount of organizational support. At the very least, ongoing training and professional development need to be viewed as part of every staff member's job, and a certain amount of paid time should be devoted to them. Other types of organizational support can include:

Payment of some or all tuition for academic courses (usually limited to a specific amount of money or coursework per semester).

Registration fees and travel reimbursement for conferences or institutes up to a certain amount.

Release time (paid release from one's job during work hours) for specific training activities.

Finally, a training program should apply to everyone in the organization, from administrators to line staff to support staff. All need, and should have the chance, to become continually better at what they do, improving both their own and the organization 's effectiveness.

Why run a training program?

A training program looks like it might involve a fair amount of work and cost some money. Does your organization really need one? The answer is yes, for a number of reasons.

For new staff, there's what seems an obvious answer: a training program is necessary so they can start their jobs with some idea of what they're supposed to do and how to do it. But there are a number of other ways in which a training program can help new staff members:

It shows them that the organization is serious about what it does, and therefore encourages them to be serious about it, too.

It makes them feel that the organization is supportive of them.

Having the proper training boosts their confidence in their ability to do their jobs.

A training program can help to convince new staff members of the value of the organization's philosophy and methods.

It enlists them as "regulars" in the organization by giving them a vocabulary and way of looking at their work similar to those of others in the organization.

It shortens the time needed for them to become competent at their jobs.

It reduces their need to ask other staff for advice or information, and thus increases their independence and decreases the drain on other staff members.

It greatly diminishes the chance that they'll make mistakes that cost the organization in prestige, public relations, credibility, lawsuits, or money.

For veteran staff, a training program also has numerous benefits:

It helps them to become continually more competent at what they do.

It increases their knowledge of the field by introducing them to the latest research and theory, and can expose them to new ideas which ultimately may improve their own effectiveness and that of the organization.

By keeping them from becoming bored and stale, it helps them to maintain interest in and enthusiasm for their work.

It can expose them to other practitioners with different -- and perhaps better -- methods.

It gives them one more reason to stay with the organization.

It keeps the organization as a whole dynamic: thinking, growing, and changing. A dynamic organization is almost always a healthy and effective one.

In short, a good ongoing training program for all staff increases organizational effectiveness and keeps it increasing, rather than allowing the organization to stagnate.

When should you run a training program?

Training for new staff should clearly be conducted as soon as possible after they're hired. The ideal is that it be part of their orientation -- if the orientation period is long or comprehensive enough -- or that it at least starts before they begin work, so they'll know what they're doing. But a well-planned training program should run all throughout the life of the organization.

Staff development should be scheduled regularly, as part of the normal operation of the organization. Probably, at minimum, everyone in the organization should have the opportunity for some ongoing training at least once a month. Some organizations may conduct or sponsor ongoing training much more often, sometimes as part of a weekly or biweekly staff meeting. Such training opportunities could be as low-key as a half-hour presentation at a staff meeting, or as formal as a presentation or workshop by a nationally known expert in the field, depending upon the organization's resources.

Many state or federal grants and contracts require and fund staff development, and union contracts sometimes include paid staff or professional development time.

Professional development opportunities may be more difficult, because they generally require money. Most small organizations simply don't have the resources to pay for staff members' college or graduate courses, and may not even be able to afford conference fees. While some staff members may be more than willing to pay for their own conferences or courses, it would be unfair to require everyone to do so. A compromise might be to ask staff members to take advantage of at least one professional development opportunity per year. Some of those opportunities - study circles, for instance - are free or almost free, and can be arranged by staff members themselves, or by the organization.

Who should be in charge of the training program?

This question really refers to two different aspects of running a training program. The first is that of who actually controls the program ( i. e. who determines the subject matter, frequency, and form of the training). The second is that of who conducts the training itself. The two may be, but need not be, the same person or group.

There is actually a third facet to running a program as well: coordination. Someone has to be responsible for scheduling, communication, finding outside presenters if necessary, etc. The question of who coordinates in this way may or may not be less loaded than the others. A member of the support staff might, in fact, coordinate training as part of his job, or the director might insist that she be the training coordinator. However your organization does it -- and having the responsibility rotate among staff members is a possible answer -- it's absolutely crucial to have effective coordination, usually invested in a single person. Without it, a training program will get lost in loose ends and unfinished business.

Control of the training

There are a number of choices for who or what controls a training program:

The director, program director, another administrator, or training coordinator, with or without input from other staff members. In a large organization, there might even be a training coordinator for each department, or for each group of services.

Organizational policy: the subject matter, form, and frequency of training may be specified by the organization itself, either in the bylaws or in personnel policy.

A particular staff member or group of staff members.

All staff collectively (including administrators and support staff).

Staff and other interested parties, such as participants, who may have knowledge of the training needs of the organization.

An outside facilitator or organization.

Federal adult literacy funding mandates that each state have, in effect, a staff development resource. In Massachusetts, the Department of Education supports SABES (the System for Adult Basic Education Support). This organization provides free staff development for staff members of all Department of Education-funded adult literacy programs. The five regional SABES centers periodically survey administrators and line staff in the programs in their regions, and organize workshops, courses, and study circles in the areas of most interest to practitioners. SABES also conducts regular trainings for staff members new to adult literacy.

While many adult education programs conduct internal training in addition to whatever SABES activities their staff members attend, many others rely totally, or at least partially, on SABES for their staff development and training.

A combination of some or all of these.

Yet another possibility is joining with other organizations with similar needs to conduct joint trainings. Especially where none of the organizations alone has the staff or financial resources to conduct a full-fledged training program, this can be a great way to provide high-quality staff and professional development.

Even if the organizations have different specific purposes, the trainings could cover areas in common. Trainings on substance abuse, domestic violence, or youth issues, for instance, could be relevant to many community organizations besides those particularly working on those issues. Training in counseling skills or conflict resolution would be useful to almost anyone.

Such joint training can also be made available to the public. This can educate people about the issues and gain support for the organizations in the community. Please see Examples #1 and # 2 for some successful joint training ventures.

As is stated many times elsewhere in the Community Tool Box, it is extremely important for organizations to live their beliefs. Effective organizations usually have a consistent view of how they treat people, whether those people are members of their own staffs, of the target population, or of the larger community. Toward this end, an organization should ask itself some important questions before deciding who should control its training.

What are the political implications of your choice? If the director determines the course of training, even with the input of other staff members, that says something specific about the distribution of power in the organization. The same is true if the control of training is a joint responsibility of all staff.

How important is it that training in your organization be participatory? What is the organization's stake in doing things in an inclusive and democratic way?

How does the control of training reflect the organizational philosophy? If the organization tries to foster a collaborative atmosphere, then training should be viewed as a collaborative effort as well. If the organization seeks to empower its target population, it's important that it also empower staff. An empowered staff would have at least some control over its own training.

How distinctive does the training need to be? Does the organization use a self-developed or very unusual method, and has it developed a specific course of training as a result? If that is the case, how much room is there for flexibility and the introduction of other issues and ideas?

Are many or all staff members already knowledgeable in the field, or are they one-sided in their knowledge (i. e. are most familiar with only one of several possible methods for doing what they do)?

In general, staff members are far more likely to actually use what they get from a training program if they have at least some control over it. It makes sense, for instance, for those actually working in the field to determine what they need to do better, or what they need to know more about in order to do their jobs well. A training program imposed from above becomes simply a chore, another boring meeting to go to.

A model that often works well is one where staff members take turns being responsible for staff development sessions. Staff members collectively determine their training needs, and then divide up the responsibility for providing training in the areas selected.

Some staff people may have the expertise -- or want to do the research to develop it -- to conduct trainings themselves. Others may know or find appropriate outside presenters or materials (a video on the topic, for instance). Still others may use their turns to present ideas or methods that they have learned about or used elsewhere, or to discuss issues they care about. The important thing is that those who are to be trained make the final decisions on what the training will be about.

Conducting the training

In many ways, deciding who will conduct the training is simpler than deciding who will control it. Possibilities are a program or training director, other staff members, outside presenters (including participants and other community members) or organizations, or some combination.

There is also the possibility here, perhaps with the exception of initial training, of individual staff members planning and carrying out their own programs. See the material below on training contracts for one way this can be accomplished.

Again, there are questions an organization should ask itself here:

Who has the expertise? The answer to this question will probably vary from topic to topic. Some or most training might be conducted in-house by staff members with the right background and experience. At other times, an outside source might be necessary.

Is it important to involve the community -- either members of the target population or people from the community at large?

Do you need special training that no one on staff is competent to provide?

What, if anything, can you afford to pay for training?

How do you actually develop and run a training program?

There are four major considerations in developing and running a training program. In the order you need to look at them, they are:

We'll examine each of these in turn.

General rules for planning a staff training program

Involve staff members in the planning and implementation of training programs. Whether they are in direct control of the training or not, the people who do the work are in the best position to figure out what at least some of their needs are. Even new staff can participate in planning in this way. What are they most nervous about? In what areas do they feel least prepared or least competent? The answers to these questions can help to structure a useful and effective initial training.

For both new and veteran staff, there is always the tension between what they know they need and what they don't know they need. If you can foster the understanding that exposure to new ideas and techniques is an important part of any staff member's growth, then exposure to such can become an accepted and valued part of your staff training program.

In addition, staff participation in planning and conducting a training program gives staff members ownership of that program, making it far more likely that they will take it seriously and benefit from it.

Respond to staff members' needs. If they're involved in the planning of training, make sure that involvement isn't just nominal, but leads to specific workshops, sessions, etc. Some things you can do to ensure that needs are met:

Cover the topics that staff members identify as important. This doesn't mean you can't add to these topics, but simply that the ones they identify should be addressed. If, for some reason, this isn't practical, that should be discussed and a rationale presented for what will be covered. (Some organizations identify topics by doing an annual -- or more frequent -- staff training needs assessment.)

Try to arrange the training in the forms and situations staff members most want: study circles, particular presenters, etc. Just as important, don't set up situations that staff members particularly dislike -- if everyone expresses distaste for lecture-style presentations, don't plan any.

Find materials that address the issues appropriately and interestingly.

Schedule training around staff member's needs. For new staff, that means as soon as they report for work, so that they can get the foundation they need. For staff development, it means several things:

Schedule at times convenient for as many people as possible.

Schedule well in advance so that you can get the presenters you want, assemble materials for staff to examine beforehand, get readings together, etc..

Build in enough flexibility or unscheduled time to address real issues that come up in the work when they need to be addressed.

Remember that you're planning a program

A training program is more than just a series of unrelated workshops. It should reflect a way of looking at what your organization does, as well as the needs of the staff. Some organizations plan training a year at a time, choosing to focus on one or a small number of topics, and scheduling discussions or presentations months in advance. Others see a training program as a progression as staff members build their skills and knowledge from the initial training throughout their time in the organization. Still others see a program as covering the areas that staff members need to do their jobs well, which often means responding to immediate concerns (We're getting a lot of participants who are using heroin. How do we deal with that?).

All of these are legitimate ways of looking at a staff training program, and there are others as well. What's necessary is that your staff training plan end up with a program that has some reason behind its structure. An unrelated series of presentations or activities might have some value, but it will benefit neither the staff nor the organization as much as a training program that forms a coherent whole.

Decide what areas your staff training should cover

Obviously, the decision here will depend on the work of the organization and the expressed needs of staff members, but it will also vary with the philosophy and intent of the organization. Some organizations may want a training program to address issues that aren't -- or don't seem to be -- directly related to their stated goals.

If an organization whose stated goal is job training believes that work readiness is dependent on individual development, it might therefore include information on psychological development in its training program. Organizations concerned with empowerment might include training on how the organization expects staff members to interact with and treat participants. Less introspective organizations are more likely to focus training only on job skills -- vaccinating children, teaching literacy, understanding federal regulations.

That said, there are some general areas that most training programs should address

Specific job skills and information. Any training, especially initial training, should cover the particular skills and information people need to do their jobs. Teaching techniques, federal regulations, and new medical information might all be training topics for one organization or another.

In some cases, of course, people in your group have been hired specifically because they already had most of the skills and information they needed. (You don't have to teach an RN how to take blood pressure, for instance.) Training should take that into account, and focus on upgrading skills, or on information that's new or specific to the organization.

Skills unique to your organization. If you have self-developed or unusual ways of doing things, it's obviously important that staff members understand both how to use these methods and why your organization uses them.

New techniques, developments, theories, policies, laws, etc. in your field.

Other areas that staff members need to be familiar with, over and above their job skills, in order to do their jobs well (strategies to deal with someone who's suicidal, for instance, or to resolve conflicts). Into this category falls most training in such areas as interpersonal skills, cultural sensitivity, and diversity.

Specific issues of importance to the organization. Depending upon the nature of the work and of the target population, some possibilities here could be domestic violence, the spread of AIDS, welfare reform, ADA (the Americans with Disabilities Act), the economics of particular neighborhoods or regions, trends in federal funding, etc. These issues might not be related directly to the goals of the organization, but may have great impact on its work because of their effect on participants.

Determine how much training your staff needs, and when it should happen

Initial training. How long should training for new staff last? When are you going to need it (i. e. do you know when you're likely to be hiring)?

Staff development. How much staff development should each staff member engage in during a year? How often should it take place, or does that matter?

Professional development. Should there be an organizational standard for the amount of professional development a staff member should be involved in each year? If so, should there be any time considerations placed on that standard (i. e. professional development has to be completed by a certain time each year)?

Some organizations approach all these questions through the use of an individual training contract with each staff member. In this case, each person in the organization -- often in consultation with supervisors, other staff, etc. -- plans his own training program for the year. A program may include courses, workshops, conferences, study circles, observations at other organizations, research, self-directed reading, etc. -- in other words, any activity that will enhance his skills or knowledge.

Once the program is finalized, the organization and the staff member sign a contract, with the staff member agreeing to participate in the activities named, and the organization agreeing to provide specific support (a certain amount of tuition for a course, release time for observation visits, etc.). The staff member may be required to check in with a supervisor or mentor a certain number of times during the year, or the contract may simply be reviewed at the end of the year.

This method has the advantage of constructing a program for each staff member that should speak directly to his needs. It has the disadvantage of staff members going off in different directions, and not necessarily informing one another of what they've learned. An organization might compromise by running its own, somewhat shortened, training program in addition to negotiating training contracts with each individual, and/or to end the year with a seminar in which each person shares what she's learned.

There are some general guidelines to keep in mind when considering what methods to use in a staff training program.

If the training is meant to teach a method or technique, it should be conducted using the method or technique in question . If you're trying to teach group facilitation skills, for instance, then you -- or whoever is conducting the training -- should be demonstrating those skills in the presentation itself.

Similarly, training methods should be consistent with the mission and philosophy of the organization . If the organization is collaborative, for instance, then the training program should assume that everyone has some relevant knowledge and experience to contribute. The training should be viewed as a collaborative effort, rather than as an authority offering some of his knowledge to others who are essentially ignorant.

Vary presentation methods to keep people interested and excited . This is true whether training is in-house or is largely conducted by outside presenters. Among the many methods available are:

Discussion/study circles

Group activities: small-group problem-solving, collaborative projects, etc.

Multimedia: audio-visual presentations (videos, audio tape, overheads), use of computers and the internet, etc.

Physical activities: movement, manipulation of materials

Individual problem-solving

Role plays and simulation, including interactive theater

Journals or other writing activities

Arts activities: creating pictures, structures, poems, etc. either as individuals or in groups

Individual or group research

Readings

Lecture

You may notice that lecture, which is probably the most common method of presentation, is listed last here. The reason is that studies have shown that lecture is the least effective method of learning for most people. For most subject matter, group learning and/or hands-on involvement are usually more effective: the give-and-take of a group discussion, even if the group is only two, is far more helpful to most people than listening to someone tell them something, and actually practicing the activity is even more powerful.

Discussion is interactive: it gives people the chance to wrestle with ideas, to translate those ideas into their own terms, and to make them their own. The same is true of several of the other methods listed above, particularly the use of physical activities, role plays, and the arts.

Be aware of different learning styles. There are many descriptions of different learning styles, but all come down to two issues: how people take in information; and how they organize and use it. Although most people can use a range of different styles when they need to, everyone seems to have a style that they prefer, and which they can use best.

A common way of looking at cognitive style is to divide an area into four. Each of the two lines - one vertical and one horizontal - that divide it into four squares (see diagram) represents a way of handling information. Although different theories use different names for the styles they discuss, most actually describe the same possibilities.

In most cases, one line forms a progression from sequential (in logical order, already fitting together) to random or intuitive (a piece here and a piece there, with their fitting together coming as a mental "click into place" at some point). The other line forms a progression from "chunking" information (seeing the big picture, often referred to as "abstract") to dealing with information as a group of separate details ("concrete").

An individual's cognitive style is defined as the area into which she falls when scored on a questionnaire designed to see both where she falls on the line between sequential and intuitive, and where on the line between abstract and concrete. The diagram below gives a picture of the four areas.

Thus, someone might be described as "abstract-random" or "abstract-sequential." Each description brings with it a particular preference for interpreting the world. It's often said, for instance, that engineers are concrete-sequential: they deal in concrete issues, and they want everything in logical order. If issues aren't concrete and sequential, then they try to make them that way.

Teaching to as many different learning styles as possible helps everyone develop their ability to use a variety of strategies. Different kinds of problems demand different kinds of solutions, and the more easily a person can switch styles when necessary, the better learner and problem-solver he'll be. In the long run, it's one of the best ways to make sure that everyone learns what he needs to.

You may notice that lecture, which is probably the most common method of presentation, is listed last here. The reason is that studies have shown that lecture is the least effective method of learning for most people. For most subject matter, group learning and/or hands-on involvement are usually more effective: the give-and-take of a group discussion, even if the group is only two, is far more helpful to most people than listening to someone tell them something, and actually practicing the activity is even more powerful.

Discussion is interactive: it gives people the chance to wrestle with ideas, to translate those ideas into their own terms, and to make them their own. The same is true of several of the other methods listed above, particularly the use of physical activities, role plays, and the arts.

You can address different styles by planning either individual activities or a series of activities that include several of these ways of presenting information:

There are various ways to approach this issue. Asking people to draw pictures or to act out something often engages "right-brain" functions; asking people to make a list or to create a statistical profile prompts "left-brain" learning. One of the reasons that role plays and the like are often such powerful learning tools is that, through the use of feedback after the experience, they engage both, and help people to integrate them. Thus, when they've learned something in that way, they both "know" it intuitively and understand it intellectually.

Use visual - through the eyes (slides, video); auditory - through the ears (tapes, lecture); and kinesthetic - through movement and touch (games, things to build with, etc.); and similar methods of presenting information.

Provide opportunities for people to work in large groups, small groups, pairs, and alone, since some people learn best in each of these situations.

Pay attention to "right brain-left brain" differences. Although this common description can be misleading (these activities are not actually dichotically divided into right and left sides of the brain), the differences to note here are between the emotional/intuitive/artistic (right brain) and the logical/sequential /mathematical (left brain) ways of thinking. Some people respond more to ideas in sequence, for instance, and others to ideas connected to anecdotes or to literature.

There are various ways to approach this issue. Asking people to draw pictures or to act out something often engages "right-brain" functions; asking people to make a list or to create a statistical profile prompts "left-brain" learning. One of the reasons that role plays and the like are often such powerful learning tools is that, through the use of feedback after the experience, they engage both, and help people to integrate them. Thus, when they've learned something in that way, they both "know" it intuitively and understand it intellectually.

Try to address both the big picture -- an overall view of the ideas or techniques you're introducing, and how they fit into your organization and the field -- and the smaller details that make up that big picture.

Use humor, games, and other fun activities as much as possible. Virtually everyone learns more, and more quickly, when they are having fun than when they feel bored or under pressure.

Especially if there are skills or techniques to learn, try to design activities with as much opportunity for feedback as possible.

Feedback - a constructive critical response - is one of the most important tools available for training of any sort. Having a chance to practice a skill or explore an idea with feedback from observers or other participants can be a tremendously powerful learning experience. (This experience can be even more meaningful when the practice is in a real-life situation under the supervision of a veteran staff member or supervisor, as in the case of practice teaching.)

To use feedback well, it's important to understand that it has a serious effect on people at whom it's aimed. If you're not careful, it can be devastating. A few guiding principles can help you employ feedback in a way that's almost always helpful:

Feedback should be positive first. Remember that, in most cases, the person it's directed at is often doing something she's still a beginner at. Find something good to say before you address problem areas.

Feedback should be clear and concrete. Rather than "You didn't do that well," try "You seemed to have some difficulty when X happened. What were you thinking/feeling there? What might you have done to make things go differently?" or "What if you had tried A instead of B in that situation? What do you think might have happened?"

Feedback should be directed toward mastery of the activity, not toward criticism of the person. "You really stank that up" is not helpful. Approaching feedback as a joint problem-solving activity is much more so. Responses like those in number 2 above both involve the person in problem-solving and indicate support for her learning.

Feedback should actually be useful to the trainee in a real situation. It should help him understand the situation more clearly, and give him some tools to use when that situation arises again.

There are many ways to provide feedback besides third-person observation.

Video - or audiotaping the trainee provides a record of the activity, which she can then react to alone or with others.

Video - or audiotaping someone else -- a veteran staff member, perhaps -- doing the same thing the trainee was taped doing can furnish her with another model.

One advantage of these strategies is that you can repeat parts of the activity as many times as necessary in order to analyze what's happening and to understand what went right or wrong in those particular instances.

Giving feedback can be just as powerful a learning experience as getting it. Just as the best way to learn something is to teach it, the best way to understand the dynamics of a situation may sometimes be to watch it and comment, rather than to be directly involved in it. It's crucial, therefore, that everyone have the chance to provide feedback as well as to receive it.

The logistics -- the nitty-gritty of arranging everything so that the training can take place -- may not be the most exciting part of a training, but it's absolutely crucial. How well you take care of the details may have a lot to do with the success of your training program, so you have to start thinking about them early. For most organizations, the important issues will be location, setup, and materials.

Location. Do you want -- or do you have -- to hold training or staff development sessions at your workplace, or would it be better to go elsewhere? Other possibilities include people's houses; (free) institutional space (a library or college, for instance); rented space; space loaned by another organization; outdoors; or rented conference space, which may be far from home and very different from the normal work environment.

Your organization's resources -- probably not huge -- will go a long way toward determining whether you can rent space or not. Your organization's philosophy and style may help to determine whether you want to rent space or you would rather spend the money directly on the work you do.

Time and the amount of space needed can also be determining factors. If your staff development takes place during staff meeting time, for instance, then it's almost undoubtedly going to be in your workplace. If you're planning activities that involve a lot of physical movement, you'll need more space than you will just for chairs.

Setup. How are you going to set up the space? How formal or informal do you want it to be? Do you want comfortable furniture? Chairs in rows, or in a circle? Tables or desks to write on? Blackboards? These questions might influence your choice of location as well.

In addition, you need to consider trainees' comfort. Does your space have enough light, natural or otherwise? (Remember that fluorescent lights buzz, a noise that some people don't mind or don't hear, and that others can't stand.) Is there enough air circulation? (Rooms without adequate ventilation put people to sleep.) How's the temperature? (If you're too hot or too cold, it's hard to concentrate.)

Food changes the dynamics of any situation, making it friendlier and more relaxed. Do you want to include food, and, if so, will the organization provide it, or will people share the cost or take turns?

In general, creating an informal atmosphere is more conducive to discussion and to learning. The best learning comes out of thrashing out ideas among people, and that kind of interchange is more likely in an informal environment. Such an arrangement also creates less of a distance between the facilitator and participants in a training session. The partnership encouraged by informality leads to more ownership of the training by participants and more effective learning.

Materials. Training materials will, of course, be dependent on the nature of your training and the methods you choose. No matter what you do, however, there will almost undoubtedly be a fair amount of text and other paper that needs to be distributed (although it may also be posted to be downloaded from a website or computer network), and other materials needed for particular training sessions. These have to be available at the right times, and that's probably the responsibility of the coordinator.

Having materials ready when they're needed can be a big job. It may mean getting many pages copied; typing text into a website; making overheads, videos, or CD-ROMs (as well as finding the hardware to display them); creating Power Point presentations; assembling enough art materials for everyone to use; etc. It may even mean putting together or writing a training manual, which might include some of these materials.

The planning you've done becomes crucial here. The more lead time the coordinator has to get materials ready, the more likely they are to be there when they're required, and the more flexible the training program, as a whole, will be able to be.

Publicity may or may not be a fourth issue here. It depends on the size of your organization (if you have a staff of 20 or fewer, informing everyone of a training opportunity isn't difficult, although you still have to do it), and, probably more importantly, on whether the training will be open to other organizations or to the public. If you're advertising it publicly, you'll need to follow some general rules for getting your message out:

Use as many different outlets as possible (fliers and posters; advertisements, articles, and press releases in print and broadcast media; direct mail or e-mail; community bulletin boards; etc.).

Use language that's easily understood by your target audience (including languages other than English when appropriate).

Put your message where your target audience will see or hear it -- in their neighborhoods, in stores they patronize, on radio stations they listen to, etc..

Evaluation

Like all your work, your training program should be dynamic, constantly changing to improve its effectiveness and meet the evolving needs of the organization. The way you assure this dynamism is through regular, careful examination and evaluation of what you're doing and how you do it.

There are some obvious ways to determine the effectiveness of your training program.

Feedback from staff members, both on individual sessions and on the training program as a whole. Obtaining honest feedback could be difficult if the level of trust in the organization isn't high. (Lack of trust is another problem, but not for this section. Both group discussions and individual conversations are the best ways to get real information. They allow for give and take, and give people a chance to polish their thoughts as they hear those of others.

You can also ask people to fill out a survey (anonymous or not). This may be somewhat less revealing, but it may also give you accurate feedback on how helpful and interesting your training is. (Please see Tool #1 for a sample survey on training.)

The important questions are whether staff members feel that the training program, in general, was useful, and how it can be improved. Can they point to specific training that has had a practical effect? Do they use any of the ideas or techniques they learned or were exposed to? Are they more open to innovation in their work than before? Has training improved their confidence or their feeling of competency? Does the training feel supportive? Would they consider the time spent on it a valuable part of their jobs? What areas of concern weren't covered? What would they like to see added or dumped in the future?

Feedback from participants, target populations, community members, etc. about the competence of the organization in the areas that the training program addressed. Have there been changes in the ways things are done or changes in the effectiveness of the organization? Have there been changes in the way the organization is perceived?

Observation and supervision of staff members in job situations. How easily did new staff members adapt to the techniques, ideas, and attitudes presented in initial training? Is there improvement, or a drive toward improvement, in the work of veteran staff? Have any of the ideas proposed in training been adopted in practice, and how well are they working? Do supervisors see differences in people 's attitudes, methods, or competency? Do staff members discuss training issues with supervisors and with one another?

The goal of both initial and ongoing training is to help staff members become more effective at what they do. For various organizations, that may mean being more creative or more innovative, serving more people, having more success with current participants, involving more people from the community, or having greater political impact. Whatever your goals for staff effectiveness, you'll be many steps closer to reaching them if you have a well-planned and well-executed training program.

In Summary

A good staff training program is just that -- a program, with a structure and logic to it that make sense for your organization. It should continue throughout the life of the organization and include initial training for new staff, staff development (ongoing training for all staff), and professional development (the opportunity to gain new knowledge or skills, or to move to the next level of expertise).

Creating such a program involves planning that includes the people to be trained, and looks at both what kind of shape the training program should take and what areas it should cover. The development of a training program also requires thinking about methods (how the training will be presented), logistics (where and when training will be held, what's necessary to make it all go well, etc.), and evaluation (how you'll find out what was valuable and what was not, and what you should do to improve the program over time).

Developing a training program that meets the needs of both staff members and the organization, and keeps the organization growing and changing for the better, is a big job. But, the benefits to be gained will far outweigh the effort.



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Forex tutorial economic theories,models,feeds&data

Forex tutorial economic theories,models,feeds&dataForex Tutorial: Economic Theories, Models, Feeds & Data

There is a great deal of academic theory revolving around currencies. While often not applicable directly to day-to-day trading, it is helpful to understand the overarching ideas behind the academic research.

The main economic theories found in the foreign exchange deal with parity conditions. A parity condition is an economic explanation of the price at which two currencies should be exchanged, based on factors such as inflation and interest rates. The economic theories suggest that when the parity condition does not hold, an arbitrage opportunity exists for market participants. However, arbitrage opportunities, as in many other markets, are quickly discovered and eliminated before even giving the individual investor an opportunity to capitalize on them. Other theories are based on economic factors such as trade, capital flows and the way a country runs its operations. We review each of them briefly below.

Purchasing Power Parity (PPP) is the economic theory that price levels between two countries should be equivalent to one another after exchange-rate adjustment. The basis of this theory is the law of one price, where the cost of an identical good should be the same around the world. Based on the theory, if there is a large difference in price between two countries for the same product after exchange rate adjustment, an arbitrage opportunity is created, because the product can be obtained from the country that sells it for the lowest price.

The relative version of PPP is as follows:

20-%20Purchasing%20Power%20Partiy. gif" /%

Where 'e' represents the rate of change in the exchange rate and '? 1 ' and '? 2 'represent the rates of inflation for country 1 and country 2, respectively.

For example, if the inflation rate for country XYZ is 10% and the inflation for country ABC is 5%, then ABC's currency should appreciate 4.76% against that of XYZ.

Interest Rate Parity

The concept of Interest Rate Parity (IRP) is similar to PPP, in that it suggests that for there to be no arbitrage opportunities, two assets in two different countries should have similar interest rates, as long as the risk for each is the same. The basis for this parity is also the law of one price, in that the purchase of one investment asset in one country should yield the same return as the exact same asset in another country; otherwise exchange rates would have to adjust to make up for the difference.

20-%20Interest%20Rate%20Parity. gif" /%

Where 'F' represents the forward exchange rate; 'S' represents the spot exchange rate; 'i 1 ' represents the interest rate in country 1; and 'i 2 ' represents the interest rate in country 2.

is as follows:

20-%20International%20Fisher%20Effect. gif" /%

Where 'e' represents the rate of change in the exchange rate and 'i 1 ' and 'i 2 'represent the rates of inflation for country 1 and country 2, respectively.

Balance of Payments Theory

A country's balance of payments is comprised of two segments - the current account and the capital account - which measure the inflows and outflows of goods and capital for a country. The balance of payments theory looks at the current account, which is the account dealing with trade of tangible goods, to get an idea of exchange-rate directions.

If a country is running a large current account surplus or deficit. it is a sign that a country's exchange rate is out of equilibrium. To bring the current account back into equilibrium, the exchange rate will need to adjust over time. If a country is running a large deficit (more imports than exports), the domestic currency will depreciate. On the other hand, a surplus would lead to currency appreciation.

The balance of payments identity is found by:

20-%20Balance%20of%20Payments. gif" /%

Where BCA represents the current account balance; BKA represents the capital account balance; and BRA represents the reserves account balance.

Real Interest Rate Differentiation Model

The Real Interest Rate Differential Model simply suggests that countries with higher real interest rates will see their currencies appreciate against countries with lower interest rates. The reason for this is that investors around the world will move their money to countries with higher real rates to earn higher returns, which bids up the price of the higher real rate currency.

Asset Market Model

The Asset Market Model looks at the inflow of money into a country by foreign investors for the purpose of purchasing assets such as stocks, bonds and other financial instruments. If a country is seeing large inflows by foreign investors, the price of its currency is expected to increase, as the domestic currency needs to be purchased by these foreign investors. This theory considers the capital account of the balance of trade compared to the current account in the prior theory. This model has gained more acceptance as the capital accounts of countries are starting to greatly outpace the current account as international money flow increases.

Monetary Model

The Monetary Model focuses on a country's monetary policy to help determine the exchange rate. A country's monetary policy deals with the money supply of that country, which is determined by both the interest rate set by central banks and the amount of money printed by the treasury. Countries that adopt a monetary policy that rapidly grows its monetary supply will see inflationary pressure due to the increased amount of money in circulation. This leads to a devaluation of the currency.

These economic theories, which are based on assumptions and perfect situations, help to illustrate the basic fundamentals of currencies and how they are impacted by economic factors. However, the fact that there are so many conflicting theories indicates the difficulty in any one of them being 100% accurate in predicting currency fluctuations. Their importance will likely vary by the different market environment, but it is still important to know the fundamental basis behind each of the theories.

Economic Data

Economic theories may move currencies in the long term, but on a shorter-term, day-to-day or week-to-week basis, economic data has a more significant impact. It is often said the biggest companies in the world are actually countries and that their currency is essentially shares in that country. Economic data, such as the latest gross domestic product (GDP) numbers, are often considered to be like a company's latest earnings data. In the same way that financial news and current events can affect a company's stock price, news and information about a country can have a major impact on the direction of that country's currency. Changes in interest rates, inflation, unemployment, consumer confidence, GDP, political stability etc. can all lead to extremely large gains/losses depending on the nature of the announcement and the current state of the country.

The number of economic announcements made each day from around the world can be intimidating, but as one spends more time learning about the forex market it becomes clear which announcements have the greatest influence. Listed below are a number of economic indicators that are generally considered to have the greatest influence - regardless of which country the announcement comes from.

Employment Data

Most countries release data about the number of people that currently are employed within that economy. In the

. this data is known as non-farm payrolls and is released the first Friday of the month by the Bureau of Labor Statistics. In most cases, strong increases in employment signal that a country enjoys a prosperous economy, while decreases are a sign of potential contraction. If a country has gone recently through economic troubles, strong employment data could send the currency higher because it is a sign of economic health and recovery. On the other hand, high employment can also lead to inflation, so this data could send the currency downward. In other words, economic data and the movement of currency will often depend on the circumstances that exist when the data is released.

Interest Rates

As was seen with some of the economic theories, interest rates are a major focus in the forex market. The most focus by market participants, in terms of interest rates, is placed on the country's central bank changes of its bank rate, which is used to adjust monetary supply and institute the country's monetary policy. In the

. the Federal Open Market Committee (FOMC) determines the bank rate, or the rate at which commercial banks can borrow and lend to the U. S. Treasury. The FOMC meets eight times a year to make decisions on whether to raise, lower or leave the bank rate the same; and each meeting, along with the minutes, is a point of focus. (For more on central banks read Get to Know the Major Central Banks .)

Inflation data measures the increases and decreases of price levels over a period of time. Due to the sheer amount of goods and services within an economy, a basket of goods and services is used to measure changes in prices. Price increases are a sign of inflation, which suggests that the country will see its currency depreciate. In the

. inflation data is shown in the Consumer Price Index, which is released on a monthly basis by the Bureau of Labor Statistics.

. this data is released by the Bureau of Economic Analysis once a month in the third or fourth quarter of the month.

Retail sales data measures the amount of sales that retailers make during the period, reflecting consumer spending. The measure itself doesn't look at all stores, but, similar to GDP, uses a group of stores of varying types to get an idea of consumer spending. This measure also gives market participants an idea of the strength of the economy, where increased spending signals a strong economy. In the

. the Department of Commerce releases data on retail sales around the middle of the month.

Durable Goods

The data for durable goods (those with a lifespan of more than three years) measures the amount of manufactured goods that are ordered, shipped and unfilled for the time period. These goods include such things as cars and appliances, giving economists an idea of the amount of individual spending on these longer-term goods, along with an idea of the health of the factory sector. This measure again gives market participants insight into the health of the economy, with data being released around the 26th of the month by the Department of Commerce.

Trade and Capital Flows

Interactions between countries create huge monetary flows that can have a substantial impact on the value of currencies. As was mentioned before, a country that imports far more than it exports could see its currency decline due to its need to sell its own currency to purchase the currency of the exporting nation. Furthermore, increased investments in a country can lead to substantial increases in the value of its currency.

Trade flow data looks at the difference between a country's imports and exports, with a trade deficit occurring when imports are greater than exports. In the U. S. the Commerce Department releases balance of trade data on a monthly basis, which shows the amount of goods and services that the

exported and imported during the past month. Capital flow data looks at the difference in the amount of currency being brought in through investment and/or exports to currency being sold for foreign investments and/or imports. A country that is seeing a lot of foreign investment, where outsiders are purchasing domestic assets such as stocks or real estate, will generally have a capital flow surplus.

Balance of payments data is the combined total of a country's trade and capital flow over a period of time. The balance of payments is split into three categories: the current account, the capital account and the financial account. The current account looks at the flow of goods and services between countries. The capital account looks at the exchange of money between countries for the purpose of purchasing capital assets. The financial account looks at the monetary flow between countries for investment purposes.

Macroeconomic and Geopolitical Events

The biggest changes in the forex often come from macroeconomic and geopolitical events such as wars, elections, monetary policy changes and financial crises. These events have the ability to change or reshape the country, including its fundamentals. For example, wars can put a huge economic strain on a country and greatly increase the volatility in a region, which could impact the value of its currency. It is important to keep up to date on these macroeconomic and geopolitical events.

There is so much data that is released in the forex market that it can be very difficult for the average individual to know which data to follow. Despite this, it is important to know what news releases will affect the currencies you trade. (For more insight, check out Trading On News Releases and Economic Indicators To Know .)

Now that you know a little more about what drives the market, we will look next at the two main trading strategies used by traders in the forex market – fundamental and technical analysis.



Online Forex tutorial economic theories,models,feeds&data

Tag spot gold trading strategies pdf

Tag spot gold trading strategies pdfTag: spot gold trading strategies pdf

Best Indicator For Trading Gold

After i lately forecasted how the long-term developments had been in position in order to deliver Gold in order to $5, 000 a good oz, We had been surprised through all of the interest which my personal predict obtained. Whenever This particular Indicator States in order to Buy Gold, a It is In no way Incorrect. This is actually the Best Indicator With regard to Trading Gold

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1 particularly sticks out – the revenue chance which pertains to an indication which i make reference to since the Gold Increase Indicator, inch or even GSI. Due to the character from the Indicator by itself, this particular revenue chance can be obtained just 4 occasions annually. And also the following window associated with chance is simply days aside.



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Fibonacci retracements

Fibonacci retracementsDraw Fibonacci Retracements

Select Highs and Lows for short-term charts or Closing Price for long-term

Click the select button to complete the drawing.

Note how the retracement found support at the 38.2% and 61.8% levels.

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Set New Fibonacci Percentages

Add or delete Fibonacci levels by right-clicking on any Fibonacci Line and selecting Fibonacci Drawing Options (or select Draw >> Draw Options >> Fibonacci from the chart menu).

Fibonacci Retracements

Using Fibonacci Retracements to Trade Binary Options

Fibonacci Retracements have become a popular method among investors to help develop a strategy towards trading binary options. Although the name may sound complicated, Fibonacci Retracements can be easy to understand, granted you can remember a few important numbers.

What is the Fibonacci Retracement Tool?

In any stock, commodity or, in this case binary option, you can track its price via a price versus time chart. Here you can easily see the high and low points the option has reached in any given amount of time.

Fibonacci Retracements use the high and low points of each option to trace horizontal lines over top of the chart. 100% and 0% lines are traced at the high and the low points, respectively. Three additional lines are added in between at 61.8%, 50% and 38.2%. These percentages have been determined mathematically and are the same for all Fibonacci Retracements.

It has been historically shown that as the price of a stock or option moves, the support and resistance points are typically at or very close to these lines, therefore allowing investors to better understand how an investment is likely to react to changes in the market.

How Can Fibonacci Retracement Help With Binary Option Trading?

Since the percentage lines drawn on the chart help predict where changes will occur, it can help you to predict when is the right time to purchase or sell your binary option. For example, in a downward trend option after the low point, according to Fibonacci Retracement, we expect that the option will have an upswing but only as far as one of the Fibonacci percentages. Thus, purchasing this option with the prediction that the price will drop before it reaches either the 38.2 or 50th percentile tends to be in line with past trends in the market.

Alternatively, a prediction that the option would rise above the 61.8th percentile would go against the Fibonacci Retracement and therefore be less likely to occur, resulting in a potential loss.

Is Using Fibonacci Retracement for Binary Options Foolproof?

In short, no. Although Fibonacci Retracement is a good indicator of past trends that can be utilized to predict future trends, there are many factors that make it inconsistent. For example, a novice trader will tend to use Fibonacci Retracements directly as they are plotted on their chart. This is in contrast with an experienced trader who knows to adjust the percentiles to better fit the layout of the specific assets chart, thus giving a better prediction of when the retracements will occur.

As you become more experienced using Fibonacci Retracements with binary options, you will begin to gain an understanding of whether the Fibonacci lines are correct or need adjustment. Secondly, since the market itself is volatile, it is impossible to predict with 100% certainty that an event will happen at a certain point in time, thus it is important to be prepared for a certain degree of risk when dealing with binary options.

What Type of Binary Options Can Fibonacci Retracements Help With?

Since Fibonacci Retracements simply overview trends that are likely to occur in the market, they can be used with any type of binary options. As with any investment, before you use Fibonacci Retracements with more complicated binary options such as double touch options, consider using a demo account to trial what you have learned.

With tried and tested mathematical tools such as the Fibonacci Retracement at your disposal, you can make educated decisions on how and when to trade binary options. Take the time to fully understand the process and talk to those with experience to gain a better understanding of different investors strategies for utilizing them. Before you know it, you will be trading with the best.



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The forex trading strategy design template

The forex trading strategy design templateThe Forex Trading Strategy Design Template

One of the key steps in testing a trading system is to actually write down what you are testing.

You want to do this for a few reasons:

So you remain constant in what you are testing throughout the test. It is easy to bend the rules of your system during the test because you may see something that might work better. In order to get an accurate test of a trading method, you have to stick to the rules during the whole test period.

If you need help verifying your testing results, you need to be able to give the exact parameters of the system to another person.

Once you start testing a lot of similar methods or different versions of a method, they will all start to look the same and you need to have a way to match up your results with the parameters you used.

If you actually start forward testing it or it even gets to the point of trading real money, you want to have a document that you can reference from time to time so you don break the rules.

These are all problems that I ran into myself and I wanted to create a solution. So I put together this easy-to-use template that will allow you to map out your ideas for a trading strategy before you get started testing.

Getting Started

The best way to use it is to print out a bunch of these templates and have them near your computer. When you come up with an idea for a strategy, fill out the form and keep it in front of your computer while you are testing. As you are testing, jot down your ideas on the form so you do not forget.

There is no cost to download. It is my way of saying thanks for following this blog.

If you have any suggestions for improvement, feel free to contact me and let me know.



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Forex trading formulas

Forex trading formulasEstablished in 2011 and a subsidiary of one of the most successful FX companies, FOREX FORMULA Financial provides a simple, multinational online trading solution to the global FX market. Our integrity and service we offer you lie at the heart of our business.

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Bias and Key Numbers

Bias and Key Numbers

This is my PERSONAL proprietary program invented using several sources. I use a mathematical formula to arrive at certain numbers on 22 currency pairs with specific rules of engagement.

These numbers derived from mathematical formulas using several other FOREX programs and numerous technical indicators have proven to be a vital part of continued success in a traders toolbox. The final math formula process came about after almost three years of research proves that each currency pair is a separate but distinct entity.

These numbers will be adjusted to current market conditions.

Psychology of Trading utilizing Mindset Principles is a course ALL traders need to participate in, if they truly intend to become part of elite few who trade currencies for a living. Folks, there is a fine line between success and failure

Most people are bombarded with negative input all day long. We need to watch what effects our mindset as our livelihoods depend on what we creatively crank out. Our heads need to be full of positive inspiration or free space where we can dream. We must maintain focus during the journey.

In closing,

You will be become a better trader, you will go at your own pace. This is about the way of the turtles and not winning the race, but crossing the finish line.

Make a decision to move forward. Opportunity is not a lengthy visitor

Forex Joe Lead Analyst OUFX Trader & co-creator of Forex Trader Pro™

Forex trading prediction formula stock market analysis math

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Online Forex trading formulas

Free resources for fx traders

Free resources for fx tradersFree Resources for FX Traders

1. Audio and Video Market Data

Talking Forex (Ransquawk) Live Audio Market Commentary Live market commentary (Reuters feed, market rumors, etc.) squawked live with a 5 minute delay. Real time is only GBP20.00/month. Announcer squawks live news aggregated from professional sources through all trading sessions. It’s a great service and well worth making a part of your daily routine. These guys are good and offer a quality product.

FXPro, Real-Time, no news feed: talking-forex/fxpro_squawk. html (now depreciated, 2015)

Oandas Order Book Live volumes of client positions. Trade into the aggregate pending flows. Theyre basically the same on any institutional ECN. Poor minds think alike.



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Swiss franc special focus

Swiss franc special focusSwiss franc: special focus

The Swiss National Bank has been under sustained fire in its attempt to defend its euro peg in recent years. Accordingly, the shift in the long-defended policy regime has shocked markets and will have far-reaching implications for the euro, eastern Europe and private banking, among other things. Euromoney investigates.

Banks in Poland and Croatia will only have themselves to blame if they end up footing the bill to resolve the Swiss franc mortgage problem.

September 2015

$5.8 billion bill for loan conversion; portfolios 'impossible to price’, say analysts.

Six months have passed since the Swiss National Bank (SNB) scrapped its EUR/CHF 1.20 floor on January 15, unleashing a torrent of volatility and burning traders across the globe. What lessons should we remember from one of the craziest days in currency markets?

Euromoney can reveal more details emerge about IG’s alleged failures to deliver best-execution practice on Black Thursday.

A series of market disasters in recent years, culminating in the SNB’s decision to abandon its peg to the euro, have forced banks to reconsider their commitment to the prime brokerage (PB) business, leaving many smaller hedge funds and other clients in the cold – but a new generation of providers is taking their place, promising to revolutionize the business.

April 2015

The Swiss National Bank (SNB) has expanded the scope of its negative rates policy, meaning more assets deposited at the central bank will incur charges – but more must be done to substantially weaken the currency, say analysts.

April 2015

FX broker FXCM has unveiled its plans to sell its non-core assets to repay loans post-Swiss National Bank disaster, and focus its resources on wholesale as well as prime of prime services.

March 2015

Foreign-exchange broker FXCM’s CEO calls for wider adoption of circuit breakers on FX platforms to prevent another Swiss franc shocker as seen on Black Thursday, but critics question whether it is the right solution and even suitable for an over-the-counter (OTC) market such as FX.

March 2015

The convulsions after the SNB’s decision to cease pegging the Swiss franc to the euro are still being felt, with regulators in Europe and Australia debating the merits of tougher controls on leverage in FX markets for retail investors.

March 2015

The internet responds to the crunch facing FX trading platforms post-SNB.

February 2015

After the events of Black Thursday, the CEO of crest-fallen FXCM, the FX broker, discusses the shake-up in its business model, the future for retail flows, and lashes out at the institutional FX market structure.

February 2015

After the shock removal of the Swiss peg to the euro, speculators are testing the DKK peg, though, for now, the central bank is well-placed to withstand the pressure.

How did the relationship of the Swiss franc and the euro turn out to be purely platonic? Conscious uncoupling was perhaps inevitable.



Online Swiss franc special focus

Forex trading academy freebook

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The Professional Forex Trader Course delivers this strategic edge by. Free Download Online Trading Academy – Professional Forex Trader. This eBook contains useful information about trading binary options, and also. The Boss Capital trading academy will give all traders the information they need to. These include indices, e. g. FTSE-100, NASDAQ, forex pairs e. g. EUR/USD. Forex for Beginners PDF Course. Here's How You Can Make Money Trading Forex. The purpose of this book is to show you how to make money trading Forex.

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Forex trading log

Forex trading logForex Trading Log

Trading journal spreadsheet | trade tracking. stock, The trading journal spreadsheet is an easy to use, extremely informative (trade tracking) spreadsheet. track, analyze, improve to make every trade count..

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Reading order flow with price action

Reading order flow with price actionReading Order Flow with Price Action

Price Action as many traders know it is what price is doing and how it is behaving on a chart. For many traders they flick on their charts and will see candles moving up and down. A deeper look into price action shows us that what they are actually watching when they watch the candles move up or down is the market order flow that is taking place.

Price Action is the direct result of what has happened with order flow. In other words what the big guys are doing can be seen directly through price action on our charts. It is said that “price action is the foot print to the money” and this is true because through the price action on our charts (the foot prints) we can see what the market order flow is and more importantly where it is likely to lead.

Price Action and Indicators

All indicators including the commonly used indicators such as moving averages and Bollinger bands are built using the information that price gives us. It is also true that all indicators will lag due to the fact that they first have to process what old price has done before trying to predict the future.

The reason price action trading is so successful and used by most professional traders is because you are reading the order flow from the market as it is continually printed onto your chart in real time. Obviously being able to assess the market in real time with the use of price action is a lot more useful than looking to indicators which are lagging behind.

How Can We Use Price Action Order Flow?

Order flow is being printed on your charts every second the market it is open. You can simply look at any chart to see price moving up or down to see what the market is doing. Being able to use this information and to trade with it profitability is the next step in the process.

The reason a few key patterns in the market can be very profitable to trade time after time is because they are showing key signs of market order flow and market dynamics. One very simple example is the Pin Bar .

Pin Bar Reversal

The Pin Bar is a very simple one candle pattern that is especially good at changing the market direction and creating a reversal. To read about the basics of the Pin Bar please read this article: The Pin Bar

The nose of the Pin Bar is telling a lie and setting a trap that will stop out many traders. To understand why the Pin Bar is successful we must look at the order flow behind the pattern to understand how we can do the trapping and not become the trapped.

As the Pin Bar is being formed many traders are trading and looking for a break out trade. They are entering in the direction of the Pin Bar nose and looking for price to continue. For the Pin Bar to be created one of two things needs to happen;

The buyers/sellers must come in with more pressure to reverse the price or,

Traders begin taking profit which leads to price reversing.

The two charts below explain how the Pin Bar is created with order flow. In the example below we have a bullish Pin Bar. Originally traders would have been short looking for a breakout lower. Chart one show’s how price would have looked as price was breaking out. People were selling and looking for price to continue moving lower.

At some point traders either started taking profit or a fresh wave of buyers came in that pushed price higher. Chart two shows the Pin Bar which has now been created after this fresh push higher.

For the Pin Bar to work and be a successful trade price must move higher to complete the trap. It is here that a lot of stops will give fuel to help price bounce higher. All the traders who traded for the breakout have been successfully trapped. The breakout traders will have a lot of their stops above the Pin Bar high hoping price does not break higher as they will be stopped out and effectively trapped. It is for this very reason that the Pin Bar will get its next push higher due to stopping out the break out traders. See the chart below for a detailed look;

A clean price action chart below shows how this works on a real chart. This chart highlights how the Pin Bar is formed and then how it takes out the stops to move higher.



Online Reading order flow with price action

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Patient-trusted medical information and supportOn this page

Synonyms: personal learning plans, continuing professional development

Personal development plans (PDPs) and personal learning plans (PLPs) are part of the concept of continuing professional development (CPD) and GP appraisals. Appraisal can have a significant impact on all aspects of a GP's professional life, and those who value the process report continuing benefit in how they manage their education and professional development. [1 ]

PDPs are a means to identify educational need and to document and hence demonstrate that need has been addressed. Providing and reviewing PDPs at each annual appraisal are a requirement of GP revalidation .

Good medical practice and continuing professional development

The General Medical Council (GMC) states that: [2 ]

You must keep your knowledge and skills up to date throughout your working life.

You should be familiar with relevant guidelines and developments that affect your work.

You should regularly take part in educational activities that maintain and further develop your competence and performance.

You must keep up to date with, and adhere to, the laws and codes of practice relevant to your work.

The principle of CPD is that it should be relevant to the doctor's practice, so should: [3 ]

Take into account the context and environment of their practice.

Explore the benefits of learning across professional disciplines and boundaries.

Doctors need to keep themselves up to date in all areas of Good Medical Practice. These are: [3 ]

Good professional practice.

Maintaining good medical practice.

Relationships with patients.

Working with colleagues.

Teaching and training.

Probity.

Health.

There are many ways in which doctors learn: [3 ]

Formally, through:

Annual appraisal.

Shadowing others; visiting centres of excellence.

Being involved in supervision; being a mentor.

Multidisciplinary team meetings.

Learning from patients.

Informally, through colleagues and patients - more difficult to measure.

Aims of a personal development plan

To produce a comprehensive structured 'snapshot' of 'where we are now', enabling:

The setting of realistic goals for personal development within a stated timescale.

Helping the individual recognise areas of educational need, and to plan actions to address these needs.

Producing documentary evidence of education and reflection - a 'Portfolio of Educational Activity' - to meet requirements of reaccreditation.

PDPs, when gathered together, form part of the PPDP, identifying common goals and needs, and facilitating group approaches to meeting them.



Online Patient-trusted medical information and support

Free forex signals and ea

Free forex signals and eaHedging Forex Trading

4. How to maintain the losing account?

You must have a smart money management plan. One of the well-known techniques is to take out the profits from one account and deposit the excess to the losing account. The main problem is that some forex brokers do not allow a withdrawal while your position is still open, therefore this is another thing that you need to check before starting trading.

Looking for free trading tutorials and comprehensive broker reviews? Here are great resources: Forex Broker Reviews Forex Tutorials

thinking to start a hedge fund will I be labeled the new Madoff?



Online Free forex signals and ea

Boost your investing-iq

Boost your investing-iqConnect with like-minded investors.

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Qqq trading strategy

Qqq trading strategyQQQQSystem

Displaying 1-2 of 2 Total Reviews

This is a review of QQQQSystem. I will never trade with them again. I have alot to say. First of all, they charge about 235 dollars a month for their service. That's just ridiculous compared to all the other newsletters out there. I signed up for a two month plan which cost me $469. Now, about their performance. They basically give you a market signal on QQQ before the market opens every day - on whether to go long or short. How i analyze their performance is by using QQQ points. For example - So let's say they tell you to long that day and QQQ opens at 57.50 and closes at 57.60 by the end of the day. So you've gained 0.10 QQQ points that day. Or lets say they tell you to go short and QQQ opens at 57.80 but closes at 60.00. So you've lost 0.20 QQQ points.

In the approximately three month period that i've used this service - the results ended up with -2.03 QQQ points. This means that basically they are only right LESS than half of the time, and you are losing money in the end!

Another thing is the performance shown on their website: They don't even post the dates of the trades they've made! (they've only started posting the dates starting from February 2012). Something to hide? In my opinion the losses are WAY bigger than what is shown on the website. Also, the performance shown on their website is using a total of 8X leverage! You absolutely do not want to do this! It's a total a sham and if you do that prepare to lose ALOT of money.

Customer service: Really bad. Makes me think it's run by one guy who gets a lot of e-mails per day and it's just basically him trying to respond. I had to e-mail multiple times to get responses.

So in the end, i lost about 2K. All in all, there are newsletters with way better performance. This service is almost like tossing a coin and seeing which side it lands on - if you are right you make money, if you are wrong you lose money. you don't want to do that!

This review is the subjective opinion of an Investimonials member and not of Investimonials LLC

4 of 4 people have found this review helpful.

Trading stocks on an intra-day basis is no easy feat. It is a battle in every sense. There is an inherent fear that comes with shooting that trade out in hopes it will profit--especially for the beginner. Furthermore, the cost of learning how to day trade is very, very high. I was forced, after losing almost 50% of my day-trading account, to come to grips with reality and to find a solution, master myself and make day trading work or quit. In fact, it cost me tens of thousands of dollars in losses to realize the system I have created. I tried too many things to try to day trade such as joining chat rooms to only to play the circus fool in a juggling act. Do you know anybody who has lost serious money in day trading or have you been having a hard time to even break even?

Success has been realized while keeping it simple! This has been my stock/equities method since the summer of 2007 where I mastered trading only trade 2 stocks, which at the time was AAPL and RIMM. With only these two stocks I got an average of 4 trades per day on each stock based upon my key (almost secret) 3 signals, which I will teach you step by step in my 8-hours-long instructional video.

NOTE: This course was made while trading with Apple (AAPL) and Research In Motion (now BlackBerry: BBRY). You can also trade the QQQ ETF due to the stable volume and low spread!

This trading system will work on any liquid stock with low bid-to-ask spreads such as the Q's (QQQ). All you have to do is follow the signals that I will teach you exactly how to read as you look over my shoulder right on the screen!

I use only 3 indicators to get my signals to enter in a trade (volume is not one of them). I keep my daytrading account at about $40,000 and make about .05% each day per stock. So, that is about $200 a day on each stock. comes out to $400 a day total. At the end of the month I pocket my profits and start fresh with $40k.

Some days there are losses. But I will take these losses any day over the losses I encountered in my earlier days of daytrading. Losing weeks will be rare!

Easy signals for quick money on trades! This my secret Bollinger Band method. Are you ready to easily spot the setups everyday?

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If you are serious about daytrading and want to make about $200 a day (based on normal daytrading account value of $40k) you will be better off purchasing my videos. I will teach you my SIMPLE and EASY to understand system and will go over one full week in trading AAPL and RIMM. If you are new to daytrading you will want to start here. If you have been daytrading and have not been making at least $200 a day then you need to change your day trading strategy and watch my videos. And the videos are really high quality made by Camtasia Studio video capture. Stop dumping money daytrading and start taking money out of the market in my eye-opening and fear nullifying method using the only 1-mintue charts.

This is a FULL trading course with complete Money-Management details to the trade.

SIMPLE REQUIREMENTS:

1. You must have a stocks day-trading account with a day-trading platform to easily buy and sell.

2. You must have access to 1-minute streaming-charts and Bollinger Bands .

3. Be able to download the large 380MB course to you computer.

Once you learn the system you will likely make back the cost in about 1-2 days of real trading.

Upon payment, there will be an instant download link to the 380mb course right after your PayPal checkout. look for the SUCCESS page and if you don't get directed to it immediately then email me!



Online Qqq trading strategy

Online trading academy lower parel binary option testimonials2minute rushbucks binary option affil

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Thread nse launches of options trading strategies module test

Thread nse launches of options trading strategies module testThread: NSE Launches of Options Trading Strategies Module Test

NSE Launches of Options Trading Strategies Module Test

NSE Launches of Options Trading Strategies Module Test

Here is a press release from NSE

Options Trading Strategies Module” is being launched under NCFM with a view to impart knowledge on the Options trading strategies so that investors can manage their risks better and use these strategies to enhance their income potential under different market conditions. This module would be useful to traders, investors, students and anyone interested in the Options markets.

The “Options Trading Strategies Module” test would contain 60 questions to be answered in 120 minutes. The passing percentage would be 60%. There would be negative marking (25% of the marks deducted if question answered wrongly).

The fees for the module would be Rs. 1500/- per test.

For on-line registration, payment of fees and enrollment for this module, candidates can log on to nseindia. under ‘NCFM Online’ link. On-line payment can be made by cash/credit card/debit card/net banking.

Alternatively, the prescribed registration form can also be collected from the nearest NSE office or it can be downloaded from our website nseindia. Mode of payment would be demand draft only, payable at respective NSE branch office and drawn in favour of ‘National Stock Exchange of India Limited



Online Thread nse launches of options trading strategies module test

3little pigs trading strategy pdf

3little pigs trading strategy pdf3 little pigs trading strategy pdf

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3 little pigs trading strategy pdf Binary Options Trading Platform corporitax

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3 LITTLE PIGS TRADING SYSTEM

I have been a frequent visitor to SG Talk for a while as I have been looking around for a free trading system that didn't require much screen time. To implement the 3 Little Pigs swing trading strategy I have opened a small account and will trade this in real-time and report all my trades here.

The 3 Little Pigs Trading Strategy is completely rely on 3 time frames which are Weekly, Daily and 4 Hour. The idea is to “swing” trade in the direction of all 3 time frames, a Buy signal, as an example:

• Price closes above the 34 SMA on the 4 Hour time frame

When the above conditions are met a Long position is opened.

These are the basics - Sell is vice versa.

Three Little Pigs Robo Trader

Only $299 . Limited number of copies on sale!

This AUTOMATED FOREX TRADER is based on a multiple time frame, trend following and swing trading strategy that was developed and perfected by Jon McFarlane and the Forex Useful team. The strategy is affectionately called the THREE LITTLE PIGS.

This Expert Advisor, together with the companion signal indicator that serves as a visual aid, were developed in totality by Gilmour Rankoe .

When you purchase a copy of this forex trading robot, you will also receive a complimentary buy/sell custom indicator and an adaptive SMA indicator which together serve as a visual aid. The custom indicator issues a green up arrow for a long order opportunity and a red down arrow for a short order opportunity. The BUY/SELL signals are issued on the trade time frame. The offer also includes a 30 minutes 1-on-1 Skype session and unlimited support and contact via email .

Send proof of payment to gmrankoeyahoo. co. uk and I will email you the Three Little Pigs EA and indicators combo, a user manual in PDF format and also arrange a Skype session within 24 hours. You can also catch me on Skype, my Skype ID is Gilmour M Rankoe ,

Below are sample screens depicting the Three Little Pigs robot, the Three Little Pigs custom indicator and an adaptive multi time frame Moving Average (MA).

The robot always takes high probability trades on the short term trend chart as soon as the short term trend aligns with both the medium term and long term trends. As the forex adage goes, “ trend is your friend ” and as such the robot will ALWAYS trade in the direction of the trend.

The robot re-enters an additional order (scaling into a trade) after each significant retracement (while the prevailing conditions remain applicable), thus ALLOWING WINNING TRADES TO RUN for as long as necessary.

The robot will exit the order, for a small loss, as soon as it detects that the market is beginning to go against the trade, thus CUTTING YOUR LOSSES and ensuring that the order DOES NOT suffer a huge draw-down and eventually end up in a big loss.



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The trading platform

The trading platformPractice Account

Benefits of InfinityAT™ Include:

Speed. In a world where data transmission speeds are measured in milliseconds, both the data feed and trade execution feed are designed and maintain for the highest level of performance.

Stability. At Transact, our FCM, in house software and IT professionals work on a daily basis to provide a stable and updated trading platform.

Proprietary. The trading software, network infrastructure, hardware and algorithms are owned, operated, and maintained by Transact. The InfinityATa„? trading platform is NOT a "third party" platform. Why is this important? Because it gives us a vested interest in its success and we can immediately jump on any curve balls that the Internet may throw.

*Free With 10 Round Turns per 30 days, else $19.95 with less than 10 Round Turns per 30 days.



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Fundamental equity

Fundamental equityFundamental Equity

Fundamental / relative value-driven investment strategies now comprise a substantial portion of Schonfelds diversified portfolio. В For portfolio managers who run relatively liquid long-short equity strategies that focus on U. S. and global markets, Schonfeld has developed the “Fundamental Equity Manager Initiative. ”

Schonfeld has also created a unique structure to provide portfolio managers with autonomy, flexibility and support to best enable them to maximize the value of their businesses.

Managers who employ long-short equity strategies are encouraged to contact Schonfeld to explore this opportunity.

Managers establish independent management companies

and Schonfeld provides managers with access to an external network of service providers.

Managers will be able to maintain their autonomy.

Managers maintain portable track records.

Managers can be afforded the option to accommodate

external capital.

Managers will have an opportunity to co-invest in their strategies.

Managers will be able to satisfy their need for stable, scalable,

risk-tolerant capital.

Managers are afforded significant location flexibility and can

maintain a global presence.

Managers will maximize their earnings potential through a

formulaic compensation model that bears no “netting risk.”

Managers will not be forced to share ideas or participate

in “group think.”



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What are realistic profit targets for asuccessful trader

What are realistic profit targets for asuccessful traderWhat are Realistic Profit Targets for a Successful Trader?

Ive updated this article because I dont need to risk as much as I have in the past. This article represents my current profit targets more accurately.

Each trader has their own level of risk tolerance and desired daily, weekly and monthly profit targets. Most successful traders use daily, weekly, monthly and even yearly cutoffs.

New traders shouldnt concern themselves with profit goals, but instead focus on consistency. That being said, what are some realistic profit goals for a successful Forex trader?

Setting Realistic Profit Targets in Trading

It all starts with setting realistic daily goals. Swing traders might start with weekly goals for obvious reasons. It is important to set your goals in actual profits, as opposed to pips.

It is also important to use the same amount of risk (exposure) on every trade. Varying exposure is a good way to wipe out your account even if youre using a solid trading system .

Daily Goals

Daily goals are largely determined by your level of risk tolerance. For instance, I risk 1% per trade. My daily profit cutoff is 2%, so I only need one or two successful trades with no losses to hit that mark.

If you are only risking .5% per trade, a more realistic daily profit cutoff might be 1% per day. Shooting for 2%, while risking .5%, would take two to four successful trades with no losses to achieve. In other words, its not likely to happen.

Note: Dont just jump into the market. Learn a good trading system. and then demo trade until you prove to yourself that you can be consistent in the long run (months or years not days or weeks).

When you start trading a live account, use the smallest lot size (or number of shares, contracts, etc) available to you at first. Gradually increase your exposure per trade to your desired risk level as you become accustomed to the psychological hurdles of trading real money.

I am comfortable risking 1% per trade. Most successful traders would recommend using .5 1% per trade. Very advanced traders often risk 3% or more per trade. How much money are you willing to lose per trade? Once you have determined your personal level of risk tolerance, you can determine a daily goal or cutoff.

Weekly and Monthly Goals

From there, your weekly and monthly cutoffs can be set. I have a more aggressive risk tolerance, so my profit cutoff targets are as follows: 2% daily, 5% weekly and 15% monthly. I dont use yearly cutoffs.

These targets may seem high to some traders, but they are realistic for me.

Note: This does not mean that I make 2% every day, 5% every week, etc. If I make 2% in a day, thats a good day of trading. Likewise, 5% is a good week of trading.

If you are not consistent yet, you should focus on learning a profitable trading system. and becoming a long-term, consistently profitable trader. If youre just starting out, shooting for 5% per month makes much more sense.

If you think that you can double your account every few months in trading, you are not likely to set realistic profit targets. You will likely overtrade your way to a smaller account balance.

You will risk too much, and you will lose too much. Greed causes traders to be overconfident and overactive in the market, which leads to mistakes. Small consistent and compounded profits will lead to a fortune in the long run.

Remember: Money management cutoffs work both ways. If I am down 2% in one day (or two losses in a row), I stop trading that day. I stop trading if I lose 3% in one week. Lastly, I use 5% as my monthly losses cutoff. Keep in mind that I have a more aggressive risk tolerance.

The Importance of Setting Realistic Profit Targets

In my opinion, money management skills are the most important aspect of achieving long term profitability. I never made any consistent profits in the Forex market until I learned how to manage my risk.

Setting realistic profit targets is an important part of good money management, and setting the maximum amount you are willing to lose per day, week, and month is equally as important.

Another aspect of good money management is risking a small percentage (.5 1% or less) of your total account balance per trade. Depending on your trading style, you should also only take trades with the potential of making twice what you are risking or more. That ratio is known as the risk reward ratio.

Example: Lets say your account balance is $2,000. You place a trade risking 1% of your account or $20. The trade goes your way and hits your profit target, resulting in a closed trade and a $40 win. Since you risked $20 and profited $40, this trade would have achieved a 1:2 risk to reward ratio.

If your average winning trade achieves at least a 1:2 risk/reward ratio, you can be profitable with a 50% win rate. With a 1:1 ratio, you would break even if you won half of all the trades you took. Its easy to see that the risk/reward ratio is an important part of good money management.

In trading, you are almost guaranteed to experience runs of consecutive losses from time to time. Risking a small amount per trade, and setting a maximum acceptable loss percentage can ultimately limit the harmful effects of drawdown periods helping you preserve your capital.

To new traders, these concepts may seem foreign, but they are absolutely essential to long term profitability. By using proper money management, including realistic daily, weekly and monthly profit targets and cutoffs, you are ultimately reducing your risk.



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