Bond investment strategies

Bond investment strategiesBond investment strategies

Investing in individual bonds can often require a more strategic, sophisticated approach than, say, choosing one or two bond funds, but there are unique benefits for those willing to commit the time. With their scheduled interest payments and defined maturity dates, a portfolio of individual bonds can provide investors with steady, reliable income—if you’re able to develop a strategy that works for you.

Diversification is key: Even if you’re only interested in Treasury bonds, for instance, you still should be properly diversified across maturity dates. If you hold too many bonds that mature at the same time, you run the risk that rates will be low when your principal is repaid, and that could affect your income. Or if you hold too many longer-term bonds, you might leave yourself exposed to a rise in interest rates. Understanding some of the strategies outlined below can help keep your fixed-income portfolio on track.

A bond ladder staggers the maturity of your fixed-income investments, while creating a schedule for reinvesting the proceeds as each bond matures. Because your holdings are not “bunched up” in one time period, you reduce the risk of being caught holding a significant cash position when reinvesting is less optimal—for instance, if rates on current bonds are too low to generate sufficient income.

Example . Say you buy three bonds scheduled to mature in two, four, and six years. As each bond matures and repays your principal, you reinvest the proceeds in a 10-year bond. Longer-term bonds like these typically offer higher interest rates. More importantly, because no two bonds mature at the same time, you’ve created a diversified maturity distribution.

Ladders are popular among those investing in bonds with long-term objectives, such as saving for college tuition. They’re also particularly useful for retirees or others trying to create a predictable income stream. Laddering, however, can require a substantial commitment of assets over time, and the return of principal at maturity of any bond is not guaranteed.

Advantages:

The periodic return of principal provides additional investing flexibility.

The proceeds received from principal and interest payments can be invested in additional bonds if interest rates are relatively high or in other securities if they are relatively low.

Your exposure to interest rate volatility is reduced because your bond portfolio is now spread across different coupons and maturities.

Build a bond ladder

When pursuing a barbell strategy, you purchase short - and long-term bonds only. Theoretically, this provides you with the best of both worlds. By owning longer-term bonds you lock in higher interest rates, while owning shorter-term securities gives you greater flexibility to invest in other assets should rates fall too low to provide sufficient income. If rates should rise, the short-term bonds can be held to maturity and then reinvested at the higher prevailing interest rates.

Example . In order to take advantage of high long-term interest rates, you buy two long-term bonds. At the same time, you also buy two short-term bonds. Once the short-term bonds mature and you receive the principal, you can decide how to invest it—in more bonds if rates are high enough to generate a sufficient amount of income, or in a more liquid shorter-term investment if you think rates may soon rise. At the same time you continue to receive interest payments from the two higher-yielding long-term bonds.

Advantages:

Strategy allows you to take advantage of rates when they’re high, without limiting your financial flexibility.

Because a portion of your assets are invested in securities that mature every few years, you have the necessary liquidity to make large purchases or respond to emergencies.

Allocating only part of your fixed-income portfolio in longer-term bonds can help reduce the risk associated with rising rates, which tend to have a greater impact on the value of longer maturities.

When pursuing a bullet strategy you purchase several bonds that mature at the same time, minimizing your interest rate risk by staggering your purchase date. This is an effective approach when you know that you will need the proceeds from the bonds at a specific time, like when a college tuition bill comes due.

Example: You want all the bonds in your portfolio to mature in 10 years so that you have the proceeds available all at once. However, you also want to reduce your exposure to fluctuating interest rates, particularly when it comes to bonds with longer maturities, which are more likely to lose value when rates rise. The way to do this is to stagger your bond purchases over a four-year period.

Advantages:

All bond maturities coincide with the date of a future financial need. Return of principal is, of course, subject to issuer credit risk.

By buying bonds at different times and during different interest rate environments, you are hedging interest rate risk.

Monitoring your Bond Strategy

Here’s the most important piece of any strategy: You have to stick with the strategy for it to even have a chance of working. Get lax about it and the benefits can quickly disappear or worse, run counter to your goals. So once you’ve invested bonds or CDs using one or more of the strategies discussed here, you’ll need to be organized in tracking it, so as the bonds mature you purchase new bonds in accordance with your plan.

Similarly, if you’re embarking on a new strategy, you may have some current investments that need to mature before you can incorporate those funds into your new strategy, which can also require additional tracking.

A tool such as Fidelity’s Fixed Income Analysis Tool can help you clearly identify and analyze your bonds’ and bond funds' cash flows and diversification across different sectors and credit quality. The tool automatically reflects your existing bond, bond fund, and CD holdings at Fidelity; you can also enter hypothetical positions representing your investments outside of Fidelity to better reflect your entire portfolio, if you choose.

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2 Comparison table data based on pricing as of 4/15/2015 and excludes special promotional offerings.

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You are eligible to enroll in the Preferred Rewards program if you have an active, eligible Bank of America personal checking account and maintain a three month average combined balance in your qualifying Bank of America deposit accounts and/or your qualifying Merrill Edge and Merrill Lynch investment accounts of at least $20,000 for the Gold tier, $50,000 for the Platinum tier, or $100,000 for the Platinum Honors tier. SafeBalance Banking accounts do not count towards the account or balance requirements, and do not receive the fee waivers and other benefits of the program. Certain benefits are also available without enrolling in Preferred Rewards if you satisfy balance and other requirements. For details on Employee qualification requirements, please visit the Employee Banking Investments website. The Preferred Rewards Gold tier does not include the $0 online equity and ETF trades via Merrill Edge ®. a benefit that is currently available at the Platinum and Platinum Honors tiers of Preferred Rewards. Platinum Privileges clients who enroll in Preferred Rewards and qualify for the Gold tier could potentially lose this benefit. Merrill Lynch Wealth Management clients with greater than $250,000 in assets with Bank of America and Merrill Lynch are eligible for additional banking benefits. Please speak with your Merrill Lynch financial advisor for details.

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Banc de binary options brokerage stock market volatility and the-biombos de oficinagaleria biomb

Banc de binary options brokerage stock market volatility and the-biombos de oficinagaleria biombBanc de binary options brokerage stock market volatility and the - Biombos de oficina. galeria biombos fluow | Muebles y sillas de

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Marketing strategy aplaybook for business success

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Forex trading guide download

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By Cory Mitchell, CMT

This eBook is written by me, Cory Mitchell, a Chartered Market Technician, member of the Market Technicians Association, Canadian Society of Technical Analysts and the International Federation of Technical Analysts. I've been a trader for more than a decade, pulling millions of dollars in profit out of the markets.

I worked for seven years as a proprietary trader for a trading firm(s), doing one of the toughest jobs on the planet (also the most fun)--extracting profit every single month; if I didn't make a profit, I didn't get paid (no salary, everything was dependent on performance). These are forex strategies forged by relentless dedication to trading, and tens of thousands of trading hours and trades. In 2011 I moved my focus to trading independently, and helping others by sharing what I 've learned. I freelance for, and have been vetted by, some of the largest financial sites in the world including, About (a top 100 site) and Investopedia, among many others.

My mission in writing this forex strategies guide is to provide you with enough strategies and trading information that it’s the only forex strategies eBook you’ll need to get started and get profitable. Here's how this is accomplished:

You've likely looked up strategies or read strategy books before. and it didn't help your trading! Am I right? That's because you're missing one of the keys, and books and websites rarely, if ever, discuss it. It's a step-by-step approach for how to actually implement the strategies and train your mind to utilize them effectively. Utilize and stick with this 5-step method and success is an inevitability, not just a possibility. Without this missing key you could read strategy book after strategy book and still never be profitable.

By reading the book you'll understand a strategy is only part of the puzzle; you also need to know when to implement a strategy and when it needs to be adjusted or avoided. Several chapters focus on reading price action so you see market changes as they occur, and can filter out trades which have a low probability of success.

Forex basics to get you understanding the market, including what pairs to trade and what time of day to trade (whether swing trading or day trading).

I give you the main strategies I've used and learnt over the last decade of trading, including why they work and why I like them.

This is the whole package: how to get started, what to focus on, how to build your trading plan, how to practice and "see" the market, and ultimately how to make the transition to real, live, profitable trading. All it takes is desire, discipline and the willingness to put in some time and effort.

Whether you're starting with a large account or small, I show you how to build it quickly once you commence live trading, while always managing risk. If you have $500, or more ($1,000+ is recommended), to deposit into a trading account then you can utilize the tactics in this book and begin building an income.

Forex Strategies Guide, Summary Details:

Over 300 pages

A five step plan that makes sure you implement the strategies of your choice profitably and consistently.

Forex basics to get you started: how the forex market works, how much capital you need, how much leverage to use, how to read and interpret forex charts.

A precise Trading Plan, which tells you how to compile all the information in the book into a plan of attack that works.

20+ forex trading strategies.

How to capitalize on the carry trade, in both directions, generating a third stream of income: leveraged interest payments in your pocket everyday at 5PM ET.

Learn to read price action like a pro.

How to control your daily risk so a single day never significantly hurts your account balance.

How to manage multiple positions, and determine whether multiple positions are helping or hindering your success.

Which chart patterns to trade (and which to avoid), and new low-risk ways to do it.

How to anticipate chart pattern breakout direction to reap huge returns for a small risk.

How to capitalize on false breakouts and reap massive returns.

The safest way to trade a breakout: loads of confirmation, super small risk and still get all the upside.

How to determine trend changes in real time so you can spot reversals and trade trends.

Combine trends with powerful candlesticks to create great trading opportunities.

How to trade news releases safely and profitably.

Stats that you need to know about the currencies you trade. These stats provide strategies as well keep you out of low probability trades.

See how the market really works, and why most trading systems fail.

European open strategy which captures most of the daily GBP/USD or EUR/USD price range.

How to filter signals so you only take the most high probability trades.

Helps you determine what type of trader you should be: day trader, swing trader or both.

The forex trading strategies cover scalping, day trading and swing trading.

Learn which pairs are ideal for trading based on current market conditions.

Learn the psychology of successful forex trading.

How to create your own forex trading strategies.

How to create a checklist that will keep you on track and focused while you trade.

Covers when to trade and when not to trade–likely one of the most important dynamics in successful forex trading is knowing when to step aside.

Many of the strategies can be utilized in other markets, such as the equities or futures market.

How much do you value your time? Yes, there's lots of free information available on the internet, but how much time are you spending trying to compile that information into a usable trading methodology? How much time is spent filtering through, well. crap? Save yourself the stress, time and confusion. Invest in yourself; get the book and read it cover to cover. For $49.95 I've tried to consider every possible question you may have (and those you didn't think of, but need to know), and answered it somewhere in the book, saving you countless hours in research time. all the while providing you with strategies and trading methods which I stand behind.

This eBook is 100% Guaranteed:

If you follow the steps and guidelines in this book and you don't think you're a better trader because of it, I will refund you 100% of the purchase price. * I don't guarantee trading profits--that's up to you--yet I do believe the information contained in this book will greatly improve your chances of becoming a profitable trader.

* Purchase price is refunded, but PayPal fees may apply on your end of the transaction. Refund must be requested within 30 days of purchase and an email sent to cory [at] vantagepointtrading explaining why you are unsatisfied, and if you followed the guidelines as outlined (this helps us to see what needs to be explained more precisely, and where traders are typically struggling).

Emas online trading

Emas online tradingEmas Online Trading

Trading Emas Online Indonesia. Emas dan Perak Berpotensi Kembali By foreximf

Resolution: 1210 x 723 · 70 kB · png

Size: 1210 x 723 · 70 kB · png

Emas Online Trading:

Justin Bieber, the official digital host for the EMAs, expressed his delight at his two EMA awards live simultaneously online and in the main show while giving advanced notice before every trade. Australian Minister for Trade Craig Emerson, who is currently in Beijing The selling by James Packers Consolidated Media Holdings of its 26 per cent holding in online recruiting group Seek two and a half years ago surprised the market and now sources Some stocks get constant coverage everywhere from CNBC to The company has a staff of 9,000 between all of its campuses as well as its online courses. The various valuations for BPI all suggest that this is a long-term bullish stock worth taking a CyberRegs is an online service offering govt regulatory compliance information Enhancing the environmental potential of industry the EMAS regulation EUs voluntary Eco-Management and Audit Scheme (EMAS) helps companies to optimize their production “EMAs should therefore The Australian Council of Trade Unions (ACTU) remains concerned that a change to skilled migration may disadvantage local workers. President Ged Kearney said “any plan to ease labour shortages must be matched by investment Following the same logic as EMAS or ISO14001, it encourages the implementation of Networking is also facilitated by an online database with contact details of the key-players acteurs relais and linking them to the different phases of implementing .

With our beloved Emas/Eben and our selfless volunteers, we would give our best efforts to make significant changes with small steps with the help of the beautiful flowers of Manipur and develop this wonderful trading place into the 300 year old charming Between its eco-friendly products, industry leadership in Green practices, and public commitments, Heidelberg was the star student who ruined the curve for everyone else, except, perhaps, in one area: trade shows as ISO 14001, EMAS); an environmental The pace of change in legislation and regulation, the further globalisation of trade, the enhanced sensitivity 32 per cent put environmental monitoring data online but only 14 per cent advertised the achievement of ISO/ EMAS/or other certification Member States are invited to: fully implement the ‘European Code of Best Practices facilitating SMEs’ access to public procurement’; promote the online publication of the Eco-Management and Audit Scheme (EMAS) and with ISO 14.000 and take .

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MARKETS Emirates International opens online trading service

Emirates International Brokerage, a top-three UAE brokerage, said yesterday it will begin offering an online service from today that will allow its clients to buy and sell shares over the internet.

By Arif Sharif, Staff Reporter

November 29, 2005

Dubai: Emirates International Brokerage, a top-three UAE brokerage, said yesterday it will begin offering an online service from today that will allow its clients to buy and sell shares over the internet.

Hamood Abdullah Al Yasi, general manager at Emirates International, said the service will be free, and was aimed at both retail and institutional investors and will help reduce workload at the brokerage.

The conventional process of trading is often time-consuming as it involves placing orders over the phone, following up on the status and the retrieving of reports, he said.

Abdullah said he especially expected institutional investors from outside the UAE to use the service.

Emirates International Brokerage, a unit of Emirates Bank, UAE's third biggest bank by assets, said it was the second brokerage in Dubai and the first in Abu Dhabi to introduce an online trading service.

Dubai has 48 brokerages and Abu Dhabi, 33. The two markets together list nearly 80 stocks.

The brokerage said it had invested $2 million in the introduction of the service. The service will open to its existing clients today and to others in January.

The service will help reduce administrative costs at the stock exchange, said Hassan Al Serkal, compliance manager at the Dubai Financial Market.

Most Popular in Markets

E-Brokerage

Citibank Brokerage is an online trading service that provides you with instant access to capital markets in the US, UK, Japan, Canada, France, Germany and Switzerland.

Under the Mutual Funds platform you can choose from over 59 funds spread across 12 asset classes to diversify your portfolio. Mutual funds can be traded online 24x7 at Citibank online (under Investments > Mutual funds) at competitive prices.

With your Security Brokerage and Mutual Funds Accounts, you can enjoy online wealth management services at convenient and flexible market local times and choose securities and funds that best suit your investment objectives.

And since a successful investment strategy requires an understanding of current market movements, we are offering a 6-month Premium Subscription to the Financial Times online portal - FT, compliments of Citibank.

Professional Trader Course - Forex Online Trading Academy

Take control of your finances. Learn the professional techniques of Wall Street professionals!

Course overview

Forex trading, also known as FX or currency trading, gives you access to the largest market in the world with over $4 trillion in daily transactions. Trade on your own schedule with markets open 24 hours a day, 5+ days a week. 50:1 leverage, which should be prudently applied, gives traders the opportunity to achieve dramatic results with far less capital.

Objectives of course/Modules covered

Basics of Foreign Exchange markets

The Core Strategy: Demand and Supply

Mastering the mental game

Target audience

Proactive investors

Testimonial of previous students

The course material was fantastic. Now I know why 98% of people fail, it is because they do not truly understand how trading works. The material helped clarify why I was losing at my trading. Now I have clarity and can't wait to put my new found knowledge to work to start making money in the markets instead of contributing to someone else's bank account." - Todd M. April 2013

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We offer professional instruction in all of our state-of-the-art teaching facilities around the world, as well as a wide array of home study materials.

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As an Online Trading Academy student, youll become part of a community of active traders committed to succeed through continuously improving their professional skills. In fact, many of our classes offer free “retakes” for as long as youre associated with us, while others offer lifetime learning at a reasonable cost.

See all Online Trading Academy courses

How to identify algorithmic trading strategies

How to identify algorithmic trading strategiesHow to Identify Algorithmic Trading Strategies

By Michael Halls-Moore on April 19th, 2013

In this article I want to introduce you to the methods by which I myself identify profitable algorithmic trading strategies. Our goal today is to understand in detail how to find, evaluate and select such systems. I'll explain how identifying strategies is as much about personal preference as it is about strategy performance, how to determine the type and quantity of historical data for testing, how to dispassionately evaluate a trading strategy and finally how to proceed towards the backtesting phase and strategy implementation.

Identifying Your Own Personal Preferences for Trading

In order to be a successful trader - either discretionally or algorithmically - it is necessary to ask yourself some honest questions. Trading provides you with the ability to lose money at an alarming rate, so it is necessary to "know thyself" as much as it is necessary to understand your chosen strategy.

I would say the most important consideration in trading is being aware of your own personality . Trading, and algorithmic trading in particular, requires a significant degree of discipline, patience and emotional detachment. Since you are letting an algorithm perform your trading for you, it is necessary to be resolved not to interfere with the strategy when it is being executed. This can be extremely difficult, especially in periods of extended drawdown. However, many strategies that have been shown to be highly profitable in a backtest can be ruined by simple interference. Understand that if you wish to enter the world of algorithmic trading you will be emotionally tested and that in order to be successful, it is necessary to work through these difficulties!

The next consideration is one of time . Do you have a full time job? Do you work part time? Do you work from home or have a long commute each day? These questions will help determine the frequency of the strategy that you should seek. For those of you in full time employment, an intraday futures strategy may not be appropriate (at least until it is fully automated!). Your time constraints will also dictate the methodology of the strategy. If your strategy is frequently traded and reliant on expensive news feeds (such as a Bloomberg terminal) you will clearly have to be realistic about your ability to successfully run this while at the office! For those of you with a lot of time, or the skills to automate your strategy, you may wish to look into a more technical high-frequency trading (HFT) strategy.

My belief is that it is necessary to carry out continual research into your trading strategies to maintain a consistently profitable portfolio. Few strategies stay "under the radar" forever. Hence a significant portion of the time allocated to trading will be in carrying out ongoing research. Ask yourself whether you are prepared to do this, as it can be the difference between strong profitability or a slow decline towards losses.

You also need to consider your trading capital . The generally accepted ideal minimum amount for a quantitative strategy is 50,000 USD (approximately ?35,000 for us in the UK). If I was starting again, I would begin with a larger amount, probably nearer 100,000 USD (approximately ?70,000). This is because transaction costs can be extremely expensive for mid - to high-frequency strategies and it is necessary to have sufficient capital to absorb them in times of drawdown. If you are considering beginning with less than 10,000 USD then you will need to restrict yourself to low-frequency strategies, trading in one or two assets, as transaction costs will rapidly eat into your returns. Interactive Brokers, which is one of the friendliest brokers to those with programming skills, due to its API, has a retail account minimum of 10,000 USD.

Programming skill is an important factor in creating an automated algorithmic trading strategy. Being knowledgeable in a programming language such as C++, Java, C#, Python or R will enable you to create the end-to-end data storage, backtest engine and execution system yourself. This has a number of advantages, chief of which is the ability to be completely aware of all aspects of the trading infrastructure. It also allows you to explore the higher frequency strategies as you will be in full control of your "technology stack". While this means that you can test your own software and eliminate bugs, it also means more time spent coding up infrastructure and less on implementing strategies, at least in the earlier part of your algo trading career. You may find that you are comfortable trading in Excel or MATLAB and can outsource the development of other components. I would not recommend this however, particularly for those trading at high frequency.

You need to ask yourself what you hope to achieve by algorithmic trading. Are you interested in a regular income, whereby you hope to draw earnings from your trading account? Or, are you interested in a long-term capital gain and can afford to trade without the need to drawdown funds? Income dependence will dictate the frequency of your strategy. More regular income withdrawals will require a higher frequency trading strategy with less volatility (i. e. a higher Sharpe ratio). Long-term traders can afford a more sedate trading frequency.

Finally, do not be deluded by the notion of becoming extremely wealthy in a short space of time! Algo trading is NOT a get-rich-quick scheme - if anything it can be a become-poor-quick scheme. It takes significant discipline, research, diligence and patience to be successful at algorithmic trading. It can take months, if not years, to generate consistent profitability.

Sourcing Algorithmic Trading Ideas

Despite common perceptions to the contrary, it is actually quite straightforward to locate profitable trading strategies in the public domain. Never have trading ideas been more readily available than they are today. Academic finance journals, pre-print servers, trading blogs, trading forums, weekly trading magazines and specialist texts provide thousands of trading strategies with which to base your ideas upon.

Our goal as quantitative trading researchers is to establish a strategy pipeline that will provide us with a stream of ongoing trading ideas. Ideally we want to create a methodical approach to sourcing, evaluating and implementing strategies that we come across. The aims of the pipeline are to generate a consistent quantity of new ideas and to provide us with a framework for rejecting the majority of these ideas with the minimum of emotional consideration.

We must be extremely careful not to let cognitive biases influence our decision making methodology. This could be as simple as having a preference for one asset class over another (gold and other precious metals come to mind) because they are perceived as more exotic. Our goal should always be to find consistently profitable strategies, with positive expectation. The choice of asset class should be based on other considerations, such as trading capital constraints, brokerage fees and leverage capabilities.

If you are completely unfamiliar with the concept of a trading strategy then the first place to look is with established textbooks. Classic texts provide a wide range of simpler, more straightforward ideas, with which to familiarise yourself with quantitative trading. Here is a selection that I recommend for those who are new to quantitative trading, which gradually become more sophisticated as you work through the list:

Quantitative Trading: How to Build Your Own Algorithmic Trading Business (Wiley Trading) - Ernest Chan

Algorithmic Trading and DMA: An introduction to direct access trading strategies - Barry Johnson

Option Volatility Pricing: Advanced Trading Strategies and Techniques - Sheldon Natenberg

Volatility Trading - Euan Sinclair

Trading and Exchanges: Market Microstructure for Practitioners - Larry Harris

For a longer list of quantitative trading books, please visit the QuantStart reading list .

The next place to find more sophisticated strategies is with trading forums and trading blogs. However, a note of caution: Many trading blogs rely on the concept of technical analysis . Technical analysis involves utilising basic indicators and behavioural psychology to determine trends or reversal patterns in asset prices.

Despite being extremely popular in the overall trading space, technical analysis is considered somewhat ineffective in the quantitative finance community. Some have suggested that it is no better than reading a horoscope or studying tea leaves in terms of its predictive power! In reality there are successful individuals making use of technical analysis. However, as quants with a more sophisticated mathematical and statistical toolbox at our disposal, we can easily evaluate the effectiveness of such "TA-based" strategies and make data-based decisions rather than base ours on emotional considerations or preconceptions.

Here is a list of well-respected algorithmic trading blogs and forums:

Once you have had some experience at evaluating simpler strategies, it is time to look at the more sophisticated academic offerings. Some academic journals will be difficult to access, without high subscriptions or one-off costs. If you are a member or alumnus of a university, you should be able to obtain access to some of these financial journals. Otherwise, you can look at pre-print servers . which are internet repositories of late drafts of academic papers that are undergoing peer review. Since we are only interested in strategies that we can successfully replicate, backtest and obtain profitability for, a peer review is of less importance to us.

The major downside of academic strategies is that they can often either be out of date, require obscure and expensive historical data, trade in illiquid asset classes or do not factor in fees, slippage or spread. It can also be unclear whether the trading strategy is to be carried out with market orders, limit orders or whether it contains stop losses etc. Thus it is absolutely essential to replicate the strategy yourself as best you can, backtest it and add in realistic transaction costs that include as many aspects of the asset classes that you wish to trade in.

Here is a list of the more popular pre-print servers and financial journals that you can source ideas from:

What about forming your own quantitative strategies? This generally requires (but is not limited to) expertise in one or more of the following categories:

Market microstructure - For higher frequency strategies in particular, one can make use of market microstructure . i. e. understanding of the order book dynamics in order to generate profitability. Different markets will have various technology limitations, regulations, market participants and constraints that are all open to exploitation via specific strategies. This is a very sophisticated area and retail practitioners will find it hard to be competitive in this space, particularly as the competition includes large, well-capitalised quantitative hedge funds with strong technological capabilities.

Fund structure - Pooled investment funds, such as pension funds, private investment partnerships (hedge funds), commodity trading advisors and mutual funds are constrained both by heavy regulation and their large capital reserves. Thus certain consistent behaviours can be exploited with those who are more nimble. For instance, large funds are subject to capacity constraints due to their size. Thus if they need to rapidly offload (sell) a quantity of securities, they will have to stagger it in order to avoid "moving the market". Sophisticated algorithms can take advantage of this, and other idiosyncrasies, in a general process known as fund structure arbitrage .

Machine learning/artificial intelligence - Machine learning algorithms have become more prevalent in recent years in financial markets. Classifiers (such as Naive-Bayes, et al.) non-linear function matchers (neural networks) and optimisation routines (genetic algorithms) have all been used to predict asset paths or optimise trading strategies. If you have a background in this area you may have some insight into how particular algorithms might be applied to certain markets.

There are, of course, many other areas for quants to investigate. We'll discuss how to come up with custom strategies in detail in a later article.

By continuing to monitor these sources on a weekly, or even daily, basis you are setting yourself up to receive a consistent list of strategies from a diverse range of sources. The next step is to determine how to reject a large subset of these strategies in order to minimise wasting your time and backtesting resources on strategies that are likely to be unprofitable.

Evaluating Trading Strategies

The first, and arguably most obvious consideration is whether you actually understand the strategy . Would you be able to explain the strategy concisely or does it require a string of caveats and endless parameter lists? In addition, does the strategy have a good, solid basis in reality? For instance, could you point to some behavioural rationale or fund structure constraint that might be causing the pattern(s) you are attempting to exploit? Would this constraint hold up to a regime change, such as a dramatic regulatory environment disruption? Does the strategy rely on complex statistical or mathematical rules? Does it apply to any financial time series or is it specific to the asset class that it is claimed to be profitable on? You should constantly be thinking about these factors when evaluating new trading methods, otherwise you may waste a significant amount of time attempting to backtest and optimise unprofitable strategies.

Once you have determined that you understand the basic principles of the strategy you need to decide whether it fits with your aforementioned personality profile. This is not as vague a consideration as it sounds! Strategies will differ substantially in their performance characteristics. There are certain personality types that can handle more significant periods of drawdown, or are willing to accept greater risk for larger return. Despite the fact that we, as quants, try and eliminate as much cognitive bias as possible and should be able to evaluate a strategy dispassionately, biases will always creep in. Thus we need a consistent, unemotional means through which to assess the performance of strategies. Here is the list of criteria that I judge a potential new strategy by:

Methodology - Is the strategy momentum based, mean-reverting, market-neutral, directional? Does the strategy rely on sophisticated (or complex!) statistical or machine learning techniques that are hard to understand and require a PhD in statistics to grasp? Do these techniques introduce a significant quantity of parameters, which might lead to optimisation bias? Is the strategy likely to withstand a regime change (i. e. potential new regulation of financial markets)?

Sharpe Ratio - The Sharpe ratio heuristically characterises the reward/risk ratio of the strategy. It quantifies how much return you can achieve for the level of volatility endured by the equity curve. Naturally, we need to determine the period and frequency that these returns and volatility (i. e. standard deviation) are measured over. A higher frequency strategy will require greater sampling rate of standard deviation, but a shorter overall time period of measurement, for instance.

Leverage - Does the strategy require significant leverage in order to be profitable? Does the strategy necessitate the use of leveraged derivatives contracts (futures, options, swaps) in order to make a return? These leveraged contracts can have heavy volatility characterises and thus can easily lead to margin calls . Do you have the trading capital and the temperament for such volatility?

Frequency - The frequency of the strategy is intimately linked to your technology stack (and thus technological expertise), the Sharpe ratio and overall level of transaction costs. All other issues considered, higher frequency strategies require more capital, are more sophisticated and harder to implement. However, assuming your backtesting engine is sophisticated and bug-free, they will often have far higher Sharpe ratios.

Volatility - Volatility is related strongly to the "risk" of the strategy. The Sharpe ratio characterises this. Higher volatility of the underlying asset classes, if unhedged, often leads to higher volatility in the equity curve and thus smaller Sharpe ratios. I am of course assuming that the positive volatility is approximately equal to the negative volatility. Some strategies may have greater downside volatility. You need to be aware of these attributes.

Win/Loss, Average Profit/Loss - Strategies will differ in their win/loss and average profit/loss characteristics. One can have a very profitable strategy, even if the number of losing trades exceed the number of winning trades. Momentum strategies tend to have this pattern as they rely on a small number of "big hits" in order to be profitable. Mean-reversion strategies tend to have opposing profiles where more of the trades are "winners", but the losing trades can be quite severe.

Maximum Drawdown - The maximum drawdown is the largest overall peak-to-trough percentage drop on the equity curve of the strategy. Momentum strategies are well known to suffer from periods of extended drawdowns (due to a string of many incremental losing trades). Many traders will give up in periods of extended drawdown, even if historical testing has suggested this is "business as usual" for the strategy. You will need to determine what percentage of drawdown (and over what time period) you can accept before you cease trading your strategy. This is a highly personal decision and thus must be considered carefully.

Capacity/Liquidity - At the retail level, unless you are trading in a highly illiquid instrument (like a small-cap stock), you will not have to concern yourself greatly with strategy capacity . Capacity determines the scalability of the strategy to further capital. Many of the larger hedge funds suffer from significant capacity problems as their strategies increase in capital allocation.

Parameters - Certain strategies (especially those found in the machine learning community) require a large quantity of parameters. Every extra parameter that a strategy requires leaves it more vulnerable to optimisation bias (also known as "curve-fitting"). You should try and target strategies with as few parameters as possible or make sure you have sufficient quantities of data with which to test your strategies on.

Benchmark - Nearly all strategies (unless characterised as "absolute return") are measured against some performance benchmark. The benchmark is usually an index that characterises a large sample of the underlying asset class that the strategy trades in. If the strategy trades large-cap US equities, then the S&P500 would be a natural benchmark to measure your strategy against. You will hear the terms "alpha" and "beta", applied to strategies of this type. We will discuss these coefficients in depth in later articles.

Notice that we have not discussed the actual returns of the strategy. Why is this? In isolation, the returns actually provide us with limited information as to the effectiveness of the strategy. They don't give you an insight into leverage, volatility, benchmarks or capital requirements. Thus strategies are rarely judged on their returns alone. Always consider the risk attributes of a strategy before looking at the returns.

At this stage many of the strategies found from your pipeline will be rejected out of hand, since they won't meet your capital requirements, leverage constraints, maximum drawdown tolerance or volatility preferences. The strategies that do remain can now be considered for backtesting . However, before this is possible, it is necessary to consider one final rejection criteria - that of available historical data on which to test these strategies.

Obtaining Historical Data

Nowadays, the breadth of the technical requirements across asset classes for historical data storage is substantial. In order to remain competitive, both the buy-side (funds) and sell-side (investment banks) invest heavily in their technical infrastructure. It is imperative to consider its importance. In particular, we are interested in timeliness, accuracy and storage requirements. I will now outline the basics of obtaining historical data and how to store it. Unfortunately this is a very deep and technical topic, so I won't be able to say everything in this article. However, I will be writing a lot more about this in the future as my prior industry experience in the financial industry was chiefly concerned with financial data acquisition, storage and access.

In the previous section we had set up a strategy pipeline that allowed us to reject certain strategies based on our own personal rejection criteria. In this section we will filter more strategies based on our own preferences for obtaining historical data. The chief considerations (especially at retail practitioner level) are the costs of the data, the storage requirements and your level of technical expertise. We also need to discuss the different types of available data and the different considerations that each type of data will impose on us.

Let's begin by discussing the types of data available and the key issues we will need to think about:

Fundamental Data - This includes data about macroeconomic trends, such as interest rates, inflation figures, corporate actions (dividends, stock-splits), SEC filings, corporate accounts, earnings figures, crop reports, meteorological data etc. This data is often used to value companies or other assets on a fundamental basis, i. e. via some means of expected future cash flows. It does not include stock price series. Some fundamental data is freely available from government websites. Other long-term historical fundamental data can be extremely expensive. Storage requirements are often not particularly large, unless thousands of companies are being studied at once.

News Data - News data is often qualitative in nature. It consists of articles, blog posts, microblog posts ("tweets") and editorial. Machine learning techniques such as classifiers are often used to interpret sentiment . This data is also often freely available or cheap, via subscription to media outlets. The newer "NoSQL" document storage databases are designed to store this type of unstructured, qualitative data.

Asset Price Data - This is the traditional data domain of the quant. It consists of time series of asset prices. Equities (stocks), fixed income products (bonds), commodities and foreign exchange prices all sit within this class. Daily historical data is often straightforward to obtain for the simpler asset classes, such as equities. However, once accuracy and cleanliness are included and statistical biases removed, the data can become expensive. In addition, time series data often possesses significant storage requirements especially when intraday data is considered.

Financial Instruments - Equities, bonds, futures and the more exotic derivative options have very different characteristics and parameters. Thus there is no "one size fits all" database structure that can accommodate them. Significant care must be given to the design and implementation of database structures for various financial instruments. We will discuss the situation at length when we come to build a securities master database in future articles.

Frequency - The higher the frequency of the data, the greater the costs and storage requirements. For low-frequency strategies, daily data is often sufficient. For high frequency strategies, it might be necessary to obtain tick-level data and even historical copies of particular trading exchange order book data. Implementing a storage engine for this type of data is very technologically intensive and only suitable for those with a strong programming/technical background.

Benchmarks - The strategies described above will often be compared to a benchmark . This usually manifests itself as an additional financial time series. For equities, this is often a national stock benchmark, such as the S&P500 index (US) or FTSE100 (UK). For a fixed income fund, it is useful to compare against a basket of bonds or fixed income products. The "risk-free rate" (i. e. appropriate interest rate) is also another widely accepted benchmark. All asset class categories possess a favoured benchmark, so it will be necessary to research this based on your particular strategy, if you wish to gain interest in your strategy externally.

Technology - The technology stacks behind a financial data storage centre are complex. This article can only scratch the surface about what is involved in building one. However, it does centre around a database engine, such as a Relational Database Management System (RDBMS), such as MySQL, SQL Server, Oracle or a Document Storage Engine (i. e. "NoSQL"). This is accessed via "business logic" application code that queries the database and provides access to external tools, such as MATLAB, R or Excel. Often this business logic is written in C++, C#, Java or Python. You will also need to host this data somewhere, either on your own personal computer, or remotely via internet servers. Products such as Amazon Web Services have made this simpler and cheaper in recent years, but it will still require significant technical expertise to achieve in a robust manner.

As can be seen, once a strategy has been identified via the pipeline it will be necessary to evaluate the availability, costs, complexity and implementation details of a particular set of historical data. You may find it is necessary to reject a strategy based solely on historical data considerations. This is a big area and teams of PhDs work at large funds making sure pricing is accurate and timely. Do not underestimate the difficulties of creating a robust data centre for your backtesting purposes!

I do want to say, however, that many backtesting platforms can provide this data for you automatically - at a cost. Thus it will take much of the implementation pain away from you, and you can concentrate purely on strategy implementation and optimisation. Tools like TradeStation possess this capability. However, my personal view is to implement as much as possible internally and avoid outsourcing parts of the stack to software vendors. I prefer higher frequency strategies due to their more attractive Sharpe ratios, but they are often tightly coupled to the technology stack, where advanced optimisation is critical.

Now that we have discussed the issues surrounding historical data it is time to begin implementing our strategies in a backtesting engine. This will be the subject of other articles, as it is an equally large area of discussion!

Michael Halls-Moore

Mike is the founder of QuantStart and has been involved in the quantitative finance industry for the last five years, primarily as a quant developer and later as a quant trader consulting for hedge funds.

How To Identify Algorithmic Trading Strategies

June 3, 2013 5:00 am 0 comments Views: 2885

In this article I want to introduce you to the methods by which I myself identify profitable algorithmic trading strategies. Our goal today is to understand in detail how to find, evaluate and select such systems. Ill explain how identifying strategies is as much about personal preference as it is about strategy performance, how to determine the type and quantity of historical data for testing, how to dispassionately evaluate a trading strategy and finally how to proceed towards the backtesting phase and strategy implementation.

Identifying Your Own Personal Preferences for Trading

In order to be a successful trader either discretionally or algorithmically it is necessary to ask yourself some honest questions. Trading provides you with the ability to lose money at an alarming rate, so it is necessary to know thyself as much as it is necessary to understand your chosen strategy.

I would say the most important consideration in trading is being aware of your own personality . Trading, and algorithmic trading in particular, requires a significant degree of discipline, patience and emotional detachment. Since you are letting an algorithm perform your trading for you, it is necessary to be resolved not to interfere with the strategy when it is being executed. This can be extremely difficult, especially in periods of extended drawdown. However, many strategies that have been shown to be highly profitable in a backtest can be ruined by simple interference. Understand that if you wish to enter the world of algorithmic trading you will be emotionally tested and that in order to be successful, it is necessary to work through these difficulties!

The next consideration is one of time . Do you have a full time job? Do you work part time? Do you work from home or have a long commute each day? These questions will help determine the frequency of the strategy that you should seek. For those of you in full time employment, an intraday futures strategy may not be appropriate (at least until it is fully automated!). Your time constraints will also dictate the methodology of the strategy. If your strategy is frequently traded and reliant on expensive news feeds (such as a Bloomberg terminal) you will clearly have to be realistic about your ability to successfully run this while at the office! For those of you with a lot of time, or the skills to automate your strategy, you may wish to look into a more technical high-frequency trading (HFT) strategy.

My belief is that it is necessary to carry out continual research into your trading strategies to maintain a consistently profitable portfolio. Few strategies stay under the radar forever. Hence a significant portion of the time allocated to trading will be in carrying out ongoing research. Ask yourself whether you are prepared to do this, as it can be the difference between strong profitability or a slow decline towards losses.

You also need to consider your trading capital . The generally accepted ideal minimum amount for a quantitative strategy is 50,000 USD (approximately ?35,000 for us in the UK). If I was starting again, I would begin with a larger amount, probably nearer 100,000 USD (approximately ?70,000). This is because transaction costs can be extremely expensive for mid - to high-frequency strategies and it is necessary to have sufficient capital to absorb them in times of drawdown. If you are considering beginning with less than 10,000 USD then you will need to restrict yourself to low-frequency strategies, trading in one or two assets, as transaction costs will rapidly eat into your returns. Interactive Brokers, which is one of the friendliest brokers to those with programming skills, due to its API, has a retail account minimum of 10,000 USD.

Programming skill is an important factor in creating an automated algorithmic trading strategy. Being knowledgeable in a programming language such as C++, Java, C#, Python or R will enable you to create the end-to-end data storage, backtest engine and execution system yourself. This has a number of advantages, chief of which is the ability to be completely aware of all aspects of the trading infrastructure. It also allows you to explore the higher frequency strategies as you will be in full control of your technology stack. While this means that you can test your own software and eliminate bugs, it also means more time spent coding up infrastructure and less on implementing strategies, at least in the earlier part of your algo trading career. You may find that you are comfortable trading in Excel or MATLAB and can outsource the development of other components. I would not recommend this however, particularly for those trading at high frequency.

You need to ask yourself what you hope to achieve by algorithmic trading. Are you interested in a regular income, whereby you hope to draw earnings from your trading account? Or, are you interested in a long-term capital gain and can afford to trade without the need to drawdown funds? Income dependence will dictate the frequency of your strategy. More regular income withdrawals will require a higher frequency trading strategy with less volatility (i. e. a higher Sharpe ratio). Long-term traders can afford a more sedate trading frequency.

Finally, do not be deluded by the notion of becoming extremely wealthy in a short space of time! Algo trading is NOT a get-rich-quick scheme if anything it can be a become-poor-quick scheme. It takes significant discipline, research, diligence and patience to be successful at algorithmic trading. It can take months, if not years, to generate consistent profitability.

Sourcing Algorithmic Trading Ideas

Despite common perceptions to the contrary, it is actually quite straightforward to locate profitable trading strategies in the public domain. Never have trading ideas been more readily available than they are today. Academic finance journals, pre-print servers, trading blogs, trading forums, weekly trading magazines and specialist texts provide thousands of trading strategies with which to base your ideas upon.

Our goal as quantitative trading researchers is to establish a strategy pipeline that will provide us with a stream of ongoing trading ideas. Ideally we want to create a methodical approach to sourcing, evaluating and implementing strategies that we come across. The aims of the pipeline are to generate a consistent quantity of new ideas and to provide us with a framework for rejecting the majority of these ideas with the minimum of emotional consideration.

We must be extremely careful not to let cognitive biases influence our decision making methodology. This could be as simple as having a preference for one asset class over another (gold and other precious metals come to mind) because they are perceived as more exotic. Our goal should always be to find consistently profitable strategies, with positive expectation. The choice of asset class should be based on other considerations, such as trading capital constraints, brokerage fees and leverage capabilities.

If you are completely unfamiliar with the concept of a trading strategy then the first place to look is with established textbooks. Classic texts provide a wide range of simpler, more straightforward ideas, with which to familiarise yourself with quantitative trading. Here is a selection that I recommend for those who are new to quantitative trading, which gradually become more sophisticated as you work through the list:

Quantitative Trading: How to Build Your Own Algorithmic Trading Business (Wiley Trading) Ernest Chan

Algorithmic Trading and DMA: An introduction to direct access trading strategies Barry Johnson

Option Volatility Pricing: Advanced Trading Strategies and Techniques Sheldon Natenberg

Volatility Trading Euan Sinclair

Trading and Exchanges: Market Microstructure for Practitioners Larry Harris

For a longer list of quantitative trading books, please visit the QuantStart reading list .

The next place to find more sophisticated strategies is with trading forums and trading blogs. However, a note of caution: Many trading blogs rely on the concept of technical analysis . Technical analysis involves utilising basic indicators and behavioural psychology to determine trends or reversal patterns in asset prices.

Despite being extremely popular in the overall trading space, technical analysis is considered somewhat ineffective in the quantitative finance community. Some have suggested that it is no better than reading a horoscope or studying tea leaves in terms of its predictive power! In reality there are successful individuals making use of technical analysis. However, as quants with a more sophisticated mathematical and statistical toolbox at our disposal, we can easily evaluate the effectiveness of such TA-based strategies and make data-based decisions rather than base ours on emotional considerations or preconceptions.

Here is a list of well-respected algorithmic trading blogs and forums:

Once you have had some experience at evaluating simpler strategies, it is time to look at the more sophisticated academic offerings. Some academic journals will be difficult to access, without high subscriptions or one-off costs. If you are a member or alumnus of a university, you should be able to obtain access to some of these financial journals. Otherwise, you can look at pre-print servers . which are internet repositories of late drafts of academic papers that are undergoing peer review. Since we are only interested in strategies that we can successfully replicate, backtest and obtain profitability for, a peer review is of less importance to us.

The major downside of academic strategies is that they can often either be out of date, require obscure and expensive historical data, trade in illiquid asset classes or do not factor in fees, slippage or spread. It can also be unclear whether the trading strategy is to be carried out with market orders, limit orders or whether it contains stop losses etc. Thus it is absolutely essential to replicate the strategy yourself as best you can, backtest it and add in realistic transaction costs that include as many aspects of the asset classes that you wish to trade in.

Here is a list of the more popular pre-print servers and financial journals that you can source ideas from:

What about forming your own quantitative strategies? This generally requires (but is not limited to) expertise in one or more of the following categories:

Market microstructure For higher frequency strategies in particular, one can make use of market microstructure . i. e. understanding of the order book dynamics in order to generate profitability. Different markets will have various technology limitations, regulations, market participants and constraints that are all open to exploitation via specific strategies. This is a very sophisticated area and retail practitioners will find it hard to be competitive in this space, particularly as the competition includes large, well-capitalised quantitative hedge funds with strong technological capabilities.

Fund structure Pooled investment funds, such as pension funds, private investment partnerships (hedge funds), commodity trading advisors and mutual funds are constrained both by heavy regulation and their large capital reserves. Thus certain consistent behaviours can be exploited with those who are more nimble. For instance, large funds are subject to capacity constraints due to their size. Thus if they need to rapidly offload (sell) a quantity of securities, they will have to stagger it in order to avoid moving the market. Sophisticated algorithms can take advantage of this, and other idiosyncrasies, in a general process known as fund structure arbitrage .

Machine learning/artificial intelligence Machine learning algorithms have become more prevalent in recent years in financial markets. Classifiers (such as Naive-Bayes, et al.) non-linear function matchers (neural networks) and optimisation routines (genetic algorithms) have all been used to predict asset paths or optimise trading strategies. If you have a background in this area you may have some insight into how particular algorithms might be applied to certain markets.

There are, of course, many other areas for quants to investigate. Well discuss how to come up with custom strategies in detail in a later article.

By continuing to monitor these sources on a weekly, or even daily, basis you are setting yourself up to receive a consistent list of strategies from a diverse range of sources. The next step is to determine how to reject a large subset of these strategies in order to minimise wasting your time and backtesting resources on strategies that are likely to be unprofitable.

Evaluating Trading Strategies

The first, and arguably most obvious consideration is whether you actually understand the strategy . Would you be able to explain the strategy concisely or does it require a string of caveats and endless parameter lists? In addition, does the strategy have a good, solid basis in reality? For instance, could you point to some behavioural rationale or fund structure constraint that might be causing the pattern(s) you are attempting to exploit? Would this constraint hold up to a regime change, such as a dramatic regulatory environment disruption? Does the strategy rely on complex statistical or mathematical rules? Does it apply to any financial time series or is it specific to the asset class that it is claimed to be profitable on? You should constantly be thinking about these factors when evaluating new trading methods, otherwise you may waste a significant amount of time attempting to backtest and optimise unprofitable strategies.

Once you have determined that you understand the basic principles of the strategy you need to decide whether it fits with your aforementioned personality profile. This is not as vague a consideration as it sounds! Strategies will differ substantially in their performance characteristics. There are certain personality types that can handle more significant periods of drawdown, or are willing to accept greater risk for larger return. Despite the fact that we, as quants, try and eliminate as much cognitive bias as possible and should be able to evaluate a strategy dispassionately, biases will always creep in. Thus we need a consistent, unemotional means through which to assess the performance of strategies. Here is the list of criteria that I judge a potential new strategy by:

Methodology Is the strategy momentum based, mean-reverting, market-neutral, directional? Does the strategy rely on sophisticated (or complex!) statistical or machine learning techniques that are hard to understand and require a PhD in statistics to grasp? Do these techniques introduce a significant quantity of parameters, which might lead to optimisation bias? Is the strategy likely to withstand a regime change (i. e. potential new regulation of financial markets)?

Sharpe Ratio The Sharpe ratio heuristically characterises the reward/risk ratio of the strategy. It quantifies how much return you can achieve for the level of volatility endured by the equity curve. Naturally, we need to determine the period and frequency that these returns and volatility (i. e. standard deviation) are measured over. A higher frequency strategy will require greater sampling rate of standard deviation, but a shorter overall time period of measurement, for instance.

Leverage Does the strategy require significant leverage in order to be profitable? Does the strategy necessitate the use of leveraged derivatives contracts (futures, options, swaps) in order to make a return? These leveraged contracts can have heavy volatility characterises and thus can easily lead to margin calls . Do you have the trading capital and the temperament for such volatility?

Frequency The frequency of the strategy is intimately linked to your technology stack (and thus technological expertise), the Sharpe ratio and overall level of transaction costs. All other issues considered, higher frequency strategies require more capital, are more sophisticated and harder to implement. However, assuming your backtesting engine is sophisticated and bug-free, they will often have far higher Sharpe ratios.

Volatility Volatility is related strongly to the risk of the strategy. The Sharpe ratio characterises this. Higher volatility of the underlying asset classes, if unhedged, often leads to higher volatility in the equity curve and thus smaller Sharpe ratios. I am of course assuming that the positive volatility is approximately equal to the negative volatility. Some strategies may have greater downside volatility. You need to be aware of these attributes.

Win/Loss, Average Profit/Loss Strategies will differ in their win/loss and average profit/loss characteristics. One can have a very profitable strategy, even if the number of losing trades exceed the number of winning trades. Momentum strategies tend to have this pattern as they rely on a small number of big hits in order to be profitable. Mean-reversion strategies tend to have opposing profiles where more of the trades are winners, but the losing trades can be quite severe.

Maximum Drawdown The maximum drawdown is the largest overall peak-to-trough percentage drop on the equity curve of the strategy. Momentum strategies are well known to suffer from periods of extended drawdowns (due to a string of many incremental losing trades). Many traders will give up in periods of extended drawdown, even if historical testing has suggested this is business as usual for the strategy. You will need to determine what percentage of drawdown (and over what time period) you can accept before you cease trading your strategy. This is a highly personal decision and thus must be considered carefully.

Capacity/Liquidity At the retail level, unless you are trading in a highly illiquid instrument (like a small-cap stock), you will not have to concern yourself greatly with strategy capacity . Capacity determines the scalability of the strategy to further capital. Many of the larger hedge funds suffer from significant capacity problems as their strategies increase in capital allocation.

Parameters Certain strategies (especially those found in the machine learning community) require a large quantity of parameters. Every extra parameter that a strategy requires leaves it more vulnerable to optimisation bias (also known as curve-fitting). You should try and target strategies with as few parameters as possible or make sure you have sufficient quantities of data with which to test your strategies on.

Benchmark Nearly all strategies (unless characterised as absolute return) are measured against some performance benchmark. The benchmark is usually an index that characterises a large sample of the underlying asset class that the strategy trades in. If the strategy trades large-cap US equities, then the SP500 would be a natural benchmark to measure your strategy against. You will hear the terms alpha and beta, applied to strategies of this type. We will discuss these coefficients in depth in later articles.

Notice that we have not discussed the actual returns of the strategy. Why is this? In isolation, the returns actually provide us with limited information as to the effectiveness of the strategy. They dont give you an insight into leverage, volatility, benchmarks or capital requirements. Thus strategies are rarely judged on their returns alone. Always consider the risk attributes of a strategy before looking at the returns.

At this stage many of the strategies found from your pipeline will be rejected out of hand, since they wont meet your capital requirements, leverage constraints, maximum drawdown tolerance or volatility preferences. The strategies that do remain can now be considered for backtesting . However, before this is possible, it is necessary to consider one final rejection criteria that of available historical data on which to test these strategies.

Obtaining Historical Data

Nowadays, the breadth of the technical requirements across asset classes for historical data storage is substantial. In order to remain competitive, both the buy-side (funds) and sell-side (investment banks) invest heavily in their technical infrastructure. It is imperative to consider its importance. In particular, we are interested in timeliness, accuracy and storage requirements. I will now outline the basics of obtaining historical data and how to store it. Unfortunately this is a very deep and technical topic, so I wont be able to say everything in this article. However, I will be writing a lot more about this in the future as my prior industry experience in the financial industry was chiefly concerned with financial data acquisition, storage and access.

In the previous section we had set up a strategy pipeline that allowed us to reject certain strategies based on our own personal rejection criteria. In this section we will filter more strategies based on our own preferences for obtaining historical data. The chief considerations (especially at retail practitioner level) are the costs of the data, the storage requirements and your level of technical expertise. We also need to discuss the different types of available data and the different considerations that each type of data will impose on us.

Lets begin by discussing the types of data available and the key issues we will need to think about:

Fundamental Data This includes data about macroeconomic trends, such as interest rates, inflation figures, corporate actions (dividends, stock-splits), SEC filings, corporate accounts, earnings figures, crop reports, meteorological data etc. This data is often used to value companies or other assets on a fundamental basis, i. e. via some means of expected future cash flows. It does not include stock price series. Some fundamental data is freely available from government websites. Other long-term historical fundamental data can be extremely expensive. Storage requirements are often not particularly large, unless thousands of companies are being studied at once.

News Data News data is often qualitative in nature. It consists of articles, blog posts, microblog posts (tweets) and editorial. Machine learning techniques such as classifiers are often used to interpret sentiment . This data is also often freely available or cheap, via subscription to media outlets. The newer NoSQL document storage databases are designed to store this type of unstructured, qualitative data.

Asset Price Data This is the traditional data domain of the quant. It consists of time series of asset prices. Equities (stocks), fixed income products (bonds), commodities and foreign exchange prices all sit within this class. Daily historical data is often straightforward to obtain for the simpler asset classes, such as equities. However, once accuracy and cleanliness are included and statistical biases removed, the data can become expensive. In addition, time series data often possesses significant storage requirements especially when intraday data is considered.

Financial Instruments Equities, bonds, futures and the more exotic derivative options have very different characteristics and parameters. Thus there is no one size fits all database structure that can accommodate them. Significant care must be given to the design and implementation of database structures for various financial instruments. We will discuss the situation at length when we come to build a securities master database in future articles.

Frequency The higher the frequency of the data, the greater the costs and storage requirements. For low-frequency strategies, daily data is often sufficient. For high frequency strategies, it might be necessary to obtain tick-level data and even historical copies of particular trading exchange order book data. Implementing a storage engine for this type of data is very technologically intensive and only suitable for those with a strong programming/technical background.

Benchmarks The strategies described above will often be compared to a benchmark . This usually manifests itself as an additional financial time series. For equities, this is often a national stock benchmark, such as the SP500 index (US) or FTSE100 (UK). For a fixed income fund, it is useful to compare against a basket of bonds or fixed income products. The risk-free rate (i. e. appropriate interest rate) is also another widely accepted benchmark. All asset class categories possess a favoured benchmark, so it will be necessary to research this based on your particular strategy, if you wish to gain interest in your strategy externally.

Technology The technology stacks behind a financial data storage centre are complex. This article can only scratch the surface about what is involved in building one. However, it does centre around a database engine, such as a Relational Database Management System (RDBMS), such as MySQL, SQL Server, Oracle or a Document Storage Engine (i. e. NoSQL). This is accessed via business logic application code that queries the database and provides access to external tools, such as MATLAB, R or Excel. Often this business logic is written in C++, C#, Java or Python. You will also need to host this data somewhere, either on your own personal computer, or remotely via internet servers. Products such as Amazon Web Services have made this simpler and cheaper in recent years, but it will still require significant technical expertise to achieve in a robust manner.

As can be seen, once a strategy has been identified via the pipeline it will be necessary to evaluate the availability, costs, complexity and implementation details of a particular set of historical data. You may find it is necessary to reject a strategy based solely on historical data considerations. This is a big area and teams of PhDs work at large funds making sure pricing is accurate and timely. Do not underestimate the difficulties of creating a robust data centre for your backtesting purposes!

I do want to say, however, that many backtesting platforms can provide this data for you automatically at a cost. Thus it will take much of the implementation pain away from you, and you can concentrate purely on strategy implementation and optimisation. Tools like TradeStation possess this capability. However, my personal view is to implement as much as possible internally and avoid outsourcing parts of the stack to software vendors. I prefer higher frequency strategies due to their more attractive Sharpe ratios, but they are often tightly coupled to the technology stack, where advanced optimisation is critical.

Now that we have discussed the issues surrounding historical data it is time to begin implementing our strategies in a backtesting engine. This will be the subject of other articles, as it is an equally large area of discussion!

ByMike from QuantStart where you can find everything you need to help you gain (and keep!) a lucrative job in quantitative finance.

Online trading courses in hyderabad-top10binary options

Online trading courses in hyderabad-top10binary optionsOnline trading courses in hyderabad - Top 10 Binary Options - topsellbottombuy

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Project management plan deliverable template

Project management plan deliverable template1. Introduction

1.1 Introduction to the ***Project Name*** Project

*** Provide an overview of the system's functionality. ***

1.2 Scope of Work To Be Provided

The ***Project Name*** project is the integrated computer system to meet the baselined inputs in section 7.1 *** make sure that this reference has not changed *** . to be delivered by ***Delivery Organization*** to ***Customer Name*** under this Agreement. The system is comprised of the Hardware, Hardware Documentation, Communications Equipment, Operating System Software and Licensed (third party) Software, and Licensed Software Documentation, identified in Appendix E, and the Custom Software to be developed by ***Delivery Organization*** under this Project Management Plan.

This Project Management Plan describes in detail the Work Breakdown Structure (WBS) and the approximate level of effort for each WBS element required to deliver this project. The addition or deletion of WBS elements and/or changes to the level of effort for each WBS element are changes to the scope of the project.

*** Carefully summarize the scope of work to be performed, referencing already accepted documents by name and date where appropriate. ***

1.3 Scope of Work to be Excluded

This Project Management Plan covers only the scope of work specified in section 1.2 above. Without limiting the foregoing, the following items are specifically outside the scope of this project:

*** Describe any items specifically excluded from scope, e. g.:

Preparation of user aids and training material

User Training

Any revision or development of standard business practices or procedures

Any business case development related to the project ***

2. DELIVERABLES

This section defines both the formal deliverables and the working papers or other non-formal deliverables which will be produced in delivering the ***Project Name*** project.

2.1 Formal Deliverables

The deliverables identified in this section are Formal Deliverables and will undergo formal acceptance by ***Customer Name***, based upon acceptance procedures defined in this Project Management Plan and acceptance criteria to be established prior to producing each deliverable.

Formal deliverable documents will be typed or drawn using computer-based tools. Any updates required as a result of ***Customer Name*** review, as described under Terms of Acceptance in section 10, will be incorporated into the deliverable in a typed or computer-drawn format.

A table of contents for each formal deliverable and a brief description are provided as Appendix B of this document. These tables of contents are indicative of the contents; the organization of the actual deliverables may change as required by ***Delivery Organization***. Estimated page counts are an approximation only.

*** the following is an example only ***

Pros and cons of online trading

Pros and cons of online tradingPros and Cons of Online Trading

Identification

Open an online brokerage account. There are so many to choose from, it's dizzying. Their fees are all over the map, which makes choosing the best one a challenge. Before retaining a brokerage firm to execute your trades, ask for references from people you trust who have been successful at online trading.

Being able to reach your online broker by phone when you have questions is a plus, especially for the beginner. Full service brokerages offer a complete suite of online trading features. For example, you can view real-time stock prices and move your money from your checking account to you trading account. Some online sites even allow you make trades using a margin account, in which you borrow money to make purchases. On a discount brokerage site, stock price displays can be delayed for 20 minutes or more, which is not so great if you are dealing with a volatile stock or mutual fund.

Look at the pros and cons of full-service versus discount brokers. To make the most of online trading, identify what type of trader you are. If you're only going to make a few trades per year and you are a long-tern investor, you'll probably appreciate a full-service broker who may charge more per trade than a discount broker, but who can help you assess your trading activities. If you're more likely to trade frequently and you like the idea of trying to time the market for quick profits, a deeply discounted firm that rewards heavy trading will fit the bill.

Online trading allows you to trade efficiently electronically. An endless amount of research is available online to help you trade effectively. Online trading fees can be affordable. Worldwide markets in various time zones are available to you at your convenience. Alerts can be sent to your computer or mobile device regarding stocks you are watching.

Considerations

Before you jump into online trading, realize that you risk losing money. If you have the right computer equipment and a high speed cable or DSL Internet connection, you increase your chances of trading proficiently. Understand the tax consequences of online trading. While you may enjoy success, you must keep records of profits, losses and costs associated with each trade.

Trading(profession)

Trading(profession)Types of Trading

Inter-regional

Inter-regional traders exploit price differences between regions. For example, Amarrian Starship Engineering Datacores are available from RD agents in the Domain region [1] but not in The Forge region. If players researching Amarrian Starship Engineering prefer to sell their datacores in the region, a price gap may emerge, allowing the inter-regional trader to profit by moving datacores from Domain to The Forge. Inter-regional trading can often be done without extensive investment in trading skills, as it doesn’t require you to place buy orders or sell orders. In many cases, profit can be made buying from sell orders and selling to buy orders. While this reduces profit per unit, it ensures quick turnover so the trader can invest his ISK in another opportunity.

Intra-regional

Intra-regional traders exploit price differences within regions. In any given region, there are numerous outstanding buy and sell orders for individual items. In single stations, one of these buy orders will be the highest available, and one sell order will be the lowest available. The difference between these two is the bid/ask spread. [2] An Intra-regional trader could place a regional buy order for a Raven at a price higher than all other outstanding buy orders in the region. In this case, any Raven sold anywhere in the region would go to him at that price. He could then put up a sell order which was below the lowest sell price in the region. If someone purchased this Raven. the trader’s profit is the bid/ask spread, less fees. It may not seem obvious that players would buy a Raven at any station. simply because it had the lowest price. However, many players are not familiar with all of the features of the Market and will buy through the groups window, which simply gives them the lowest price. Intra-regional traders can also operate by trading at single stations, such as Jita 4-4.

Speculation

When a trader bets that an item will rise or fall in price, he is engaging in speculation. Given current mechanics in EVE, it is difficult or perhaps impossible to take a short position on an item. However, one can take a long position simply by accumulating inventory of the item. For example, one could profit from speculation by accumulating stocks of Zydrine before drone region mineral drop rates were reduced.

Reprocessing arbitrage

In some cases, an item’s price will fall below the value of the minerals gained from reprocessing it. If this gap is sufficiently large, there is an opportunity for reprocessing arbitrage [3]. A trader can buy the item, reprocess it, and immediately sell the minerals. or place sell orders, for a profit. This occurred in large quantities when shuttles were still sold by NPCs for 9,000 ISK and could be reprocessed for 2,500 Tritanium. When Tritanium prices rose above 4.0 ISK per unit, there was an opportunity for arbitrage since shuttles ’ prices were below the value of their reprocessed minerals.

There are many ways to earn ISK playing EVE. but only one method allows you to increase your wealth whilst wearing a sharp suit. In the first of a two-part guide, the immaculately dressed Kaaii starts us off with the basics of buying low and selling high.

Trading in EVE is probably one of the most lucrative yet dangerous occupations a starship commander can take up. You can make millions of ISK in a few hours then lose it in an instant through recklessness, stupidity, or both. While there are things you can do to offset the inherent risks (like plan your route through safer systems and fit your ship with modules that might allow you to evade player pirates ), there are some fundamental principles you must adopt before you start throwing money about the place, or, more often than not, you will fail in the most spectacular way.

While most have a grasp of making ISK. few truthfully understand the concept beyond that of earning a decent wage. Anyone can load up an industrial ship with data sheets, make a few jumps, sell them at a higher price and call themselves a trader.

Time is money

Trading takes time. Real time. A miner can happily sit motionless in an asteroid field with a half-decent novel cradled in their lap, ceaselessly pulling ore from defenceless rocks and occasionally looking up at the screen when the cargo hold fills up. As a trader, however, to compete and get ahead of your rivals you must be aware of any changes to the markets. Lucrative deals can appear in an instant and disappear just as quickly.

How you spend your time in EVE trading directly relates to how much extra you will have in your wallet at the end of your playing session. A trade run that takes 20 jumps, takes an hour to complete and makes you six million ISK is not as profitable as a three-jump route that only makes you two million. Obvious? You'd be surprised. Many people want that long haul and the perceived infusion of large sums of cash that comes as a result, and completely ignore the short-haul payout runs. You can make more than these short-sighted people if you do the math. And, yes, whilst a 20-jump haul will allow immersion in the latest Harry Potter novel, you'd do well to keep at least one eye on the regional markets.

Size matters

On first inspection, some items appear to be extremely lucrative to trade, but a closer examination reveals this is not always the case. Items in EVE have varying volumes and knowing how 'big' something is can go a long way to deciding if it's profitable to carry. The bottom line is that you are renting your ship's cargo bay and you want to fill it with as many rent-paying tenants as you can. Take, for example, construction blocks. You might see a buy order for 700 ISK per unit somewhere nearby and quickly dash off to buy those blocks in your station for 600 ISK. A 17 per cent mark-up may seem as if you're tapping into a rich seam of profit, but take a closer look at the goods and you'll realize that, with a volume of 4 m 3. a single block will take up four times as much space in your hold as most of the other trade goods. Those oh-so-lucrative-looking CBs may earn you 100 ISK per unit, but if you account for volume, that works out at 25 ISK per m 3. Conversely, take antibiotics. These only have a 0.5 m 3 vol, and usually only make 18-36 ISK per unit. But, with a volume of 0.5 m 3. you can carry two per cubic metre, which works out as 36-72 ISK per m 3. Much better than those old construction blocks, wouldn't you agree?

Regional differences

Knowledge is power. Knowing what trades and what doesn't and the supply and demand of your chosen area will either make or break you. Take the time to research your local solar system (and surrounding areas) and see what is sold, consistently, in your operating area. Learn the prices, both buying and selling. Take note of both the prices and the volume supplied and bought. There is a big gotcha here: a lot of times you may find a trade good that buys low and sells high between two stations that are reasonably close. This may seem a great trade run, but if the buyer only needs 176 of that item, while the supplier has 157,000 units for sale (or vice-versa), you'll not only be wasting time and effort, you could be lumbered with thousands of items that you can't sell. If you're at the start of your trading career, this may mean that most of your money is tied up in stock. Experience will prove that in such a case, it may be better to make a small loss rather than wait for the right buy order to take all that gear off your hands. If you make a mistake - and you will - learn from it. There is an exception to this particular rule which will be covered in two next issues, but for now, leave this type of trade alone.

Skill to survive

The skill packs required for efficient trading are many and diverse. While not as involved as a combat or mining profession, the time investment in increasing your range and level in specialist trade skills is substantial nonetheless. You begin with very limited access to the higher-tiered skills (as opposed to the other professions), but they can quickly be gained with just a bit of effort. With a modicum of research, you can create a character that has a significant leg-up on those who prefer to follow the basic skills, which gives you room to grow quickly. The skills you'll require can be neatly divided into two kinds; those that affect your ship and your ability to navigate - we'll call them 'logistic skills', and dedicated trade skills, that allow you to deal in larger volumes with lower costs and higher profits.

Trade skills aren't quite as important early on as you might think. Just as any EVE player can mine or fly a basic frigate. so too can any wide-eyed graduate to EVE buy and sell whatever their wallet will allow. As a prerequisite to greater abilities, the Trade skill itself is worth building up. However, we'll go into great detail on these skills next issue.

Expand and learn

Your logistical abilities are important for one single reason. You need to physically haul the items you wish to sell yourself, at least to begin with. Rather obviously, then, starship command and the frigate skill specific to your race are an early priority, as progression to command cruisers and industrial ships rests on these early foundations. Cruisers are far more suited to inter-system trade than frigates. if only because of their larger cargo areas. Industrial ships. however, are what the serious trader should be aiming for, if only because with some investment in the right modules. cargo capacity can be expanded to three or four times that of the base value. The Expanded Cargohold I and II modules will increase cargo space by 15 per cent and 27 per cent respectively, and all industrial vessels can handle two at the very least. Of course you'll need to train up your hull upgrade and mechanic skills to fit them.

Similarly, the Cargohold Optimization I and II rigs increase cargo space by 15 and 20 percent respectively, for a penalty on armor amount. Each T1 ship can fit three rigs. and each T2 ship two. You'll need to train these skills: Mechanic III, Jury Rigging III, and Astronautics Rigging I, or IV for the T2 version.

An Iteron Mark V industrial ship with five Expanded Cargohold II modules and three Cargohold Optimization II rigs can haul 43,667 m 3.

And let's not forget the Navigation and Evasive_Maneuvering skills, which increase the base velocity and agility of your ship - the quicker you can get to where you're going, the better, after all.

Fit the best

In the beginning you will be limited both in skill and cash to using the most basic of equipment; a fast frigate. some cargo expanders and maybe an afterburner or microwarpdrive. But fear not, this will change quickly. As cash flows in you can upgrade to more skills, better ships and higher-worth trade goods.

A lot could be said here on the best gear to have, but it's an area I'll to leave to you. Do you favour speed, do you fit your ship to fight back, or to evade, or to accept the inevitable and pop at the first sight of trouble (in which case avoid fitting expensive 'named' modules )? Whatever, the most important factor to consider when training for, buying and outfitting your ships is cargo capacity.

The Amarrian Bestower is a popular choice, for it only requires the Amarrian industrial ship skill to be trained to level 1, and it's base cargo capacity exceeds that of other low-tier 'indys'. All races have capable vessels, however, and none more so than the Gallentean Mark V Iteron. It can't be beaten on cargo space, but its a long skill time to train, somewhere around 29 days, depending on how advanced your learning skills are. Ask around. Most 'indy ' pilots love talking about their ships and loadouts, as do most other pilots.

Risky business

Ah, now, here's the rub: it takes money to make money, but how can you make money with no money? Well you can't. You must either do some mining. agent missions, or, if you're particularly brave, pirating. I'd recommend visiting your agent and running a few missions for them. In a fast ship. you can make several million in just a few days, even at the most basic of agents. If mining is more your style, then strap on some miners and have at it, but the point is you are going to need at least a few million to invest before you are viable as a trader. It can be done with less, but it takes more time. If you have made friends, you might be able to persuade them to part with a few million to back your venture, however if you choose this route, make sure you pay them back, on time and without problems. Not doing so may incur the wrath of some up-and-coming fighter pilots, people you don't need to meet later in your career when you're flying a fully-laden hauler through low-security systems.

The market

The Eve Market is where you'll be doing most of your work buying and selling. Some items cannot be listed on the market and are sold on Contracts. I'm not going to cover contracts here, other then to say it's out there, different and worth playing about with.

The Market Screen allows you to sort commodities by the number of jumps from you an item is, the volume available or required, cost per unit and, from the drop-down box in the top-left corner of the Market Screen, location (region, solar system or station ). Pay attention to that. Make sure when you buy (or sell) something, you have not bought region-wide if you didn't intend to.

There is also an often-overlooked but very useful history tab on the Market Screen that will tell you the price and volume of an item over varying amounts of time. Use it. It can tell you if the price you are paying (or selling for) is in line with current trends and, just as importantly, how much of the item is moving. This is very useful in determining if you are in a busy area, with lots of competitors, or have the area to yourself.

All or nothing

It's worth prospecting for trade routes outside of EVE. by which I mean researching the valuable information maintained on the official EVE website. Go to eveonline/corporations/ and you'll find a wealth of information on each NPC Corp; where their stations are, what they sell and what they buy. NPC Corps aren't as flexible as player-run businesses, and they tend to stick to what they know. Six Kin Developments, for example, buys carbon and produces synthetic oils, so if you can find an NPC organization nearby that wants SythOil and produces carbon, you can shuttle between the two stations. However, whatever you do, don't go on milking one route each and every day. Market supply and demand changes with every buy and sell order processed. When you sell something to an NPC the demand price usually goes down as the orders are filled and the buy price goes up as more is purchased. The temptation is to deliver and sell, deliver and sell until demand is completed, but doing this will leave some profit behind as the price changes with every transaction - most of the time. So get it all there first, and sell it together, buy the same way, all at once. Of course, other traders will be doing the same, so do it fast, or hold onto your stock until the prices start rising again - if you can afford to.

Don't be a deadhead

So, you have a few skills, have missioned or mined your way to your first couple of million, and you have a fast frigate or fat industrial ship - hopefully one of each. Already you have decided to set up somewhere and have found, using your noodle and a bit of common sense, a few low-cost trade runs. Now you're thinking, 'I'll just buy X amount of items, load them up and head over', yes? Well, yes and no. There are some things you must ask yourself first.

Is your cargo full? If not, you should look again and see if there's another, closer, station that requires anything else you can bring en route to your final objective. This must be balanced with the time it takes you both to deliver (and pickup) this 'filler' load. It could be that if directly en route, dropping off a few holoreels will net you a few hundred thousand and add five minutes to your journey, the aggravation may well be worthwhile.

Is there a return trip load? In the late 20th century, fossil-fueled delivery vehicles called 18 wheelers would often carry cargo to one destination only to find nothing to carry on the return trip, costing them both money and time. These were called 'Deadheads'. Avoid this at all costs. Sometimes you can't, but you should try.

Are you using the right equipment? If you have found a run that has somewhat high priced items, it may be better to run that fast frig twice, rather than the big slow indy once. Remember the return trip though. Time is money.

Finally, before you undock, check your route. Are you running into low security systems? In the beginning I'd avoid them, for whilst some juicy runs cross through 0.5 systems, you are not the only person that's going to be taking advantage of the many opportunities there; plenty of pirates know how to use the trade system to find riches too, the riches that sit in your fat juicy slow-moving undefended cargo hold. Be aware of this and use the map; check the ships /pods destroyed in the last hour. If there's been any activity, don't go, it's that simple. Ships can be insured, pilots can be cloned, cargo is lost forever.

Still to come.

This is just the beginning. Heed my words and you will become rich - there are ways and means of amassing fortunes even small corporations can only dream about. Trading in NPC trade goods can be lucrative, but buying and selling modules. minerals. and illegal items can quickly launch you into the big league, especially if you can do it remotely. But to do that you need to look beyond the Market Screen - advanced trading is just as much about whom you know as what you know. But before that you need to train and train hard. Get your industrial skill maxed, then trade, then buy up marketing, broker relations and accounting and make a start on those - not forgetting those learning skills if you have the inclination and plan to be a part of EVE for a while to come. When you're ready we'll meet up again next issue. Until then, fly safe. and don't go stealing my routes, I have friends in high places!

TIP #1 - Don't ask other traders for their routes. Miners keep priceless asteroid spawns to themselves, hunters hold close their favourite killing areas; why should you assume it would be any different with trading. You are their competition, they are yours, remember it!

TIP #2 - Never accept a gang invite from someone you do not trust. Many traders have been ganked by pirates spamming gang invites, warping to them and killing them. Even though they'll be Concorded (in high-sec) and take a standings hit, they could have a friend, or an alt, standing by to loot your wreck.

TIP #3 - Trading is very much suited to the player who wishes to work alone, but that doesn't mean it isn't advantageous to have a few friends scattered about, if only to ask for price checks in regions away from your own.

TIP #4 - There are four ways to increase the cargo capacity of your ship:

- The first and easiest way is to buy a ship that offers a cargo bay increase with every skill level you attain and then train up that skill - all Industrial ships in other words.

- The second is to fit as many high-quality cargo expanders as your ship and wallet will allow. Buy them one at a time, if you must, but get more cargo capability. Remember you are selling your cargo space, and if by expanding your cargo you can shorten the number of trips you make per run, then do it.

- The third is fitting Cargohold Optimization rigs for the same reasons.

- The fourth option is to buy some GSCs (giant secure containers ), as many as you can fit in your hold. They're expensive but all cargo containers have the special ability that allows you to put more volume in them than they take up. It isn't a vast amount but every little bit helps. Another bonus is, should you meet an unfortunate demise, a secure GSC (password-protected) can be anchored wherever you died, prohibiting the offending party from scooping the cans, opening them and stealing your cargo. Corporation management and anchoring skill is required for this though, and it doesn't always work as pirates are just as likely to destroy containers rather than have you return to them, but it can save you some money if you are lucky enough.

Types of Trading

Inter-regional

Inter-regional traders exploit price differences between regions. For example, Amarrian Starship Engineering Datacores are available from RD agents in the Domain region [1] but not in The Forge region. If players researching Amarrian Starship Engineering prefer to sell their datacores in the region, a price gap may emerge, allowing the inter-regional trader to profit by moving datacores from Domain to The Forge. Inter-regional trading can often be done without extensive investment in trading skills, as it doesn’t require you to place buy orders or sell orders. In many cases, profit can be made buying from sell orders and selling to buy orders. While this reduces profit per unit, it ensures quick turnover so the trader can invest his ISK in another opportunity.

Intra-regional

Intra-regional traders exploit price differences within regions. In any given region, there are numerous outstanding buy and sell orders for individual items. In single stations, one of these buy orders will be the highest available, and one sell order will be the lowest available. The difference between these two is the bid/ask spread. [2] An Intra-regional trader could place a regional buy order for a Raven at a price higher than all other outstanding buy orders in the region. In this case, any Raven sold anywhere in the region would go to him at that price. He could then put up a sell order which was below the lowest sell price in the region. If someone purchased this Raven. the trader’s profit is the bid/ask spread, less fees. It may not seem obvious that players would buy a Raven at any station. simply because it had the lowest price. However, many players are not familiar with all of the features of the Market and will buy through the groups window, which simply gives them the lowest price. Intra-regional traders can also operate by trading at single stations, such as Jita 4-4.

Speculation

When a trader bets that an item will rise or fall in price, he is engaging in speculation. Given current mechanics in EVE, it is difficult or perhaps impossible to take a short position on an item. However, one can take a long position simply by accumulating inventory of the item. For example, one could profit from speculation by accumulating stocks of Zydrine before drone region mineral drop rates were reduced.

Reprocessing arbitrage

In some cases, an item’s price will fall below the value of the minerals gained from reprocessing it. If this gap is sufficiently large, there is an opportunity for reprocessing arbitrage [3]. A trader can buy the item, reprocess it, and immediately sell the minerals. or place sell orders, for a profit. This occurred in large quantities when shuttles were still sold by NPCs for 9,000 ISK and could be reprocessed for 2,500 Tritanium. When Tritanium prices rose above 4.0 ISK per unit, there was an opportunity for arbitrage since shuttles ’ prices were below the value of their reprocessed minerals.

There are many ways to earn ISK playing EVE. but only one method allows you to increase your wealth whilst wearing a sharp suit. In the first of a two-part guide, the immaculately dressed Kaaii starts us off with the basics of buying low and selling high.

Trading in EVE is probably one of the most lucrative yet dangerous occupations a starship commander can take up. You can make millions of ISK in a few hours then lose it in an instant through recklessness, stupidity, or both. While there are things you can do to offset the inherent risks (like plan your route through safer systems and fit your ship with modules that might allow you to evade player pirates ), there are some fundamental principles you must adopt before you start throwing money about the place, or, more often than not, you will fail in the most spectacular way.

While most have a grasp of making ISK. few truthfully understand the concept beyond that of earning a decent wage. Anyone can load up an industrial ship with data sheets, make a few jumps, sell them at a higher price and call themselves a trader.

Time is money

Trading takes time. Real time. A miner can happily sit motionless in an asteroid field with a half-decent novel cradled in their lap, ceaselessly pulling ore from defenceless rocks and occasionally looking up at the screen when the cargo hold fills up. As a trader, however, to compete and get ahead of your rivals you must be aware of any changes to the markets. Lucrative deals can appear in an instant and disappear just as quickly.

How you spend your time in EVE trading directly relates to how much extra you will have in your wallet at the end of your playing session. A trade run that takes 20 jumps, takes an hour to complete and makes you six million ISK is not as profitable as a three-jump route that only makes you two million. Obvious? You'd be surprised. Many people want that long haul and the perceived infusion of large sums of cash that comes as a result, and completely ignore the short-haul payout runs. You can make more than these short-sighted people if you do the math. And, yes, whilst a 20-jump haul will allow immersion in the latest Harry Potter novel, you'd do well to keep at least one eye on the regional markets.

Size matters

On first inspection, some items appear to be extremely lucrative to trade, but a closer examination reveals this is not always the case. Items in EVE have varying volumes and knowing how 'big' something is can go a long way to deciding if it's profitable to carry. The bottom line is that you are renting your ship's cargo bay and you want to fill it with as many rent-paying tenants as you can. Take, for example, construction blocks. You might see a buy order for 700 ISK per unit somewhere nearby and quickly dash off to buy those blocks in your station for 600 ISK. A 17 per cent mark-up may seem as if you're tapping into a rich seam of profit, but take a closer look at the goods and you'll realize that, with a volume of 4 m 3. a single block will take up four times as much space in your hold as most of the other trade goods. Those oh-so-lucrative-looking CBs may earn you 100 ISK per unit, but if you account for volume, that works out at 25 ISK per m 3. Conversely, take antibiotics. These only have a 0.5 m 3 vol, and usually only make 18-36 ISK per unit. But, with a volume of 0.5 m 3. you can carry two per cubic metre, which works out as 36-72 ISK per m 3. Much better than those old construction blocks, wouldn't you agree?

Regional differences

Knowledge is power. Knowing what trades and what doesn't and the supply and demand of your chosen area will either make or break you. Take the time to research your local solar system (and surrounding areas) and see what is sold, consistently, in your operating area. Learn the prices, both buying and selling. Take note of both the prices and the volume supplied and bought. There is a big gotcha here: a lot of times you may find a trade good that buys low and sells high between two stations that are reasonably close. This may seem a great trade run, but if the buyer only needs 176 of that item, while the supplier has 157,000 units for sale (or vice-versa), you'll not only be wasting time and effort, you could be lumbered with thousands of items that you can't sell. If you're at the start of your trading career, this may mean that most of your money is tied up in stock. Experience will prove that in such a case, it may be better to make a small loss rather than wait for the right buy order to take all that gear off your hands. If you make a mistake - and you will - learn from it. There is an exception to this particular rule which will be covered in two next issues, but for now, leave this type of trade alone.

Skill to survive

The skill packs required for efficient trading are many and diverse. While not as involved as a combat or mining profession, the time investment in increasing your range and level in specialist trade skills is substantial nonetheless. You begin with very limited access to the higher-tiered skills (as opposed to the other professions), but they can quickly be gained with just a bit of effort. With a modicum of research, you can create a character that has a significant leg-up on those who prefer to follow the basic skills, which gives you room to grow quickly. The skills you'll require can be neatly divided into two kinds; those that affect your ship and your ability to navigate - we'll call them 'logistic skills', and dedicated trade skills, that allow you to deal in larger volumes with lower costs and higher profits.

Trade skills aren't quite as important early on as you might think. Just as any EVE player can mine or fly a basic frigate. so too can any wide-eyed graduate to EVE buy and sell whatever their wallet will allow. As a prerequisite to greater abilities, the Trade skill itself is worth building up. However, we'll go into great detail on these skills next issue.

Expand and learn

Your logistical abilities are important for one single reason. You need to physically haul the items you wish to sell yourself, at least to begin with. Rather obviously, then, starship command and the frigate skill specific to your race are an early priority, as progression to command cruisers and industrial ships rests on these early foundations. Cruisers are far more suited to inter-system trade than frigates. if only because of their larger cargo areas. Industrial ships. however, are what the serious trader should be aiming for, if only because with some investment in the right modules. cargo capacity can be expanded to three or four times that of the base value. The Expanded Cargohold I and II modules will increase cargo space by 15 per cent and 27 per cent respectively, and all industrial vessels can handle two at the very least. Of course you'll need to train up your hull upgrade and mechanic skills to fit them.

Similarly, the Cargohold Optimization I and II rigs increase cargo space by 15 and 20 percent respectively, for a penalty on armor amount. Each T1 ship can fit three rigs. and each T2 ship two. You'll need to train these skills: Mechanic III, Jury Rigging III, and Astronautics Rigging I, or IV for the T2 version.

An Iteron Mark V industrial ship with five Expanded Cargohold II modules and three Cargohold Optimization II rigs can haul 43,667 m 3.

And let's not forget the Navigation and Evasive_Maneuvering skills, which increase the base velocity and agility of your ship - the quicker you can get to where you're going, the better, after all.

Fit the best

In the beginning you will be limited both in skill and cash to using the most basic of equipment; a fast frigate. some cargo expanders and maybe an afterburner or microwarpdrive. But fear not, this will change quickly. As cash flows in you can upgrade to more skills, better ships and higher-worth trade goods.

A lot could be said here on the best gear to have, but it's an area I'll to leave to you. Do you favour speed, do you fit your ship to fight back, or to evade, or to accept the inevitable and pop at the first sight of trouble (in which case avoid fitting expensive 'named' modules )? Whatever, the most important factor to consider when training for, buying and outfitting your ships is cargo capacity.

The Amarrian Bestower is a popular choice, for it only requires the Amarrian industrial ship skill to be trained to level 1, and it's base cargo capacity exceeds that of other low-tier 'indys'. All races have capable vessels, however, and none more so than the Gallentean Mark V Iteron. It can't be beaten on cargo space, but its a long skill time to train, somewhere around 29 days, depending on how advanced your learning skills are. Ask around. Most 'indy ' pilots love talking about their ships and loadouts, as do most other pilots.

Risky business

Ah, now, here's the rub: it takes money to make money, but how can you make money with no money? Well you can't. You must either do some mining. agent missions, or, if you're particularly brave, pirating. I'd recommend visiting your agent and running a few missions for them. In a fast ship. you can make several million in just a few days, even at the most basic of agents. If mining is more your style, then strap on some miners and have at it, but the point is you are going to need at least a few million to invest before you are viable as a trader. It can be done with less, but it takes more time. If you have made friends, you might be able to persuade them to part with a few million to back your venture, however if you choose this route, make sure you pay them back, on time and without problems. Not doing so may incur the wrath of some up-and-coming fighter pilots, people you don't need to meet later in your career when you're flying a fully-laden hauler through low-security systems.

The market

The Eve Market is where you'll be doing most of your work buying and selling. Some items cannot be listed on the market and are sold on Contracts. I'm not going to cover contracts here, other then to say it's out there, different and worth playing about with.

The Market Screen allows you to sort commodities by the number of jumps from you an item is, the volume available or required, cost per unit and, from the drop-down box in the top-left corner of the Market Screen, location (region, solar system or station ). Pay attention to that. Make sure when you buy (or sell) something, you have not bought region-wide if you didn't intend to.

There is also an often-overlooked but very useful history tab on the Market Screen that will tell you the price and volume of an item over varying amounts of time. Use it. It can tell you if the price you are paying (or selling for) is in line with current trends and, just as importantly, how much of the item is moving. This is very useful in determining if you are in a busy area, with lots of competitors, or have the area to yourself.

All or nothing

It's worth prospecting for trade routes outside of EVE. by which I mean researching the valuable information maintained on the official EVE website. Go to eveonline/corporations/ and you'll find a wealth of information on each NPC Corp; where their stations are, what they sell and what they buy. NPC Corps aren't as flexible as player-run businesses, and they tend to stick to what they know. Six Kin Developments, for example, buys carbon and produces synthetic oils, so if you can find an NPC organization nearby that wants SythOil and produces carbon, you can shuttle between the two stations. However, whatever you do, don't go on milking one route each and every day. Market supply and demand changes with every buy and sell order processed. When you sell something to an NPC the demand price usually goes down as the orders are filled and the buy price goes up as more is purchased. The temptation is to deliver and sell, deliver and sell until demand is completed, but doing this will leave some profit behind as the price changes with every transaction - most of the time. So get it all there first, and sell it together, buy the same way, all at once. Of course, other traders will be doing the same, so do it fast, or hold onto your stock until the prices start rising again - if you can afford to.

Don't be a deadhead

So, you have a few skills, have missioned or mined your way to your first couple of million, and you have a fast frigate or fat industrial ship - hopefully one of each. Already you have decided to set up somewhere and have found, using your noodle and a bit of common sense, a few low-cost trade runs. Now you're thinking, 'I'll just buy X amount of items, load them up and head over', yes? Well, yes and no. There are some things you must ask yourself first.

Is your cargo full? If not, you should look again and see if there's another, closer, station that requires anything else you can bring en route to your final objective. This must be balanced with the time it takes you both to deliver (and pickup) this 'filler' load. It could be that if directly en route, dropping off a few holoreels will net you a few hundred thousand and add five minutes to your journey, the aggravation may well be worthwhile.

Is there a return trip load? In the late 20th century, fossil-fueled delivery vehicles called 18 wheelers would often carry cargo to one destination only to find nothing to carry on the return trip, costing them both money and time. These were called 'Deadheads'. Avoid this at all costs. Sometimes you can't, but you should try.

Are you using the right equipment? If you have found a run that has somewhat high priced items, it may be better to run that fast frig twice, rather than the big slow indy once. Remember the return trip though. Time is money.

Finally, before you undock, check your route. Are you running into low security systems? In the beginning I'd avoid them, for whilst some juicy runs cross through 0.5 systems, you are not the only person that's going to be taking advantage of the many opportunities there; plenty of pirates know how to use the trade system to find riches too, the riches that sit in your fat juicy slow-moving undefended cargo hold. Be aware of this and use the map; check the ships /pods destroyed in the last hour. If there's been any activity, don't go, it's that simple. Ships can be insured, pilots can be cloned, cargo is lost forever.

Still to come.

This is just the beginning. Heed my words and you will become rich - there are ways and means of amassing fortunes even small corporations can only dream about. Trading in NPC trade goods can be lucrative, but buying and selling modules. minerals. and illegal items can quickly launch you into the big league, especially if you can do it remotely. But to do that you need to look beyond the Market Screen - advanced trading is just as much about whom you know as what you know. But before that you need to train and train hard. Get your industrial skill maxed, then trade, then buy up marketing, broker relations and accounting and make a start on those - not forgetting those learning skills if you have the inclination and plan to be a part of EVE for a while to come. When you're ready we'll meet up again next issue. Until then, fly safe. and don't go stealing my routes, I have friends in high places!

TIP #1 - Don't ask other traders for their routes. Miners keep priceless asteroid spawns to themselves, hunters hold close their favourite killing areas; why should you assume it would be any different with trading. You are their competition, they are yours, remember it!

TIP #2 - Never accept a gang invite from someone you do not trust. Many traders have been ganked by pirates spamming gang invites, warping to them and killing them. Even though they'll be Concorded (in high-sec) and take a standings hit, they could have a friend, or an alt, standing by to loot your wreck.

TIP #3 - Trading is very much suited to the player who wishes to work alone, but that doesn't mean it isn't advantageous to have a few friends scattered about, if only to ask for price checks in regions away from your own.

TIP #4 - There are four ways to increase the cargo capacity of your ship:

- The first and easiest way is to buy a ship that offers a cargo bay increase with every skill level you attain and then train up that skill - all Industrial ships in other words.

- The second is to fit as many high-quality cargo expanders as your ship and wallet will allow. Buy them one at a time, if you must, but get more cargo capability. Remember you are selling your cargo space, and if by expanding your cargo you can shorten the number of trips you make per run, then do it.

- The third is fitting Cargohold Optimization rigs for the same reasons.

- The fourth option is to buy some GSCs (giant secure containers ), as many as you can fit in your hold. They're expensive but all cargo containers have the special ability that allows you to put more volume in them than they take up. It isn't a vast amount but every little bit helps. Another bonus is, should you meet an unfortunate demise, a secure GSC (password-protected) can be anchored wherever you died, prohibiting the offending party from scooping the cans, opening them and stealing your cargo. Corporation management and anchoring skill is required for this though, and it doesn't always work as pirates are just as likely to destroy containers rather than have you return to them, but it can save you some money if you are lucky enough.

Simple forex breakout trading strategies

Simple forex breakout trading strategiesSimple Forex Breakout Trading Strategies

Many forex traders watch prices trade in narrow ranges for long periods of time, so they’re eager to trade breakouts when they occur. Since breakouts represent a sharp move in price, either up or down, traders focus on getting aboard the move as soon as possible.

Over-eager traders are tempted to chase the price, which can be disastrous. The trick is to get in early enough, yet not too late. Success means identifying the signals of a forex breakout, then confirming them before entering the trade.

In this article we’ll look at a few simple, profitable forex breakout trading strategies. They can help traders avoid letting the price get away, while avoiding chasing losers. These channel-breakout trading strategies, called “pop-and-stop” and “drop-and-stop,” are especially effective around session-opening times.

These simple strategies are focused on the major currencies — EUR/USD, USD/JPY, EUR/JPY, GBP/USD trading on hourly or daily time frames. They are short-term strategies based on only a few indicators. They rely on simple, unambiguous trading rules, and of course theyre expected to be profitable.

“Pop and stop” for bullish breakouts

The pop-and-stop forex breakout trading strategy is based on price action along with other trading indicators, such as the rejection bar candle chart pattern, Harami candle pattern, round-number forex price levels, Bollinger Bands, polarity indicators, or other indicators of nearby support and resistant levels.

When using hourly or daily candlestick pricing, a 50-period simple moving average (50 SMA) is a good trend filter.

Upside Breakout

The candlestick chart above shows a break out near the beginning of a forex trading session (left circle), as well as a bullish rejection bar that formed an unrelated pattern without a stop-and-pop trading opportunity (right circle).

It’s usually difficult to know what causes the upside break until later – Often, it is due to a news announcement or simply the weight of heavy players taking long positions in the base currency.

In any event, the price “pops” out of its previous range, then briefly “stops” before resuming its upward march. This trade opportunity is shown by the left-side white circle on the chart above.

The left-circled chart pattern above shows 2 bullish rejection bars being formed and rejecting above a round price number, which is the gray line. During the third period, the trade is entered at 2 pips over the high of the second rejection bar.

Typically, a forex breakout in one direction showing a long candle is followed by a retracement back to the level where the price first exited from the range. This happens when the rapid price move has occurred because of a liquidity gap across a range with few orders.

Rejection bars and other confirmation of the breakout

The gaps are usually filled sooner rather than later. If the gap isn’t filled, then the move is truly a breakout.

Before executing a trade order, the trader should make sure the forex breakout is confirmed. After the initial “pop,” it’s important to wait for confirmation, since the price could continue to rise, or fall back into its recent range again.

Rejection bars are the most common signal confirmation for the pop-and-stop forex trading strategy and other strategies based on candlestick chart patterns.

The rejection bar is a forex candlestick which shows that market participants have rejected higher or lower prices. Each rejection bar is a single formation, and it is also known as a “hammer” or “inverted hammer.”

This bar is typically formed when the price opens and moves first in one direction, then reverses to close the candle period at or past the opening price.

When rejection bars find resistance at round-number forex price levels and other support-resistance-inflection points, it is a good sign that the price will soon move upward again.

Ideal rejection bars show an open and close very close together – The closer together, the better. Ideally, both the opening and closing of the rejection bar are located near the end of the bar; the closer to the end of the bar, the stronger the signal.

The tail on each rejection bar should be at least as long as the body. The longer the tail, the better the signal, since this shows stronger rejection from the low.

The pop-and-stop confirmation signals can be based on round-number forex price levels, which are a common psychological support or resistance level. Also, for the bullish pop-and-stop confirmations, forex traders can use other support levels such as Bollinger Bands, polarity indicators, or nearby trading range levels.

A mechanical forex trading system can be programmed to trade breakouts based on the candlestick charting parameters and other technical indicators.

The Harami is a pattern which can help confirm both bullish and bearish breakouts, including the exit point from successful long trades. It consists of one long candle followed by a shorter candle whose body is within the range of the larger body.

Regarding color – The bearish Harami in the below chart shows the typical downward-moving (black) candlesticks with significant “wicks” which signal an impending retracement.

Mechanical trading systems can calculate the candlestick values and apply the appropriate trading rules to use Harami candles to signal either the end of a bullish runup, or a rally after a downtrend.

Forex trading strategies for bullish pop-and-stop breakouts

As shown within the second white circles in the two price charts, the pop-and-stop strategy can be traded together with the counter-move reversal strategy, if the price happens to reverse and fill the gap.

The pop-and-stop strategy takes advantage of the continuing move after the gap-up. Here are the parameters that signal a bullish trade opportunity:

• The price was trading in a narrow range after a big move during the previous time period

• The price “popped” out of its range, then “stopped” moving

• The price should next form the confirmation pattern – A “rejection bar” from the nearest round-number price level

• The price forms a second rejection bar

• Other indicators confirm the expected movement, including Bollinger Bands, polarity oscillators, or proximity to round-number forex price levels, or support and resistant levels

During a bullish breakout, the simplest way to trade the price move is to place a limit order 2 pips ahead of the strongest rejection bar.

For an aggressive strategy, the stop loss can be placed just below the tail of the strongest rejection bar. A more conservative approach is to place the stop-loss order just slightly below the high of the recent range.

The chart above shows the entry point for trading a bullish breakout using the pop-and-stop strategy (left circle) as well as the bearish signal for exiting the trade (right circle). The bearish candles form a Harami candlestick pattern.

“Drop-and-stop” bearish downside breakouts

Forex traders can also take advantage of drop-and-stop bearish downside breakouts, which are the converse of pop-and-stop bullish upside breakouts. Likewise, drop-and-stop downside breakouts are especially tradable when major forex sessions open.

The above chart shows the forex price faltering at the polarity indicator, then breaking downward in a series of strong bearish candles below the preceding range. The first drop-and-stop trading opportunity is shown in the left circle.

Although the following candlestick wasn’t fully confirmed by bearish rejection bars, still, traders can enter after the close of the bearish candle.

The mechanical trading system should set the entry point at one or two pips below the monthly pivot, as in the above chart, or another reliable indicator such as Bollinger Bands, polarity indicators, or nearby trading range levels.

The second circle above shows another drop-and-stop trading opportunity, with a bearish near-rejection candlestick confirming the signal. The trading system should enter the trade at the low point of the strongest rejection bar or most bearish candle.

Be wary of false breakouts

After an apparent breakout, there is a risk that the gap may be “filled.” It’s important to use the subsequent rejection bars as confirming indicators before entering the trade order. It’s also best to trade a pop-and-stop bullish breakout in the direction of market sentiment, especially after news causes a price breakout from a narrow trading range.

The pop-and-stop breakout strategy should only be deployed in the major, highly-liquid forex currency pairs which have enough support for the rally to continue. At the same time, the trader should be aware of upcoming news or corporate announcements that might quickly reverse market sentiment and fill in the recent price gap.

Timing and volume are critical for breakout success

High volume is the single most important confirmation for a breakout and subsequent showing of trend.

Although forex markets are open 24 hours worldwide, volume varies during different time ranges. The largest markets are London/Europe, New York, and Tokyo/Asia.

Predictably, the highest currency trading volumes happen when the New York and London sessions overlap for several hours. This is true even for currencies like Japanese Yen or Australian Dollar whose underlying marketplaces are not open during these time zones.

And, the lowest total forex trading volume is often seen after the New York session closes, in the couple of hours before the Tokyo market opens.

This is important because intraday and daily forex breakout strategies like pop-and-stop and drop-and-stop are more likely to be successful when there is a high trading volume and pricing range, and large number of market participants.

The early London breakouts

Since London is a leading global forex trading and financial center, it often sets up a short-term trend which affects other markets opening at London’s tail end. The early part of the London session is especially promising for profitable pop/drop-and-stop breakout trades.

With a good Expert Advisor (EA), the mechanical trading system can be prepared for breakouts which often happen at the open of forex sessions in London and New York. In fact, these breakout strategies work especially well for the London open.

Trading rules

The pop-and-stop is a short-term, bullish breakout-scalping strategy. It’s best to set tight stops, say 2 to 5 pips, and take profits fairly quickly. When trading the major currency pairs, the safe take-profit limit seems to be a ratio of about 1.5:1 or perhaps 2:1.

Beginning around 8:00 GMT when the London session opens, the mechanical trading system watches the highs and lows of the candlesticks. The system goes “long” if the forex pair price penetrates the high of either or both of the rejection bars, and the price is above the 50 SMA.

The system goes “short” if the price goes below the lowest point of one or both of the rejection bars, assuming the price is below the 50 SMA.

Position size should be limited to no more than 2 or 3% of the trading account equity.

To reduce the risk of trading over-correlated currency pairs, the system places a maximum of only one open trade per day, whether long or short.

Risk management and stop-loss orders

Any forex trading strategy focused on breakouts requires appropriate risk management. When using “pop-and-stop” and “drop-and-stop” breakout strategies with confirming indicators, traders should use stop-loss levels only a few pips away from the entry points.

For either long or short positions, the mechanical trading system automatically places the stop-loss exit order at a level from 2 to 5 pips away from the entry point.

Trailing stops

Once the price moves favorably, the trading system moves the trailing stop along to the next support or resistance level as shown by the preceding candles, and keeps it updated.

Backtesting

Anecdotal reports of backtesting by some forex traders using these two breakout strategies have indicated potential returns of up to 60% in about 8 months, which is a compound annual growth rate of over 100% while max drawdown was less than 13%.

Conclusion

Forex breakout trading with mechanical systems based on “pop-and-stop” and “drop-and-stop” strategies can earn respectable returns as long as the trader relies on appropriate confirmation that the breakout will continue, including rejection bar and Harami candlestick calculations, or other indicators such as Bollinger Bands and support-resistance oscillators.

Before entering the market, a forex trader should check for high trading volume and a broad range of market participants. For traders who correctly time entries, breakouts can be very profitable moves.

Do you use any breakout strategies?

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Something to read-a modern adaptation of the wyckoff method

Something to read-a modern adaptation of the wyckoff methodSOMETHING TO READ - A Modern Adaptation Of The Wyckoff Method

Trades About To Happens. A Modern Adaptation Of The Wyckoff Method

by David H. Weis and Alexander Elder

While Richard Wyckoff's search to develop a "trained judgment" for trading began decades ago, his method which has been modified to account for changes in market conditions, but remains true to his original work - continues to draw great interest from traders around the world.

Author David Weis is a trader and market analyst with nearly forty years of experience in this field. A recognized authority on the trading methods of Richard Wyckoff, he understands how to utilize the principles behind Wyckoff's work and make effective trades with them. And now, with Trades About to Happen, he skillfully reveals how to adapt Wyckoff's techniques to excel in today's volatile markets.

Engaging and accessible, this reliable resource looks at Wyckoff's approach from a more modern perspective and shows how you can logically interpret bar charts and wave charts to find trades about to happen. By studying the chart examples in this book, you'll gain tremendous insight into reading what markets are saying about themselves and develop the ability to locate turning points of different degrees. Page by page, Weis facilitates your learning by:

Comparing efforts of buying or selling with the reward - volume versus upward or downward progress

Considering the meaning of the close within the range of a price bar

Looking for shortening of upward or downward thrust as well as follow-through, or lack of follow - through, after penetrations of support resistance

Exploring the interaction of price with trend lines, channels, and support/resistance lines—which often highlight the price/volume story

Watching for tests of high-volume or "vertical" areas where price accelerates upward or downward

And much more

Along the way, Weis introduces the adaptations he has made to Wyckoff's original tape-reading tools—which are better suited for the enormous volatility of today's stock and futures markets - and can be applied to intraday and daily price movement.

When it comes to Wyckoff analysis, it's easy to forget that the world of chart reading is not black or white, but gray. One has to have an open mind rather than a fixed, pre-conceived ideal. Trades About to Happen will help you achieve this goal as you discover how to develop the feel and intuition of a successful trader and become better equipped at adapting the Wyckoff method to today's dynamic markets.

Stock trading computer trading rules strategies for success free download how to reduce the emotiona

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Forex trading101-fx trading strategies for beginners

Forex trading101-fx trading strategies for beginnersThe Basics on how to trade Forex Everything you need to know

The currency market or Foreign exchange market is one of the most rapidly changing investing markets in the world, with over 5 trillon USD traded everyday! FX can be highly profitable to individuals and companies that can predict minimal changes in currency pairs.

Currencies tend to only change minimally on a daily basis, but as explained in the what is forex article. with leverage you can create high percentage profits daily, if not hourly, on minimal currency changes. Currencies or positions can be held for minutes all the way to years and the frequency at which you trade is entirely dependent on what you are trying to accomplish both long and short term.

The forex markets are extremely stable, as currency prices are based off supply and demand, which cannot be easily manipulated, even billions invested by banks cannot move prices. The markets can provide both long and short term sources of profits, but there are a number of basics that individuals should know before starting trading in the fx markets.

Understand Quotes, Currency Pairs and the PIP

When you first look into starting to trade Forex, especially if you are a complete beginner, the quotes and graphs and mountains of data can look pretty daunting.

Every currency quote will be valued against another currency. Hence the price will always be displayed as: Currency1/currency2 = Price. For example most platforms or brokers will generally display prices similar to below, (image source ).

The base currency is always equal to 1 unit, in this case you can sell 1 euro for 1.4745 USD.

Direct vs Indirect Quotes

Currency pairs can either be quoted directly or indirectly. A direct quote is simply where the domestic currency is quoted first, whereas an indirect quote is simply where the domestic currency is the quoted figure.

The PIP (Spread)

The difference between the bid and ask prices is called the spread. Most forex brokers dont tend to take commissions or charge to trade in the fx markets. Instead they make their money by the spread on a currency. The spread is measured in points or PIPS. In the above example the 4th decimal point indicates the spread and the difference is 1 point (45 to 46) and hence the spread is 1 Pip .

The pip itself is the smallest fraction by which a currency can move. Pips can vary for different currencies but must pips tend to be the 4th decimal place on a currency pair. The spreads themselves tend to be 5 pips. For example at the time of writing the spread for the Euro to the US Dollar is pictured right. This is a spread of 4 pips.

Forex Markets Opening Times

In the opening hour of the day the forex markets are incredibly active and the majority of large trades by big companies are done. This is not the ideal time to invest if you are a newbie to fx trading. Id recommend waiting and trading throughout the day when the fluctuations are less violent. The forex market opening times are below;

The Forex Toolbox

Forex trading is done online instantaneously (or close enough anyway.) So its important to have the most efficient tools to allow you to get every advantage on the information and signals you research.

The perfect trading platform We have done extensive research into this subject here at EFT. Check out our guide HERE for more information on the top forex brokers around in 2015.

Leverage Calculate how much leverage you can afford, afford to lose and most importantly NEED to make your trading profitable. Its worthless trading $1000 including leverage as even a great day will only equal a 1% ROI and hence a $10 profit. Not worth it. With 100x leverage this $10 profit becomes $1000 a daySuddenly becomes a lot more valuable.

Experience / Training / Guides Please tell me you werent just going to jump into trading straight away? Pick up a GOOD guide. We have our awesome free training course here .

Automated Robots Consider automating your Forex trading with the use of robots. These are generally frowned upon but they do work very well from our testing.

Thanks for reading and remember to sign up to our monthly newsletter to get some incredible forex trading tips!

Five fibonacci tricks

Five fibonacci tricksFive Fibonacci Tricks

Fibonacci jumped into the technical mainstream late in the bull market. Futures traders had it all to themselves until real-time software ported it over to the equity markets. Its popularity exploded as retail traders experimented with its arcane math and discovered its many virtues.

Fibonacci ratios describe the interaction between trend and countertrend markets -- 38%, 50% and 62% retracements form the primary pullback levels. Apply these percentages after a trend in either direction to predict the extent of the countertrend swing. Stretch a grid over the most obvious up or down wave, and see how percentages cross key price levels.

Convergence between pattern and retracement can point to excellent trading opportunities. Keep in mind that retracements work poorly in a vacuum. Always examine highs, lows and moving averages to confirm the importance of a specific level.

Discord between retracement and the underlying pattern generates noise instead of profit. Move on to a new chart when nothing lines up correctly. This divergence generates most of the whipsaw in a price chart. Alternatively, strong phasing between Fibonacci and pattern exposes highly predictive reversals at narrow price levels.

Let's look at five tricks to improve your Fibonacci skills. Add these twists and turns to your toolbox and apply them to your next trade. I promise they'll serve you very well in the years ahead.

First Rise/First Failure

First Rise/First Failure marks the first 100% retracement of a trend within your time frame of interest. It provides an early reversal warning after a new high or low. The 100% retracement violates the major price direction and terminates the trend it corrects. From this level, the old trend can reestablish itself if it breaks through the old 38% level. More often, traders will use that level to enter low-risk positions against the old trend.

Parabola Hunt

Parabolic movement tends to occur between the 0%-to-38% and 62%-to-100% Fibonacci levels in all trends. This tendency offers a great tool for finding the big moves when looking for trades. Watch for congestion to form at the 38% or 62% level. Then use a simple breakout or breakdown strategy when price moves past it. The next thrust can be dramatic, with price moving like a magnet back to an old high or low. Of course, the strategy only works when you can find these levels in advance.

Continuation Gap Extensions

You can often target the exact price a rally or selloff will end at by using the continuation gap as a Fibonacci extension tool. Identify the gap by its location at the dead center of a vertical price wave. Then start a Fib grid at the beginning of the trend and extend it so the gap sits under the 50% retracement level. The grid extension points to the terminating price for the rally or selloff.

Overnight Grids

Find an active stock and start a grid from the high (or low) of a session's last hour. Stretch the grid to the opposite end of the next morning's first hour low (or high). This defines a specific price wave traders can use to uncover intraday reversals, breakouts and breakdowns. The overnight grid also offers a way to trade morning gaps. The gap will often stretch across a key retracement level and target low-risk entry on a pullback.

Second High/Low

Many traders can't figure out where to start a Fib grid. Here's a trick to help you place it where it'll do the most good. The absolute high or low in a price wave isn't the best starting point for a grid most of the time. Instead, look for a small double bottom or double top within the congestion where the trend began. Swing one end of the grid over this second high (or low), instead of the first. This will capture a specific Elliott Wave that conforms to the trend you're trying to trade.

It strategy template

It strategy templateIT Strategy Template

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Enclosed is a simple template to create an IT Strategy for your organization. This is intended to be the starting point not a definitive or exhaustive workbook on creating an IT Strategy.

The New CXO Mindset

How to effectively use Information Technology to gain and maintain competitive advantage

Sourabh Hajela

Information Technology Strategy Template

Name: _____________________________________

Business Name: _____________________________________

Why do some organizations create unprecedented shareholder value using IT, while others are lost at sea? It is no secret that IT is a strategic weapon that can be used toward competitive advantage, what is often in doubt is how to make it happen. Can you say with certainty that you are getting the biggest bang for your IT buck? Can you prove it? If gaining sustainable competitive advantage is an imperative for you, read on. This IT Strategy Template will show you how to use IT for shareholder value…and we can prove it!

IT Strategy Template: Baseline

Q1. What are your top 5 business “pain” points?

These are things that you wish you had or had a solution for. Please put the first 5 things that come to mind.

Business “pain” points:

______________________________________________________________________________

______________________________________________________________________________

______________________________________________________________________________

______________________________________________________________________________

______________________________________________________________________________

Q2. What are your top 5 business “objectives”?

For example, the following are some common reasons that drive business strategy:

Business objectives forward action: Things that you must do to succeed

Business objectives risk mitigation: Things you must avoid to succeed

Business objectives overcoming roadblocks: Thing you must overcome to succeed

Business objectives other?

These can be short term or long term. They can be driven by revenue, cost, time to market, competitive advantage, risk or some other reason.

Business Objectives (Long Term/Short Term):

LT/ST__________________________________________________________________________

LT/ST__________________________________________________________________________

LT/ST__________________________________________________________________________

LT/ST__________________________________________________________________________

LT/ST__________________________________________________________________________

Q3. How do you plan to achieve these objectives?

For example:

If revenue increase is an objective, then enhancing the scope and reach of your distribution channel is an imperative. This can be achieved by going direct to customer or getting more distributors for your product.

If reducing cost is an objective, then sending electronic statements can reduce printing costs

If margins is the issue then selling direct can reduce broker/distributor commissions

Trading the gbp

Trading the gbpTrading The GBP/JPY (British Pound/Japanese Yen )

The GBP/JPY currency cross (British Pound/Japanese Yen) is the relation of the British Pound against the Japanese Yen. The GBP/JPY is extremely volatile and can easily move 200-350 pips in one single trading day!

Dont trade this pair if you are a forex beginner or if you dont like extreme volatility! The GBP/JPY cross currency gives one the possibility to convert pounds directly into yens.

Typical broker spread: 4-10 pips

Common used nicknames: Gopher

Most active trading sessions: London session and US session

Most active trading hours: 7:00 GMT 17:30 GMT and during major economic releases from Japan (Asian session)

Average daily range (high-low): 238 pips

Trading strategies to trade GBP/JPY: Click here

Recommended level of trading experience: Expert

Value of one pip GBP/JPY: Variable

Economic Events That Move The British Pound/Japanese Yen

Forex candlestick and chart patterns

Forex candlestick and chart patternsForex Candlestick and Chart Patterns

In today forex faq, we have a question regarding the forex candlestick and chart patterns from one of our fellow traders.

Below is the question:

Concerning forex candlestick and chart patterns on which timesframes would they be most valid? How do you estimate your target profit on a trade? Thank you

Regarding your first question on which timeframes would the forex candlestick and chart patterns by most valid, I will say that they are valid on all time frames.

The problem is if you are using a lower time frame like the 1 or 5 minutes to trade, you will get more noise in your trading. Personally I am using the 15 minutes and 1 hour chart to trade as they have lesser noise.

As for your second question on how to estimate your target profit. There is 2 ways you can go about doing it.

You could use a major support or resistance level as your exit point. For example, when you see the price hitting a major resistance like the pivot point or Fibonacci extension level, you can exit your position already.

Alternatively, you can use a risk reward calculation to exit your position. For example, if you are risking 30 pips every trade and you are eying a risk reward of 1:3, you will always exit your position when the price hits 90 pips.

Some of you may argue that what happens when the price moves 80 pips in your favor and then reverse to take you out. It is okay as your 1:3 risk reward ratio will help you to recoup back the losses.

For example: if you take 10 trades every month and your strategy has a winning percentage of 30% which means that you are going to win 3 trades only every month and lost 7 trades.

If you are trading with $500 per trade. Below is your profit and loss based on 1:3 risk reward ratio:

3 Wins = $1500 x 3 = $4,500

7 Losses = $500 x 7 = $$3,500

You are making $1,000 per month even when you lost 7 out of 10 trades and that is how powerful risk reward ratio is to trading.

I hope that I have answered both your questions. Do give your comment below if there is anything that you are not clear. For those of you who are reading this post and has something to contribute, do feel free to give your comment below.

Spread trading information

Spread trading informationSpread Trading

It is quite interesting to note that little is known about spreads in view of the fact, so many people are now interested in trading forex contracts. In every sense of the word, each currency pair traded in forex is actually a spread between the two currencies involved.

The factor that differentiates spreads in forex currency contracts, from spreads in currency futures contracts is that futures spreads are based on the arithmetic difference between the two currencies, whereas forex spreads are based on the ratio of one currency to another. On a physical basis, both legs of a futures spread occur in separate markets, whereas forex spreads take place as a single entity in a single market.

The result is that futures spreads are graphed as line charts, having only a close with no open, high, or low, whereas forex spreads are graphed in the usual manner showing an open, high, low and close.

How and where do you look for profitable spreads?

There are a number of situations that create profitable spread trading opportunities. Lets look at them now:

1. Beginning of Backwardation (Inverted market)

2. Ending of Backwardation (Inverted market)

3. Seasonality

4. Correlation

5. Observation

BACKWARDATION

The normal pricing of storable and re-deliverable commodities is that the front (spot) month is lower in price than that of the more distant months. This is due to the fact that there is a premium to pay for storage, insurance, and interest. The further distant is the delivery date, the more expensive it is to carry the underlying and the higher are the “costs of carry.” When the pricing structure is normal, prices are said to be in “contango.”

Just the opposite is true for financial futures contracts—since the only carrying charge is that of interest, and the interest is expected to be received, not paid at delivery time, contango exists when the price of the front month is higher in price than the months further distant of the underlying financial instrument.

From time to time, due to fundamental factors, such as abnormal weather, war, speeches by officials, or unusual breaking-news items, the demand for immediate delivery becomes very great and the situation in the front month changes. For storable and re-deliverable commodities the front month begins to be priced higher than the more distant delivery months, and for financial instruments, the price for the front month begins to be priced lower than the more distant delivery months. When this happens, prices are said to be in “backwardation.”

Beginning of backwardation

The beginning of backwardation in a commodity gives an opportunity to enter a profitable spread, by going long the front month and short the nearby or even further distant month. The beginning of backwardation in a financial instrument offers the trader an opportunity to go short the front month and long the nearby or even further distant month.

Entering a spread

Exiting a spread

Ending of backwardation

As the conditions which caused prices to go into backwardation end, and as prices return to their normal relationship (contango), spread traders have another profit-making opportunity. As backwardation ends, doing the opposite of what was done at the beginning of backwardation has the potential to result in excellent profits.

SEASONALITY

Seasonality in spread trading has consistently proven to offer profitable opportunities for entering spread trades. Under normal circumstances, seasonal factors are highly reliable indicators of what will happen regarding the relationship between the months of a particular underlying, whether that be a storable or re-deliverable commodity, or a financial instrument.

The relationship between crops which have been harvested and are now in storage, and the next crop, which has just been planted (old-crop, new-crop), offer excellent spread trading opportunities.

Seasonal trades exist between markets as well. When wheat is being harvested, pressure will be on the wheat crop for lower prices, while at the same time it is unknown as to the harvest realities of both soybeans and corn. Selling short wheat and going long soybeans or corn during the wheat harvest can be profitable provided that there is no existing or anticipated shortage of wheat, along with no huge oversupply of soybeans and corn.

People often ask whether there could possibly be seasonality in financial instruments, and the answer is most definitely, YES! There is seasonality in and among a variety of financial instruments. Currencies, stock indexes, bonds, notes and all other interest related financial futures all display seasonal tendencies.

For many years US dollar gyrations have rocked foreign exchange markets, driving most major currencies higher against the dollar. But some currencies have enjoyed greater benefit than others. Some foreign economies, for example, have been strong enough to give official rise to concerns of overheating. In contrast, other economies are best described as having seen better days. Thus, the currency that is strong will generally outperforming the currency that is weak, giving rise to an excellent spread opportunity.

CORRELATION

Spreads are often entered into because of correlation with prior years. For some underlying fundamental reason, not necessarily known to us now, a spread is behaving in the same way it did in one or more previous years. The correlation is discovered through the process of regression analysis. The correlation often gives rise to extremely profitable spreads, with no need for the trader to understand or even know what happened in the past to cause the spread to behave the way it is anticipated to behave in the future.

Note: Both Seasonal and Correlation spreads give the trader days, weeks, and even months in advance to plan a trading strategy and the tactics that will be used to implement the strategy.

OBSERVATION

Sometimes spread opportunities are simply obvious. For instance, there are times when one stock index is clearly outperforming another stock index. At such times, a spread between the two offers outstanding profit opportunities. It is often quite clear that the E-mini SP 500 is outperforming the E-mini Nasdaq 100 (the reverse can be true also). A spread between the two will yield excellent profits, yet the margin for the spread holding overnight, is only a fraction of the margin for trading in the individual futures.

Every spread weve mentioned has reduced margins, which means you could have received 2-5 times more leverage than by trading an outright futures contract.

At one point in time for example, Soybean spreads were quite active and trending. For soybeans, margin was only $743 for the spread whereas margin for the outright contract was $2,025. Soybean futures would have to make a move almost 3 times greater than did the spread for it to have been worth risking the outright futures. Spreads generally have lower risk than outright futures.

Spread trading is something that every trader should at least consider looking into. However, do not confuse spread trading in futures with the “spread betting” that takes place in the UK. They are entirely different one from the other.

Forex365institute llc reviews robot

Forex365institute llc reviews robotForex 365 Institute Llc Reviews Robot

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Holiday schedule

Holiday scheduleHoliday Schedule

When trading Forex, it's important to know when national holidays occur as they can serve as a good guide for forecasting market situations in this period. As a rule, there is a jump in market activity immediately after a holiday is over. With care, you can choose the most profitable time to enter and leave the market.

Alpari Group:

Alpari Limited, Cedar Hill Crest, Villa, Kingstown VC0100, Saint Vincent and the Grenadines, West Indies, is incorporated under registered number

20389 IBC 2012 by the Registrar of International Business Companies, registered by the Financial Services Authority of Saint Vincent and

the Grenadines.

Alpari Limited, 60 Market Square, Belize City, Belize, is incorporated under registered number 137,509, authorized by the International Financial Services Commission of Belize, license number IFSC/60/301/TS/15 .

Alpari was one of the companies involved in the formation of CRFIN (the Center for Regulating OTC Financial Instruments and Technologies).

Alpari is a member of The Financial Commission. an international organization engaged in the resolution of disputes within the financial services industry in the Forex market.

Risk Disclaimer. Before you start trading, you should completely understand the risks involved with the currency market and trading on margin, and you should be aware of your level of experience.

1998-2015 Alpari Limited

Forex trading robots review

Forex trading robots reviewForex Trading Robots Review

Quantum FX Bot Review–High Tech Or Recycled Forex Trading Robot?

Reviews on Quantum FX Bot are amazingly positive. It is an advanced, completely new technology incorporating visual indicators for active traders who have the flexibility for full control of adjusting the parameters for their trading style. Left on its own, Quantum FX Bot, in it’s out of the box default mode, made 300% profits in less than 6 months. The results are factual and validated by third party authentication. It is unlike any other forex software product ever, robots or manual. In addition to its revolutionary Quantum Strength Filters and unique algorithm set-up, it also has an advanced money mangement system that is greedy and does not like to lose its user’s money. Overall, even without having it our possession, it is a strong buy and will be tremendously popular over the slow forex summer and our impression will not be outmatched for quite some time if not years. Quantum FX Bot’s shortfalls are that it is brand new, will be in limited supply so it does have inherent unknown risks just by the fact not many have actually used it. In our eyes, the risk will be minimal. That is the short reviewmore details to come before its 14 June, 9AM Eastern Time Release.

More Detail’s About Quantum FX Bot

The Quantum FX Bot is based around 6 “Quantum Strength Filters” (QSFs) that gather data from “revolutionary” never seen before algorithms. The algorithms were developed over years of adapting to the trading pattern of Paul Morton, a multi-millionaire forex trader. The QSFs constantly gather data from the proprietary algorithms and filter out minor forex movements unseen to the experienced eye.

The filters significantly reduce false entries that bleed out profits. Quantum FX Box uses three of the six QSFs evaluate strength of the buy side, while the three QSFs are evaluate the sell side. All six QSFs (filters) are displayed with vertical dynamic bars located on the left corner of the live chart. Above the six indicators is an overall bias arrow indicating whether the forex pair is trending to the buy or sell side of the trade. The beta became a major tool used by forex testers added the QSF indicators into their manual trading systems.

Keep in mind that Quantum FX Bot is designed as a forex robot with built in default settings that will safely trade and profit without any human monitoring. Knowing that forex day traders are often prone to taking higher risk, Quantum FX Bot is fully capable of being adjusted to the users trading style. This is a great feature that allows the user to be in control and manual trade while still using the QSF indicators in addition to each trader’s risk preference. The Quantum FX Bot appears to have all bases covered for forex traders of all calibre, newbie to pro.

Reviews on Quantum FX Bot are amazingly positive.

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Ichimoku Kinko Hyo Forex Strategy

Submit by MavenTrader 18/02/2012

Look at the red circle #1. As you notice in #1 it gives us a sell signal. All indicators say yes to sell so we do. We set a stop of about 20-30 pips and we wait. So after an hour or so we notice that our trade has broken its support. And down it goes staying within the uprights. It breaks through the small Ichimoku cloud which because this cloud is not very large its not really that exciting to us but then it breaks support again! and continues down. Until it hits a lower support line and comes back up to our Kinju-Sen line where in #2 it gives us a buy signal again to close our position and to open another trade if we want too.

We have closed our short (sell) position from #1 green/red circle and now open a long (buy) position at the #2 green circle because all indicators say yes. In this case because we are trading only on the Kinju-Sen line we would have taken a loss. We didn't know where to take our profit so we took a loss. This is okay its fine relax.

We have moved on to #3 green circle where we close our previous long position with a loss and open a new short position. Now before we move on I want to add something else. As you notice the Kinju-Sen lines goes horizontally and we lose some pips by closing our previous short once again and open a new long position. Here is one thing I want you to take a look at and test on your own.

Okay so take a look at the first close/open candle in #3. You will notice that the first candle gives us a close/open position but the second candle does not because not all indicators say yes. The Kinju-Sen line does not touch the next candle. This is good because the following candle means we can now close/open a new position (Like we have just done above) or in other cases add to our confirmation or to our position. Now take a look at how that candle confirms our new long (buy) position but the next candle does too? This is where a rule comes in.

• When closing/opening a trade we look to the next candle and if that candle is NOT touching the Kinju-Sen line then we can close/open a new trade on the second candle from our new position.

• If the first and second candle do touch then we must wait till the third or even the fourth candle to open/close a new trade.

• If we have waited on the third candle and it touches and still gives us a buy then we can add to our position.

Take a look at our new position #3 the second confirmation candle. As you can see the market moves up on our long position. It blows through the Ichimoku cloud and continues upward to #4 green circle. This is where the rule comes in again. It has been far more than 3-4 candles away and it doesn't confirm a close/short position but it confirms another buy position so we add to our long. It continues up to #5 red circle where it confirms a close/short position. We have now closed all our trades on this chart. We may have played #5 like we did in #3 or we may have played it even better.

To recap from #1-#5 we made a total of about 6 trades. The numbers are off on my chart but it is very close. Spread was not taken into consideration when doing those numbers. As well as the trades between the first confirmation in #3 to the next one in #3 and #4 was left out.

Jeremy doss and his jd trading strategy signals service!

Jeremy doss and his jd trading strategy signals service!Jeremy Doss And His JD Trading Strategy Signals Service!

May 4 2012

Sometimes in the last few months of 2011, a new forex signals service Traders Elite was launched. Then Jeremy Doss was on the Traders Elite Signals team. Traders Elite is still going strong and getting raving reviews. So did Jeremy Doss when he was on the Traders Elite Signals team. His trading signals were top notch and had a high win rate as high as 80-90%. Why did Jeremy Doss left? Not sure but he has again surfaced with his own JD Trading Strategy site. JD Trading Strategy membership lets you trade alongside Jeremy Doss again.

There are a number of advantages when you trade alongside an accomplished forex trader. Now if you happen to be a tennis player or a golf player, you might be aware of this fact that watching a pro tennis player or a pro golf player play can improve your game a lot. Yes, just by watching a pro player play, you can improve your playing. Trading is a visual game too. Believe me by watching a pro trader trade or make his trading decisions, you will experience within a short time your forex trading taking off with a new level of confidence that you never had before.

JD Trading Strategy membership gives you the opportunity not only to trade alongside Jeremy Doss but you will also get trading signals generated by Jeremy Doss on 23 forex charts, 5 stock indices, 4 commodities and 3 precious metals. Via live traders chat, you will be able to interact with Jeremy Doss and get the opportunity to ask him any questions that you have about his trading strategy, trades or the current market conditions.

There is a trade copier software available as well. This trade copier software has a number of features that are not available in other trade copier software. For example, it lets you take partial profit and place pending orders and much more. Now Jeremy Doss is giving 60 days of no questions asked money back guarantee so that you can test drive his JD Trading Strategy service.

This is what you should do. Test the trade copier software on the demo account for a week initially. At the end of the week, check whether the trade copier is executing the trades properly or not. If not, check whether the installation was correct or not. And if it is working properly, check how many pips you made during the week, what was the win rate of the trades and how many pips you lost during the week. If you are satisfied with the performance of JD Trading Strategy signals, you can continue for 3 more weeks. At the end of the month, check the performance of these signals. If the performance is good and you are satisfied, you can plan to trade live using the JD Trading Strategy signals and if the performance is not good, you can simply go for a refund.

Get A Simple Forex System FREE That More Than Doubles My Account Every Month With 2-3 Set & Forget Trades & Can Also Be Used To Trade Forex Binary Options!

Best forex trading brokers in nigeria

Best forex trading brokers in nigeriaNigeria Best Forex Trading Brokers

InstaForex - the best broker in Asia

InstaForex trading conditions are universal tools for funds management on Forex. The priority of InstaForex international broker is rendering high-grade investment services aimed at deriving profit from operating on the worldwide financial markets. InstaForex clients use the cutting-edge technologies in online trading; they also have access to news and other helpful information resources provided by the leading agencies.

Today, InstaForex services are of a great interest for more than 2 000 000 Forex traders all over the world. Among them there are both beginners and professionals. Opening an account, you get access to trading on Forex, CFDs on NYSE stocks and also to currencies and commodities futures.

InstaForex Company offers its clients to get the Welcome bonus to the trading account. The floating Welcome bonuses are credited after every deposit to the trading account through one of the payment systems available at InstaForex Company.

InstaForex customers are able to use InstaForex bonus points to pay up to 50% of their purchases costs in InstaForex branded store. The bonus points are automatically credited to all live accounts for each closed deal. Broker's partners can earn bonus points by carrying out operations on the currency market or get them from every trade closed by their referrals.

InstaForex customers can take advantage of an extraordinary opportunity to partake in the no-lose ForexCopy system. Within the system a forex trader follows trades of another one in a real time mode. In order to automatically copy trades, a trader needs to subscribe to a preferred account, adjusting such parameters as a ratio of copying and currency pairs on which trades will be copied and executed. If such a trade turns out to be profitable, a ForexCopy trader receives a commission set earlier for providing this service to the follower.

InstaForex Company gives you the opportunity to work with 107 currency pairs, 200 CFDs on American shares and transactions on gold and also renders ECN broker services. We provide competitive and effective spreads for each trading instrument in order to create convenient trading conditions for our clients.

We offer traders the opportunity to work on the money market regardless of the capital size. You simply choose the most convenient working conditions that suit your deposit and start trading on Forex. You can begin working with a deposit of any size — $10 or $100,000 — gradually increasing it in order to pass over to bigger investments for good profit. Most of our clients began with a $10 deposit, and have developed into professional traders with thousands of dollars. You can do the same!

You can choose any leverage from 1:1 up to 1:1000 depending on the risk management strategy you use when trading. Should you be a long-term trader who abides by conservatism when it comes to capital management, then a 1:100 leverage is for you. But if you are an aggressive type of daytime trader, then a 1:1000 leverage may become your irreplaceable profit tool.

InstaForex Company provides great opportunities for its clients. You do not need a spread to work on the money market anymore! This gives both new and professional traders even more possibilities! Without spread, the trading process is easier to perceive visually, and technical analysis is more effective for decision making.

Every customer can protect his trading account from hacking by enabling SMS password service which includes a request of one-time SMS password for every withdrawal. So, activating the SMS protection service in Client Cabinet, the owner of a trading account defends his funds from unauthorized withdrawal by hackers in case the trader password was stolen.

InstaForex owns 8 trading servers and 50 data centres all over the world which ensure even load distribution. Such extensive network allows rendering reliable and high quality service to more than 2 000,000 clients from every corner of the world and makes the trading process with InstaForex Company very convenient. Regardless of the location, every trading server functions stably and accurately, covering the gap of thousands kilometres from one server to another in 0.2 second. Any client of InstaForex Company opening a live trading account can choose the location of a trading

Each company's client can download mobile platform, web platform, MetaTrader 4 and Metatrader 5 platforms. It should be reminded that InstaForex is the first company in the world to have launched MT5 live trading accounts.

Nowadays InstaForex Company has 260 offices all over the world including Nigeria. Choose the country below to find information about the office you are interested in. InstaForex Provide you with instant funding options and withdrawal options.

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Renko stochastic system for metastock

Renko stochastic system for metastockRenko + Stochastic System for Metastock

Renko + Stochastic System for Metastock

Dear friends,

I have ?created? a system based in Renko and Stochastic. I think is really powerfull because it can detect the up and dowtrends and it filters very well when market goes lateral.

I have tested the system with blue chip stocks with high volume also in index and all is ok. It works poorly with low level stocks.

First of all open a daily chart in Metastock and put the prices in Renko style. Best renko brick size will be what Metastock calculates by default.

Note that in this kind of chart, only price matters, not the time.

Next, add a Stochastic indicator with K% (Time=8, Slowing= 3) and %D (Time=3 Style=invisible) values. Draw horizontal lines +20, +40, +60, +80.

Rules are :

If stochastic rises to more than 60 and renko turns white, then BUY

If stochastic falls to less than 40 and renko turns black, then SELL

If stochastic rises to 60 or more but falls under 60 again, and when falls renko turns black, then SELL

If stochastic falls to 40 or less but rises over 40 again, and when rises renko turns white, then BUY

Well, you can test by yourself and realize that is a great system, but I would like to go further. I?d like to test it in the Metastock?s System Tester so I search in google and I found this indicator:

Bulli Renkoline

==================================

K:= LastValue( Fml( Bulli RenkBoxSize) ) ;

RenkoLine:=If(Cum(1)=1,CLOSE,

If(PREV>=0,

If(CLOSE<PREV-2*K,-(PREV-2*K),

If(CLOSE>Abs(PREV)+2*K,-PREV+2*K,

Floor(Max(Abs(PREV)-C,0)/K)*K+PREV)));

RL:=Abs(RenkoLine);

BW:=If(Cum(1)=1,0,

If(RL>Ref(RL,-1),+1,If(RL<Ref(RL,-1),-1,PREV)));

Forex broker pakistan

Forex broker pakistanForex Broker Pakistan

In Pakistan, commodities and retail currency trading is regulated and overseen by the Securities and Exchange Commission of Pakistan. Located in Islamabad, SEC of Pakistan is responsible for not only the oversight of the exchange-based trading of securities and futures, but it also serves as the main regulatory body of the banking system, insurance industry, REITS, mortgage providers, and many other financial insituations active in the country. Pakistan, like its neighbor India, is not the most popular regional center for retail forex brokers, and retail forex services are provided by internationally active companies. Still, frauds by local "brokers" is not uncommon, and the SECP is constantly taking new action to curtail their activities.

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Forex broker guide platforms and account details

Forex broker guide platforms and account detailsForex Broker Guide: Platforms And Account Details

Figure 1: This TradeStation order entry window provides easy-to-use buttons to place trades or to close open positions.

Typical EUR/USD Spread on Standard

Brokers typically make their money on the spread ; that is, the difference between the bid and the ask price. A EUR/USD quote of 1.3943 - 1.3946 has a 3 pip spread. That means that as soon as a market participant buys at 1.3946, the position has already lost 3 pips of value since it could only be sold for 1.3943. Typically, the majors . which include the U. S. dollar/Japanese yen (USD/JPY), the euro/US dollar (EUR/USD), the U. S. dollar/Swiss franc (USD/CHF), and the British pound/U. S. dollar (GBP/USD), trade with greater liquidity and tighter spreads, but the various brokers can determine the spread for each currency pair. A typical spread for the EUR/USD currency pair traded on a standard account might range from 1-2 pips. Many brokers, however, reward their standard account clients with tighter spreads, and some offer premium accounts with even more favorable spreads. (For related reading, see Retail FX Spreads: Do They Even Matter? )

Typical EUR/USD on Micro

Since micro accounts are the smallest accounts, brokers may utilize a wider spread to try to make money. While the spread varies from broker to broker, forex traders could expect to see spreads of 2-3 pips. though some brokers do offer the same spreads on both standard and micro accounts. In addition, some brokers state in their fine print that during times of increased market volatility. such as during the release of important economic or political news, the spread on micro accounts for certain pairs can be raised.

Number of Pairs Offered

While there are numerous currencies available for trading, only a few get the majority of attention, and therefore, trade with the greatest degree of liquidity. The majors (USD/JPY, EUR/USD, USD/CHF, and GBP/USD) tend to trade in more predictable movements and ranges; however, many more currency pairs are traded. A broker may offer a huge selection of forex pairs, but what is most important is that they offer the pair(s) in which the trader is interested. (For related reading, see Top 7 Questions About Currency Trading Answered. )

Demo Account

Most brokers offer free demo accounts so traders can test drive the trading platform prior to opening and funding an account. This is important for several reasons. First, it gives traders the opportunity to use the platform to determine if it is intuitive, robust and user-friendly, or complicated. Secondly, using a demo account allows traders to practice making trades before money is on the line. This is particularly important in regards to entering and exiting trades, as well as placing profit target and protective stop-loss orders. Order entry mistakes – pilot error – can be extremely costly, and the best way to avoid these types of losses is to practice with a demo account, with no money on the line. Lastly, a demo account affords the trader the opportunity to learn the subtle tricks of a platform, which can increase efficiency in real trading. Knowing that a simple right-click of the mouse can close all open positions instead of having to go into a menu and sub-menu can save time and money.

Maximum Leverage

Forex traders have access to a variety of leverage depending on the broker and the country where the broker is located. Leverage is represented as a ratio; for example, leverage could be 50:1 or 200:1. Leverage is a loan extended to margin account holders by their brokers. Using 50:1 leverage, for example, a trader with an account size of $1000 can hold a position that is valued at $50,000. Leverage works in a trader's favor with winning positions since the potential for profits is greatly enhanced. Leverage can, however, quickly destroy a trader's account since the potential for losses is magnified as well. Because leverage can cause catastrophic losses, it should always be used judiciously. (For related reading, see Adding Leverage To Your Forex Trading. )

Minimum Standard Account Deposit

Standard accounts are appropriate for experienced and/or professional traders, and trade with a standard lot, or contract, size of 100,000 units. A one-pip change in a currency pair is equal to $10 for EUR/USD. While many brokers require a minimum deposit of $10,000, others do offer lower deposits of $3,000 or even $1,000. With leverage, of course, the buying power is much greater than the minimum deposit, which is one reason forex trading is so attractive to traders and investors.

Minimum Micro Account Deposit

A micro account allows forex participants to trade in much smaller increments than a standard account. A micro lot is equal to 1,000 units of the base currency, compared with a standard lot's 100,000 units. A one-pip change in a currency pair traded in a micro account equates to a $0.10 change for EUR/USD. Mini-accounts are also available that have a size of 10,000 units of the base currency, and where a one-pip fluctuation is equivalent to $1 for EUR/USD. Designed for new traders, micro accounts are appropriate for traders who want to trade with less of an investment, or who are ready to put real money on the line – just not a lot of it. As traders gain confidence, more lots can be added to increase exposure. Many brokers allow traders to open micro accounts with as little as $5. It should be noted that some brokers offer micro accounts as "self-service" accounts, and no telephone or chat support is provided. All support is conducted through e-mail, FAQs and an online trading community.

Mobile Trading

Mobile forex trading is increasingly important to traders on the go, and provides a convenient means of staying on top of the markets. Many of the larger and reputable brokers offer the ability to access charts and trade entry windows via applications designed for the iPhone/iPad or Android operating systems. Typically, these applications are included free of charge with a funded trading account. Forex Broker Guide: Broker Support

Free excel trading log template

Free excel trading log templateFree Excel trading log template

Free Excel trading log template

Joined Dec 2010

Re: Free Excel trading log template (V3)

Here's the latest version of a free excel tool I developed to analyze each trade’s risk factors, in the form of reward/risk ratio and R multiple. It is also its useful when testing new trading systems to gauge their expectancy.

Feel free to use it as you wish. Its not great for intraday trading as it takes too long to input data but for longer term trades helps me to be mindful of capital protection.

A few points:

• The initial entries are fictitious – just used for testing (It will be better to just overwrite them rather than deleting them and risk losing the formulas).

• The yellow columns are the only ones that require data input.

• Cell error messages (e. g. #div/0) relate to empty or ‘0’ content cells and correct themselves on corresponding data entry.

A few column explanations:

Reward / Risk ratio

A ratio used by many investors to compare the expected returns of an investment to the amount of risk undertaken to capture these returns. This ratio is calculated mathematically by dividing the amount of profit the trader expects to have made when the position is closed (i. e. the reward) by the amount he or she stands to lose if price moves in the unexpected direction (i. e. the risk). investopedia/terms/r/riskrewardratio. asp

Commission fees plus stamp duty. (Commission fixed at 2xЈ8. Stamp duty 0.5 of purchase cost)

Profit or loss including commission and fees.

R multiple

R Multiple: PL divided by the Initial Risk.

“You want your losses to be 1R or less. That means if you say you’ll get out of a stock when it drops $50 to $40, then you actually GET OUT when it drops to $40. If you get out when it drops to $30, then your loss is much bigger than 1R.

It’s twice what you were planning to lose or a 2R loss. And you want to avoid that possibility at all costs.

You want your profits to ideally be much bigger than 1R. For example, you buy a stock at $8 and plan to get out if it drops to $6, so that your initial 1R loss is $2 per share. You now make a profit of $20 per share. Since this is 10 times what you were planning to risk we call it a 10R profit.”

Expectancy

Average (mean) of the R-multiple.

Expectancy gives you the average R-value that you can expect from the system over many trades. Put another way, expectancy tells you how much you can expect to make on the average, per dollar risked, over a number of trades.

At the heart of all trading is the simplest of all concepts—that the bottom-line results must show a positive mathematical expectation in order for the trading method to be profitable.

Chuck Branscomb

In its creation, two other trading logs, found online, were referenced:

E-trade financial review

E-trade financial reviewE-Trade Financial Review

Specifications >

E-Trade is the best online stock trading service for beginners because it has an excellent educational section with everything from videos on how to use the e-trading platforms to webinars on the basics of stock trading to articles that analyze the current market. Its platforms are geared toward meeting both simple and advanced online stock trading needs, so it can grow with you as you gain experience, and it's mobile platform is one of the best we've seen.

Education & Support

Online stock trading can be confusing and risky, so it's important to understand the basics before investing your hard-earned money. E-Trade's educational section can give you the information you need to get started, plus more advanced analysis to delve into the intricacies of stock market trading. The resource center covers topics from beginner investor education to how to design your investment portfolio. The types of resources range from articles to webinars to live seminars. One thing this online stock trading service lacks is a mock-up of the market so you can practice investing without actually investing real money.

E-Trade does not develop all its own material, but borrows from other experts in the field. This gives you the advantage of learning from multiple teachers. The courses provided by Morningstar are very basic to start, but quickly move to more extensive and practical use. Although the lessons are short only 200-300 words they contain practical examples and explanations. The Riskmetrics class is more involved but no less easy to understand. It uses practical examples and some illustrations plus key terms linked to its glossary so you can check its meaning.

For more advanced traders, the Commentary Insights section contains articles from E-Trade, Morningstar and Dreyfus that analyze the market. While not meant to be market advice but merely educational, they can give you more advanced insight into what is going on in the market. This can help you make better buying and selling decisions.

In addition to the expected resources on how to trade stocks and bonds, you can find articles, videos and even classes on the financial needs that spark investing, such as retirement planning and college education. The information spans a wide range of lifestyles; the college section not only gives parents ideas on saving for their children's future education but also instructions to students on how to pay for college and suggestions for grandparents on how to help without sacrificing their own livelihoods.

Customer support is available 24/7 by both telephone and live chat, or you can go to a local office to speak with someone face to face.

Trading & Investment Tools

This stock trading service offers two online panels. The E-Trade 360 platform is geared for the beginning stock trader and is customizable and easy. It uses charts and graphs to display your account's progress and current activity. You can arrange the windows on the screen to show only the data that's important to you, whether that is graphical displays of your account's progress, streaming market data or watch lists to help you track important stocks.

The advanced E-Trade Pro platform is designed for active day traders who place 30 or more trades per month. It has additional features, such as in-depth trading and analysis tools, streaming market data and live CNBC as well as a number of charts and extended trading hours.

Both online stock trade platforms allow you to set alerts, view watch lists and receive streaming quotes. They have tools for risk evaluation, profit-and-loss estimation and stock volatility reporting. In addition, they offer an automated trade feature, allowing you to schedule trades for a set time.

The platforms have help sections with an indexed knowledgebase and access to the training video. There are also content-sensitive help sections that can give you more information specific to the window of the platform you are looking at.

With E-Trade Financial, you can make trades in stocks, options, ETFs, IRAs, mutual funds and bonds. As you get more advanced and willing to take risks, E-Trade offers a full range of advanced investment options, including forex and futures.

Fees & Commissions

The online stock trade fees are somewhat higher than other services. The stocks, options and exchange-traded funds start at $9.99. However, if you make more than 150 trades per quarter, this prices drops to $7.99. The options trade fees are also among the highest of those we reviewed.

However, E-Trade's other financials are competitive or, in some cases, cheaper. Broker-assisted trades cost $25, which is on the low end of fees charged by the services we reviewed. Also on the low end is the amount of money you need to invest to start an account - $500. A couple of online stock trading companies on our lineup do not require a minimum investment, but of those that do, the average is $2,300. The margin rates range more widely than those of many online trading companies we reviewed, but they are within the norm.

Mobile Access

E-Trade offers a mobile trading platform that is the best we've seen, and you can get it for iPhone, Android devices, tablets and the Windows phone even for your Kindle. Using the mobile app, you can trade stocks and options, track your watch lists and perform market research.

The Android and iPhone apps have the most complete set of features, including CNBC on demand and real-time alerts. The tablet and Windows phone apps do not have the same level of features, but they do allow you to make trades and manage your accounts.

One standout feature of the mobile app is barcode scanning. If you come across a product that interests you, you can scan the barcode and discover if the company has public stock and how well it's trading. In addition, you can use the phone's camera to snap a picture of your check and deposit it digitally into your E-Trade account.

E-Trade is the best online stock trading service for beginners because it has a terrific educational section full of articles, videos and webinars, plus it offers live events and 24/7 live assistance. Its trading platforms are easy to use, and the mobile app has excellent features for trading anytime, anywhere. More than that, this service grows with your skills, offering intermediate courses and higher-risk trading tools like forex. E-Trade is a great platform for embarking on your stock trading adventure.

The trading house strategy skachat

The trading house strategy skachatBond Trading Strategy

How can we differentiate between Speculation vs gambling vs trading with risk ?

We Answered:

Some definitions make a difference between speculation and investment, whereby investors are more diligent and have more information than speculators when buying into an asset, such as stocks, bonds, real estate or commodities. As a result, speculation is considered more risky than an investment and is understood as a form of betting.

However, this definition is in my view artificial and does not accurately reflect the reality. More recent research seems to indicate that the performance of an investment is much more driven by randomness than investors are willing to admit. The illusion that to a large extent one can control the outcome of an investment decision is in fact one of the most dangerous flaws in the financial industry.

The illusion of control is often followed by, what psychologists call, 'self-attribution bias': If the result is positive, it is because of the investor's skills. If it is negative, it is the fault of the market, the system, Keynesian economists, free trade or whoever stands in the line of fire.

There are many players in the market, each driven by different reasons for buying or selling a particular asset: there are the growth traders, the value traders, derivative traders, scalpers, market makers and many more. Fundamentally, there are two types of players: investors and traders. The investor's game seems to consist of selective hitchhiking on a freeway that is going only in one direction. Many of these investors don't pay attention because they operate under the assumption, reinforced by a 20 year old bull market that the market will eventually go up again and the safe thing to do is to hold on or even buy more. Making money consists of taking a ride on the back of the bull trend and buying the dips. The merely bold and reckless are turned into market geniuses. This lasts until the market turns into a bear market and as it turns out there is a big pileup of fancy cars (hedge funds) full of drivers who do not know how to deal with the reality of investment risk.

A good trader is aware of the fact that he may not even understand let alone calculate the riskiness of the asset (in many cases mathematical methods for calculating risk are an approximation at best and ignore the actual engine that generates the risk of the asset in the first place). As a result, a successful trader will play with the only variable that is under his full control: the amount of money that he trades. Some of such trading strategies are based on the Kelly formula which was originally used to resolve issues associated with random noise on phone lines. Interesting enough, traders using this strategy have similar trading patterns as professional gamblers!

The conclusion is surprising; the bottom line is: speculation, gambling and trading with risk describe all the same behavior: attempting to make a positive return on an investment under uncertainty. Any differentiation is based on individual perception and is not a reflection of a real difference in the risk / return profile.

Harry Said:

How do you get good at trading ?

We Answered:

Practice my friend, and practice well. Develop a trading strategy (or adopt one that already exists) and FOLLOW IT TO THE LETTER. If you have no experience at all then I highly recommend you paper trade at websites like kaching or updown they are free to sign up and paper trade your strategies (i prefer kaching over updown).

After you have a strategy or system in place then you have to follow it exactly, even when it loses money. Over 90% of traders who have strategies or systems never follow it through all the way and lose even more money then they were originally going to if they had followed the system. Good traders follow the system. As for skill, the skill is overcoming your emotions and not getting attached to your holdings (be it a stock, or a currency or commodity or bond or ETF or w/e). You may love Nike as a brand, but as a stock, are they good? Maybe not but because you love the brand so much you decide to hold on to it and eventually lose money. Not a smart move. That's where the skill comes in. Good luck.

Sharon Said:

Can practicing forex technical trading improve ur ability to trading over equities?

We Answered:

yes, trading on a simulator will help. it is not the same as live trading and you will probably do better on the simulator than on live data. mostly trading is the same whether it is forex, equities, bonds or commodities. there are some differences however, so you need to understand your individual market as well as you can.

what is the best strategy to trade in option?

We Answered:

You losses are always 100% in the case of options.

It's not like stocks where you can actually sell your shares when your losses are just 10%

If you cannot handle a 100% loss then you should stay away from options and move to safer investments like stocks, mutual funds. ETFs and Bonds.

Top 3 Answerer in Business Finance. (Vote for me)

Milton Said:

How do I get into investments/ trading . stocks and bonds ?

We Answered:

finance. yahoo

The stocks you want to focus on is consumer staples, consumer discretionary, and healthcare. These are DEFENSIVE stocks that will survive through good and bad times. Most of my positions are in these stocks. Some names include 3M, Procter Gamble, Kimberly Clark, Exxon Mobil, Walmart, Costco. Everybody's got to eat and wipe their butts regardless of the state of economy. Many of these companies survived through the Great Depression.

That's the benefits. You can sleep at night knowing your money is doing well. There are NO guarantees that you won't lose money. It's just that these stocks are the best. They pay good dividends too.

If you're new to stocks, DON'T DAY TRADE. You'll a rookie in a world of professionals. I tried day-trading with Citigroup and AIG when they were a little bit over $1. I had some luck at first, making about $30 a day but I was way over my head. My luck didn't last long and I had to rethink my strategy.

Besides you can't do much with $100 in the market. Day trading involves A LOT of commissions to the broker. With all the commissions deducted from each trade, you'll be lucky if you only lose half your money.

I would just day trade using Yahoo! Finance. Open a stimulation account, give yourself $100 worth of fake money and play it in the stimulation format. You'll see what I mean by losing money every easily.

Trading Career With G6Trading

G6Trading LTD is a leader in online day trading education and services, giving the opportunity to stock market day traders to go beyond just surviving in today’s volatile markets. We offer our traders education with our exclusive gap trading seminar and one on one couching/mentoring. By focusing on the right things such as integrity, respect and teamwork G6Trading is able to exceed all industry standards!

Unlike other day trading education firms G6Trading is committed to your success .

If you have a desire to to build a day trading career and to take control of your own destiny, G6Trading helps you take control of your trading by giving you the best in depth education and consistent hands-on training to help you succeed. Our training covers everything from the basics to advanced day trading, helping all traders grow with the ever changing market.

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In G6Trading we are a home to a team of professional traders with years of experience trading. We aim to help traders make more money by providing elite training, premier technology reviews, intelligent risk management tools and a highly professional, value added environment. Using our trading strategies, we provides day traders, whether a beginner or an experienced trader, with the tools needed to succeed.

NinjaTrader is always FREE to use for advanced charting, strategy backtesting and trade simulation.

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NinjaTrader delivers feature rich advanced charting including the ability to trade from your chart. Technical Info

Backtest, optimize and evaluate the historical performance of your automated trading strategies. Technical Info

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Real-Time Analysis Monitor hundreds of markets by ranking, sorting and color coding with actionable alerts based on your custom predefined conditions. Technical Info

Use custom apps built for NinjaTrader to personalize your platform further focus your analysis.

Forex trading101trading forex

Forex trading101trading forexForex Trading 101: Trading Forex

In this chapter of Forex Trading 101, were going to analyze the definitions of the market. While there are tons of similarities to stocks and futures trading, there are some differences.

Currency Quote: First, currencies arent listed like stocks; they are traded in pairs. The currency pair has two currencies listed such as the EUR/USD or the USD/CAD. The first currency is the base currency. The base currency is what we make the initial transaction and is also what the chart represents.

The above chart is the EUR/USD, which is in a bearish downtrend. This means the EUR is depreciating against the USD while the USD is appreciating against the EUR. The USD is the second currency listed in the currency pair and is called the counter or quote currency. Simply put, youre exchanging one currency for the other. If you buy the EUR, you sell the USD and if you sell the EUR, you are buying the USD. In essence, it really doesnt matter which one is listed first.

Leverage and Position Size: Currencies are highly leveraged tradable instruments. In the United States, theyre leveraged at 50-1, which is one of the lowest in the world. This means if you place a $1000 dollars into a trade, you actually control $50,000. Leverage can be a great way to reduce your cost dramatically, but it can be a double-edged sword. To control the risk of leverage, we place less than 2% of available capital into short term trades. You simply do not need to place more than that to effectively trade currencies. In longer term trades, such as carry trades, you can place up to 4%.

Contract Size: The total amount of money controlled in the trade is known as the contract size. This includes the amount borrowed as well as the amount placed in the trade. If we place a $1000 into the trade, we borrow $49,000 and control a total of $50,000.

Lot Size: While you can place whatever you want into a currency trade, typically we trade in terms of a lot size. This is similar to a contract in the options market or shares in a stock trade. There are three types of forex accounts: micro, mini, and standard. Micro accounts trade in increments of 1000, mini are traded in increments of 10000, and standard in increments of 100000. Typically, most forex traders trade minis while larger accounts of 25000 or more might trade standard lots sizes. Once again, you don’t have to place a ton in a trade to control a lot.

PIP: This stands for percentage in point or as its more commonly referred to as price interest point. The PIP is the lowest denomination a currency will trade and is typically the 4th decimal listed in the currency quote. In the EUR/USD, itll be listed as 1.2539 with the 9 being the PIP. In the USD/JPY pair, itll be listed as 1.15 with the second decimal being the PIP. Outside the USD/JPY pair, all majors are traded in a 4th decimal. The value of each PIP is dependent on the contract value.

Tick value: the value of each PIP is relative to the contract value.

Account Contract Value Position Size Pip Value

1) Micro: 1000 $20 .10 cents

2) Mini: 10000 $200 $1

3) Standard: 100000 $2000 $10

Bulkowski strading checklist

Bulkowski strading checklistBulkowski's Trading Checklist

Written by and © 2005-2015 by Thomas N. Bulkowski. All rights reserved. Disclaimer: You alone are responsible for your investment decisions. See Privacy/Disclaimer for more information. Donate now to keep this website free. Thanks -- Tom

Trading Checklist: Summary

This page serves as a checklist to improve your trading results. Consult it before you buy or sell a stock.

If you want to develop or polish your skills trading chart patterns, then visit the daily quiz. Download one each day and practice identifying chart patterns, placing stops, and picking price targets. Many traders have remarked that they enjoy taking the quizzes and it has helped turn money losing performance into a winning one.

The following checklist is based on information contained in my book, Getting Started in Chart Patterns, Second Edition .

If you click on this link and then buy the book (or anything) at Amazon, the referral will help support this site. Thanks. -- Tom Bulkowski

Do forex trading systems work

Do forex trading systems workDo Forex Trading Systems Work?

Yes, Forex trading systems work. In fact every successful trader has developed his own version of a system and by following this and not his emotions, he can make money.

Can you make money while you sleep when trading foreign exchange currencies? Perhaps but it is not as easy as some would have you believe. Most of the auto trade systems do not work in practice over the long term. Sure the results they produce look amazing but you are looking at the results of past trades. It is relatively simple to make any statistics tell the story you want to tell if you know how to manipulate the data.

So how do you make money trading foreign currencies? You learn the skills behind the process. You can make a profit on the market when you understand how it works and the terminology used to describe the various components.

You need to decide if you want to follow the technical analysis strategy or the fundamentals strategy. Personally I would follow the former as the latter will take you years to master, as well as costing you a lot of dollars buying the research and tools you would need to do it properly. Technical analysis allows you to spot trends in the market based on the assumption that the market is going to behave the same way it did the last time it was faced with similar economic and political results. You can buy software that is pre-programmed with this theory and use that to help you to spot the profitable deals. But you have to be prepared to sometimes lose on a deal. Nobody, not even the most experienced traders will win every deal they place on the Forex market.

Although software plays a part in helping you to determine which deal to place, you should never rely on it religiously. The most important piece of equipment you own is your brain and only when you start to use it will you become a profitable foreign exchange trader.

Dont follow hype and the media. Learn the skills of this fascinating system and you can make money in falling markets as well as rising ones. Dont be fooled into thinking you have to place lots of deals every day. Your broker may tell you this but dont forget he makes his money when you place a deal. No, he doesnt earn a commission. His profits come from the spread i. e. the difference between the ask price and the bid price.

Find a Forex system that you understand and spend some time practicing paper trades. Only when you see a clear consistent profit run, should you enter the market for real.

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