Why fx

Why fxOver the last decade, Cyprus has become a magnet for many new businesses operating in the financial markets. It has found particular favor amongst those in the world of Retail FX trading with many big industry names finding it useful to position themselves in Cyprus. The industry growth is also led by the efficient low tax system and the Cyprus Investment Firm License.

There are around 2000 Brokers worldwide and a substantial percentage of EMEA retail FX trading activity is internalized in Cyprus, which has managed to position itself successfully as a base to a large sector of FX brokers.

According to Global Recruitment Solutions survey of Cyprus . 50.18% of the placements made during 2013 were in the Forex, Binary and CIF sector. That is one in two placements. An increase on the survey data of 2012 where this figure was at one in three placements at 33.5% and in 2011 one in six placements. Additionally, Cyprus Investment Firms (CIF’s) licensed in Cyprus have grown from only 18 in 2003 to 123 today with many more applying or awaiting the issue of their trading license.

Our unique partnerships with forex firms enable us to be at the forefront of the hiring process. Many FX firms will have access to your CV!

Additionally, should you be interested in further technical training to take your education further within this field you will have a good foundation knowledge to select the right career path for you. Perhaps you are interested in the technical elements of trading using Technical and Fundamental analysis. The FX Careers course will provide you with an exceptional understanding for the various departments within a Forex Firm to allow you to plan your career path.

Following course completion your knowledge of the sector will be immense giving you a first class foundation to select the right career path or continued education in the relevant field.

Online trading academy awards3rd franchise in florida

Online trading academy awards3rd franchise in floridaOnline Trading Academy Awards 3rd Franchise In Florida

New Miami location will be the 28th for Online Trading Academy

July 17, 2008 // Franchising // IRVINE, CA - Online Trading Academy is proud to announce an agreement with a new franchise location in the Sunshine State: Miami, Florida.

This will mark the third location awarded to Bill Carthen who owns two other Online Trading Academy locations in Florida: Orlando and Tampa.

"We are extremely excited to award a franchise location in Miami, Florida to Bill Carthen," said Eyal Shachar, President of Online Trading Academy. "For anyone who lives in South Florida and is currently a trader or wants to become one, this is the perfect opportunity to learn the skills necessary to become a successful trader."

The Miami franchise joins a rapidly growing list of locations worldwide for the leader in financial education. Since 1997 Online Trading Academy has been teaching traders by using the same tools, techniques and analysis that pros use in the modern marketplace. Students work in state-of-the-art classrooms using the same unique "hands-on" approach to learning that has made Online Trading Academy famous.

Online Trading Academy believes that the best way for students to learn is by actually working in a real trading environment. Students are provided "live trading accounts" to practice trading and Online Trading Academy covers all their commissions and losses. Innovations like this along with fully reimbursed student tuitions in the form of discounted commissions from affiliated brokers have made Online Trading Academy the pioneering institution in the field of financial education.

About Online Trading Academy

Irvine, California-based Online Trading Academy is a network of financial education centers focused on teaching students the art of trading since June 1997. With over 8,000 graduates, Online Trading Academy offers professional instruction from experienced Wall Street professionals, as well as a wide array of beneficial home study materials and courses offered online via virtual classrooms. Online Trading Academy offers instruction across a spectrum of trading styles and instruments including courses in Stocks, Options, Forex and Futures (E-minis Commodities). Current Online Trading Academy locations include New York, Boston, Los Angeles, Irvine, San Jose, Dallas, Houston, Austin, San Antonio, Chicago, Detroit, Minneapolis, Orlando, Tampa, Phoenix, Baltimore, Washington D. C. Charlotte, Atlanta, London, Toronto, Singapore and Dubai. For more information about Online Trading Academy visit tradingacademy.

What are the best companies to invest in we investigate

What are the best companies to invest in we investigateWhat Are the Best Companies to Invest In? We investigate.

Looking at the stock market for the top stocks to invest in? Are you interested in strategies to uncover the best stock to invest in? Value investing, growth stocks and dividend stocks all have their fans. Or you can take the approach we use in stock trading training at Online Trading Academy, and find ticker symbols that fit our simple, rules-based strategy for low-risk, high-potential trades in the stock market.

Value Investing

In order to find a good stock to invest in, let’s start with value investing—a favorite of “buy and hold” investors as opposed to day traders. Warren Buffett and, before him, Benjamin Graham were experts at this strategy. They’d look for the best companies to invest in with strong management and a product you could understand combined with value—a stock price that was significantly below what it should be.

In Graham’s day, and even in Buffet’s early years, this involved some good detective work because many corporate financial numbers weren’t readily available. Today, it’s a lot easier to find stock trading information via the Internet and new measurements have been created to define a company’s strength and performance. Analysts and brokers have subscription services that will rate a stock according to various yardsticks making it much easier for them to find the best stock to invest in.

Value investing—the Buffett/Graham approach—is as popular as ever, particularly in an aging bull market like today where stocks overall have gotten expensive. However, investors may be misled into buying a stock just because it’s cheap. It could be the company’s business is in decline, or it’s facing regulatory or management problems, and the stock is fairly priced even at a low level. Alcoa (ticker: AA) was one such stock until recently, when a better earnings picture may have turned it into a value play after all.

Growth Stocks

Growth stocks come from companies whose business and market share is increasing; investors are betting that the price of the stock will rise along with the company’s fortunes. Apple (ticker: AAPL) and Google (ticker: GOOG) are good examples in today’s market. They’re very high priced by any standard but some investors believe they are good stocks to invest in and may still have upside potential—indeed, after a favorable earnings surprise Google’s stock increased by 12% in one day recently to over $1,000. And some analysts have set a price target of $1000 for Apple (currently trading in the low $500s) as well.

Dividend Stocks

Dividend stocks pay high yields and traditionally have a more stable stock price; these appeal to stock market investors looking for regular income, not appreciation. Dividend stocks have been more attractive in the recent environment of very low interest rates, which make bond investments relatively unappealing. On the other hand, many of these former stodgy stocks have shown increasing volatility recently—Exxon (ticker: XOM) being a good example. Its dividend is close to 3% annually—but in a recent 52-week period it was down over 6%, representing a net loss.

So which stocks do we like at Online Trading Academy? If you are a current student, you know one thing we look for is predictable price movement so we can identify supply and demand zones with a high degree of accuracy—which means a consistent price history with a minimum of noise caused by external factors. Many of us have our “favorite” stocks that we trade time and time again—not for the growth or the dividends or the value, but because they behave the way we want them to.

Memory company Sandisk (ticker: SNDK) and chip equipment KLA-Tencor (ticker: KLAC) are two examples the instructors often used in class. Neither is a household word like Apple or Exxon, but their predictable performance makes them very good companies indeed.

Ready to get started? Learn how to for free at one of our locations near you. Click here to get started.

Encyclopedia of trading strategies amazon

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Gold trading strategies for stock traders

Gold trading strategies for stock tradersGold Trading Strategies For Stock Traders

How To Apply Relative Strength To Gold Trading Strategies

Over the last several months gold prices have been coming sharply down. During this period of time I received several emails asking me to demonstrate gold trading strategies that work in these market conditions. So today Im going to demonstrate simple relative strength trading methods that apply to the gold market. The timing couldnt be better because yesterdays article discussed how to apply relative strength to the stock market. I figured that demonstrating how the method works on one of the most popular markets in the world would be a good continuation where we left off yesterday. If you didnt get a chance to read yesterday article just click this link.

The Current State Of The Gold Market

Over the last 12 years the Gold market saw one of the biggest bull markets in history. I remember gold prices in 2000 around the 280 level and peaking around the 1900 level just over a month ago. You can see the entire progression of the upswing in this monthly chart of gold prices. Notice the strength of this market, theres only a handful of down months over the entire length of the bull market. The war, decline in economy and several other fundamental factors were there primary catalysts for the beginning of this rally.

Gold Market Is Turning Bearish

Like most things in life, everything has to come to an end and the bullish gold market is no exception. It appears that the economy is beginning to rise again, oil is beginning to see some weakness and the housing market is becoming bullish once again. All signs point to a bearish gold cycle that may end up erasing most of the gains that we saw over the last several years. As you know markets drop substantially faster than they rise so be prepared for a very quick price correction in the gold market. You can see in this chart a few different support levels that gold will have to go through, but in my experience the correction can bring back prices to the low hundreds within the next 2 years.

How Stock Traders Take Advantage Of Gold Trading Strategies

Because the gold market is such a large and popular market there are dozens of stocks and a few great ETFs that you correlate over 90 percent with the spot gold prices. This means that you dont have to buy or sell gold bars or open a futures account to take advantage of this down trend. Take a look at the following ETF that correlate strongly with gold prices. Its hard to imagine correlation getting any closer between the cash market and these stocks.

The Correlation Between Cash Gold And GLD ETF Is Over 90%

Take a look at this chart of Gold Corp, this is one of the biggest stocks in the gold sector and is part of the GLD ETF as well. You can tell that the stock is following along with the rest of the sector almost tick for tick. Our job is to find two stocks in the sector that are highly correlated, this will help decrease risk and increase profits when applying relative strength strategies to two separate stocks. You want to find the two of the most correlated and closely traded stocks possible for the strategy to work best.

The other stock I want you to pay attention to is Newmont Mining, which is another large gold player and is also part of the GLD ETF. These are the two stocks that we will be using for our relative strength trade. Notice how the two stocks almost like identical when analyzed on a bar chart. Keep in mind that you want to find the closest correlation possible.

How To Execute Relative Strength Trades

Once you identify two very closely related stocks its time to decide which one you want to see and which one you want to buy. The rules are very simple in this regard. You sell the weaker of the two stocks and you buy the stronger of the two stocks, it really doesnt get any simpler than that. Just line up the two stocks like I did on this chart and see which one is down the largest percentage out of the two. In this example you can see how Newmont Mining is down over 30% while GG stock is down only about 22%. You would initiate a long position on GG stock and initiate a short position on Newmont Mining.

Forex income boss-russ horn-free trading system

Forex income boss-russ horn-free trading systemForex Income Boss Russ Horn Free Trading System

Introducing Forex Income Boss by Russ Horn

Forex Income Boss is the new, complete Forex trading system by well known trader Russ Horn. This is a physical package you get in the mail with training manuals, DVD training, cheat-sheets, etc. We also have it on good authority there is going to be an ongoing component of this system. (While you get everything you need to learn and trade the system correctly, Russ wants to go into the finer details and nuances of being a successful Forex trader by doing some ongoing training which is very wise ).

Free Rejection Spike System

As is customary with a launch of this size and magnitude, everything gets started with some free information, such as a free trading system. The launch of Forex Income Boss is no different. Russ is teaching what he calls the Rejection Spike System .

While this system is nothing groundbreaking, it does show you how simple trade setups are usually the best. Plus it gives you a chance to get to know Russ Horn and his trading and training style. (This is important if you are interested in the Forex Income Boss because you want to learn from a trader that not only can trade profitably, but can teach you as well).

Free SRT Profit System

Russ Horn has just added a new trading system to his free giveaways and teaching. This one is really nice because it is based on time tested trading concepts like support and resistance and trendlines. You also get some very nice indicators that do all the heavy lifting for you. This system is called the SRT Profit System .

We personally like simple trading systems like this. They prove that trading profitably does not have to be complicated. The other good news is this is going to be part of the main Forex Income Boss system, which means you are not just learning something that has nothing to do with the main system but you are actually learning something that will help you trade the Forex Income Boss system if you decide to get it.

Thoughts on Forex Income Boss by Russ Horn

Every time a launch like this comes along, we want people to understand the difference between a good trading system and some kind of magic system that wins all the time. We fear a lot of people are looking for that fantastic trading system that helps you win so much you can throw things like proper money management and trading psychology out the window. (After all, if you are going to win all the time, why do you need to worry about using high risk or controlling your emotions, right?)

The truth is, Forex Income Boss, or any other trading system out there, is not a system that is going to win all the time. It is a good system, that when traded properly can get you into some nice trades and be profitable over time. But you still need to approach it with the seriousness Forex trading deserves .

The best way to figure out if Forex Income Boss is right for you is to learn as much from Russ Horn as you can before you decide. There is going to be a lot of free information over the next couple of weeks and you can learn a lot from this info. Then, when Forex Income Boss becomes available, you will be able to make an informed decision of whether this system is right for you or not.

If you do decide to get the Forex Income Boss system, you need to approach learning and trading the system with determination. Too often people get so excited about a system they are easily disappointed when they suffer the inevitable losing trade . Unfortunately, if the first few trades dont work out many people abandon the system all together, even if the system is solid. Give Forex Income Boss system the time necessary to learn and trade it properly, stick to the trading plan and we are sure you are going to be happy with the results.

Forex Income Boss is a good system and can get you into some nice winning trades which leads to long term profitability. If you get this, make sure to give it the time it deserves so you can master the system and get the most out of the trading.

IMPORTANT: We will be updating this post as more information becomes available. To make sure you dont miss anything, bookmark this page and return frequently over the next few weeks. We will keep you informed of new developments with Forex Income Boss and Russ Horn.

Forex khaleej

Forex khaleejAnd these systems are designed to trade Forex on khaleej times forex BEFORE the economic collapse. not during or after it!

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Due to phenomenal feedback from customers in khaleej times forex, we are offering two incredible bonuses worth $186 for FREE! Did you know that commodity trading is a revolutionary way to acquire vast sums of profit in ANY CLIMATE? For decades, the value of precious metals such has gold and silver has been appreciating in value on khaleej times forex . [caption id="" align="alignnone" width="480"] khaleej times forex[/caption] Marked at a retail price of $97, the advanced APP Commodity Trading System analyses commodity trends on khaleej times forex. building automated commodity profit like you have never seen. And the APP Advanced Manual Trading System is yet ANOTHER added profit-making bonus to bump up your overall profits and help you utilise every possible source of Forex profit! Are you ready to end the search for a system that works and have THREE systems designed to make you profit TODAY on khaleej times forex. For a limited time only the APP Triple Deluxe is available to you for only $47 with a 60 day money back guarantee so if you are at any point dissatisfied, you will be refunded in full immediately. $47 is a miniscule price to pay for a global profit make on khaleej times forex that will finally throw you into the light of trading success As I've said, Auto Pip Predator's results speak for themselves. Unlike standard trading systems to khaleej times forex, it is designed to combat current market volatility and I am positive it will blow you away. I am so confident about its performance ability, I am happy to offer you a 60 day money back guarantee If you don't you are missing an opportunity to accumulate the easiest regular income in khaleej times forex . [caption id="" align="alignnone" width="480"] khaleej times forex[/caption] See this video about dubai rates - khaleej times forex


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E currency investing is an increasing sector as an increasing number of people are purchasing things online through e money. As long as individuals continue to purchase things on the internet, there will certainly constantly be a requirement for individuals to exchange funds from difficult money to on-line currencies and also vise versa.

Just how currency investing works is that the field can be between any one of the marketplace players stated previously. Interbank is a term utilized when the customers as well as vendors prepare to make an exchange of currency.

International currency trading market is an area where currencies are traded night and day, except on weekend breaks. The keynote on exactly how a financier can make earnings is to get a currency at reduced rate and sell it at a high price. This money value change takes place sometimes in a day which depends upon several factors consisting of market problems or events occurring worldwide. These variations in the international money worths could allow you make or loss cash and for this reason the decision of acquiring or marketing the international money must be well examined.

Canadian currency trading is populared on the Foreign exchange market because of its photo as a development tied currency. The Canadian buck, which is additionally referred to as the loonie, swings in line with the controls of the market.

Understanding Just how currency investing jobs will certainly tell you that investors in the FX market could need to endure profit and also loss swings of in between 15 % to 35 % or more. This is as easy as stating you could victory or shed. The primary goal of an investor is to find out Just how currency investing jobs and secure themselves from every loss they could predict. The marketplace is open Mondays to Fridays for the whole 24 hours a day. So, you can react to any sort of market adjustments to make sure that you have the possibility to obtain right into a winning trade or get out of a losing circumstance.

On-line foreign exchange currency investing tools are a huge aid to new forex foreign exchange investors. Even seasoned specialist traders commonly depend upon a few of these resources to validate their trading choices. As a result of worldwide connection and telecom transformation, forex investing is not limited to huge companies alone. Retail traders also are getting in the foreign exchange market in a large method with the goal of earning money.

When picking e money investing as a business chance, it does call for a little job, but nothing more than a few hrs a week if you could believe it. Theres an old claiming, you only get out exactly what you put in. This applies to any type of sort of home business.

Stock investing jobs like currency trading. When we discuss the process of trading, both money and also stock trading operate in the same way. But the primary distinction in both of investing is the instrument of field. In currency investing, currencies are traded whereas in stock investing, shares of the companies are traded in the market.

Your objective in understanding just how money investing jobs is to recognize which money will increase in regard to an additional. In shorts, if you understand that the USD will rise in regard to the EUR, in an instant or in a long-term, you could sell your Euros for United States bucks. When the United States dollars ultimately go up, you might offer it for Euros. So, you will certainly have much more Euros at the end of the day than you started with. You would have made revenue or gain by so doing.

Invest in forex without trading

Invest in forex without tradingInvest in forex without trading

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Hukum forex dalam islam antara halal dan haram

Hukum forex dalam islam antara halal dan haramHukum Forex Dalam Islam Antara Halal dan Haram

Hukum Forex Dalam Islam Antara Halal dan Haram | Forex (Foreign Exchange) ni adalah sistem jual beli mata wang asing yang mana kita sendiri tahu akan berubah dari semasa ke semasa mengikut kedudukan ekonomi sesebuah negara.

Hukum Forex Dalam Islam Antara Halal dan Haram

Sebenarnya aku memang dah agak pasti akan ada yang bertanya mengenai hukum dalam FOREX ni dan aku dah kaji benda ni dahulu sebelum aku menceburi dan mempelajari ilmu tentang analisis dalam dunia forex ni. Ini adalah susulan daripada entri aku yang bertajuk testing forex kali pertama menggunakan akaun demo tempoh hari.

Antara kajian yang aku lakukan adalah meng google hukum mengenai forex dalam islam dan aku dapati kebanyakkannya berkongsi mengenai isi yang sama iaitu fatwa yang dikeluarkan oleh Jawatankuasa Fatwa Kebangsaan yang dikeluarkan sekitar pertengahan tahun lalu.

Hukum Forex. Haram atau Halal?

KOTA BHARU: Jawatankuasa Fatwa Kebangsaan memutuskan umat Islam haram mengamalkan sistem perniagaan pertukaran wang asing. Pengerusi Jawatankuasa itu, Tan Sri Dr Abdul Shukor Husin, berkata ini kerana perniagaan yang dilakukan melalui pertukaran wang asing (forex) seperti itu tidak menepati hukum syarak dan menimbulkan keraguan di kalangan umat Islam.

Hasil kajian Jawatankuasa ini, kita dapati perniagaan yang membabitkan pertukaran wang asing membabitkan spekulasi mata wang dan ini bercanggah dan berlawanan dengan hukum Islam.

Oleh itu, Jawatankuasa Fatwa Kebangsaan memutuskan bahawa umat Islam diharamkan daripada mengamalkan sistem perniagaan cara demikian, katanya kepada pemberita selepas mempengerusikan mesyuarat Jawatankuasa Fatwa Kebangsaan Ke-98 di sini hari ini.

Abdul Shukor berkata, banyak isu yang meragukan mengenai perniagaan pertukaran wang asing, oleh itu umat Islam tidak perlu menceburkan diri, tambahan pula kegiatan itu membabitkan penggunaan internet di kalangan individu yang menyebabkan untung rugi tidak menentu.

Lain-lain jenis perniagaan pertukaran wang asing, seperti melalui pengurup wang atau dari bank ke bank dibenarkan . kerana ia tidak menimbulkan spekulasi mata wang atau untung rugi yang tidak menentu, katanya.

Beliau berkata, keputusan lain yang turut dicapai dalam mesyuarat itu ialah mengharuskan umat Islam membuat pelaburan atau membuat simpanan melalui Skim Sijil Simpanan Premium yang dikendalikan Bank Simpanan Nasional (BSN).

Katanya, keputusan itu dibuat selepas jawatankuasa berkenaan berpuas hati dengan kaedah pelaksanaannya melalui taklimat yang disampaikan oleh pihak penal syariah Bank Negara pada muzakarah itu.

Pada mulanya, kita meragui tentang kaedah pelaksaaan skim itu tetapi kita berpuas hati selepas sistem perniagaan skim itu ditukar konsep Islam iaitu Mudharabah, katanya. BERNAMA

Penjelasan Ustaz Hj Zaharuddin Tentang FOREX

Kepada yang masih kurang jelas, aku harap sangat korang dapat tengok sendiri dahulu dan dengar penjelasan daripada beliau mengikut hukum FOREX dalam islam. Beliau adalah orang yang mahir dengan sistem forex yang dijalankan oleh bank-bank di seluruh Malaysia dan melabelkan sistem forex ini ada dua cara. Jom saksikan.

Plain vanilla options

Plain vanilla optionsPlain Vanilla Options

Plain Vanilla Options - Definition

Standardized exchange traded options without the advanced features found in exotic options.

Plain Vanilla Options - Introduction

Almost all beginners to options trading have heard of such thing as a "Plain Vanilla Option" and almost all of them wondered, what plain vanilla mean anyways. Plain vanilla options refers to options with no special features and are not exotic options.

Decades ago, all exchange traded options are plain vanilla options. Standardized stock options that all options traders trade and what most options traders still trade today. However, with the invention, standardization and popularization of exotic options such as binary options, there is now a need to define what constitutes "Plain Vanilla Options".

This tutorial shall explore what Plain Vanilla Options are in options trading and exactly what kind of options constitute plain vanilla options.

Star Trading System

The most objective options trading system designed

for complete beginners! 1 to 1 mentoring with our founder!

What Exactly are Plain Vanilla Options?

Some time ago, in order to answer what plain vanilla options are, all we have to say is that they are standardized options that you trade in an options exchange through your options broker. However, with the popularization of all kinds of exotic options which are also standardized and exchange traded, this definition has become inadequate. In fact, what was merely a slang term has now grown to become the official name for a form of option just like Barrier options and Asian options are names for some forms of exotic options.

The term "Plain Vanilla" is actually an English slang term meaning "Simple and Boring" and has actually evolved from vanilla ice-creams. As such "Plain Vanilla Options" actually mean simple and boring options with no advanced or complex features. In fact, any options that are not exotic options are plain vanilla options.

These days, exotic options are also traded alongside plain vanilla options on some assets such as forex. As such, it has become necessary to define exactly what plain vanilla options are.

Plain Vanilla Call Options of AAPL

You Are Most Likely Trading Plain Vanilla Options Right Now

If you are currently trading call options or put options on stocks, ETFs or indexes in the US market, you are most probably trading Plain Vanilla Options. Yes, plain vanilla options remain the most widely traded, understood and liquid options being traded in options trading. In fact, there are currently very few, if any, stocks that are listing exotic options alongside plain vanilla options. Whenever you open up an options chain of an optionable stock, you are looking at plain vanilla options.

Characteristics of Plain Vanilla Options

Plain vanilla options have all of the following characteristics:

2. They have multiple strike prices listed across multiple expiration months

3. They are either call options or put options, profiting only in a single direction

4. They can be exercised in order to trade the underlying asset at a specified strike price

5. They can be freely bought and sold anytime prior to expiration

Exotic options would have some but not all of these characteristics. Exotic options would have many more complex characteristics that allows them to profit in ways plain vanilla options cannot.

The Future of Plain Vanilla Options

The finance world is rapidly changing, growing and evolving, especially in the area of derivative instruments. More new, complex and creative options would be invented in the future but plain vanilla options would always be the mainstay of the options trading world and the main form of options being traded for decades more. Nothing can replace the simplicity, versatility and liquidity of plain vanilla options and it should continue to grow and strive in the options trading world for a long time to come.

Brokers spread comparison

Brokers spread comparisonBrokers Spread Comparison

Compare Broker Spreads below. Navigate from the Forex Industries top Forex Brokers and compare the various spreads provided live.

The above table allows Forex traders to compare the various Forex Broker spreadsCompare Broker Spreads below. Navigate from the Forex Industries top Forex Brokers and compare the various spreads provided live.

The above table allows Forex traders to compare the various Forex Broker spreadsCompare Broker Spreads below. Navigate from the Forex Industries top Forex Brokers and compare the various spreads provided live.

The above table allows Forex traders to compare the various Forex Broker spreads

How to turn$1000into$4593in less than one month!

How to turn$1000into$4593in less than one month!Forex Signals 30 with an accuracy of 80 to 95 %

Designed for manual currency trading on the indicators. This Trading Strategies can give already profit on real accounts. Best Forex Strategy for Day Trading .

From: Muh Ikhsan

Dear fellow Forex trader,

Hello, My name is Muh Ikhsan. I have been a forex trader since more years. From time to time I still trade, but my trading times have increasingly dropped since I feel its more and more boring waiting for the market to give you a proper signal all day. The main reason why I am publishing this formula is because I do not like to sit behind my desk all day. So I have decided to give it to all of you who want to benefit from it. May the knowledge bring you success and wealth and if you get both in abundance, remember to share it with those around you.

This Currency Trading Strategies is aimed at simplicity as well as high probability trades.

Give me just few minutes and I will show you the best forex trading signals to beat the forex markets and change your live





Forex Signals 30 with an accuracy of 80 to 95 %

Designed for manual currency trading on the indicators. This Trading Strategies can give already profit on real accounts. Best Forex Strategy for Day Trading .

From: Muh Ikhsan

Dear fellow Forex trader,

Hello, My name is Muh Ikhsan. I have been a forex trader since more years. From time to time I still trade, but my trading times have increasingly dropped since I feel its more and more boring waiting for the market to give you a proper signal all day. The main reason why I am publishing this formula is because I do not like to sit behind my desk all day. So I have decided to give it to all of you who want to benefit from it. May the knowledge bring you success and wealth and if you get both in abundance, remember to share it with those around you.

This Currency Trading Strategies is aimed at simplicity as well as high probability trades.

Give me just few minutes and I will show you the best forex trading signals to beat the forex markets and change your live





Quantitative finance for abeginner in spot forex

Quantitative finance for abeginner in spot forexQuantitative Finance for a beginner in spot Forex?

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New Member

Hi! At first I wish to say sorry for my English, I will try to be as understandable as I can. So, I've just recently become interested in the whole quantitative finance sphere, got pretty excited by it, and now I am facing the problem of selecting a sector of this sphere for learning in the first place. I am a graduate in applied mathematics, I love beautiful theoretical constructs and, honestly, attraction that I felt is of I think purely mathematical nature. I also work as a software developer. So I guess I could relatively easily learn at least some aspects of the 'quant science', in theory and practice.

A natural idea that comes into mind is that I should choose first those aspects that I could apply on practice. Now, I think I won't ever be working as a market analyst or someone like that. So becoming an individual trader is the only option. Now, trying to trade derivatives (futures/options) is, due to different technical reasons, is what I can't do (at least for some time). It's a pity, because at the first glimpse it seems to me that quantitative finance and its wonderful theory is all about derivatives, and the entire financial world is trading them day and night. OK, but there is another hobby that I got - I like playing with the spot Forex market from time to time, and I have no problems getting some money into it (and maybe a little into stocks), even for learning purposes.

So the main question is: What parts of the quantitative finance theoretical conglomerate I could apply to spot Forex trading and simple stocks trading? What should I learn first - financial econometrics? Time series analysis? Stochastic calculus? Portfolio theory and risk management? Anything else?

I'm fully aware that my understanding of what the quantitative finance is and what it is for, can be very distant from reality, so I'll appreciate any answers and any crititism. Thanks in advance!

Trading strategies macd

Trading strategies macdTrading Strategies. MACD

You are here. Forex Learning Center > Level EXPERT > Trading Strategies


The MACD is an indicator used by most traders. It is indeed an excellent trend indicator, which overcomes some of the delays obtained with the use of simple moving averages. It is a none bounded indicator and so, it can go up or down very low. With the standard configuration, the MACD is set as 12, 26, 9. The 12 represents the moving average short-term, 26 the long-term moving average and 9 the number of periods. For a greater responsiveness to the market, you can use shorter moving averages or reduce the number of periods but this could lead to a significant number of false signals.

Application of the method

Entry point . When the MACD line crosses its signal line, you must enter the market in the side of the crossing. To validate the signal of buy or sell, you can wait until the MACD line also crosses the zero line. This intersection confirms the signal previously given. You can choose whether to wait to get this validation before enter the market. This last reduces the number of signals and you will loss a part of the movement but in return, a large number of false signals is eliminated.

Forex brokers in new york

Forex brokers in new york75 Park Place, New York, NY 10007

FXDirectDealer LLC, better known as FXDD is a Forex broker in retail ECN that was founded in 2003 in New York City. As FXDD is basically an ECN Forex broker, the company does not accept the other side of trades from clients, but they can swiftly pass through the trades and even match them on their interbank network of over 60 banks. As a broker, FXDD claims to have fixed several spreads but sometimes, such as high volatility spreads during some news events or spreads that become variable as a result of the nature of ECN broker.

At present, FXDD offers 20 pairs of currency for trading, on 5 different Forex trading platforms. These 5 different types of platforms offer greater flexibility to FXDD, which is one of the most important features of this trading platform. In addition, the pleasant and prompt customer service of the company, a pool of learning tools and its overall treatment were all very impressive.

Trading Platforms

FXDD is one of the global Forex brokers offering an array of choices when it comes to Forex trading platforms. There are 5 different trading platforms for FXDD, which include:

MetaTrader 4,

MTX (which is an improved version of MetaTrader 4),

Viking trader (an excellent ECN platform powered by Currenex),

PowerTrader (another professional ECN platform powered by Currenex),

Jforex (trading platform of Dukascopy Bank).

In addition, there are other platforms like Currensee, Mirror Trader and ZuluTrade for the trading signals. It is likely that you will find yourself completely lost in thoughts which one to choose and which is suitable this is, exactly, what traders are wondering! Because of so many choices given by one forex broker, it is definitely a tough choice. However, experts know how to find their way and novices will benefit from the tutorials.

FXDD website is easily navigable and it is one of the most important feature of any Forex broker platform, though it is not as polished and swift as most of the other ECN broker sites like FxPro . It could have definitely been better.

However, the feature of trading platforms 5 different options to choose from, is not a matter of joke, and everybody is talking about it. Very well thought and conceptualized. As a matter of fact, the explanation and comparison on their website with respect to the several trading platforms they have offered is outstanding. It is not just going to be helpful for experienced traders but it will benefit beginner traders immensely. It can prove to be a great learning experience, too.

MetaTrader 4 is the most polished platform of all which allows you a minimum deposit of $250, whereas the Powertrader, meant for instructional traders, requires a minimum deposit of $25,000. The process of application takes 24 hours to complete and it seemed to be quite simple, decent and easy to use apparently.

Deposits are usually accepted for real time or live trading accounts through PayPal, back wire transfer, or personal check.

There are free demo accounts also available, easily downloaded for all the 5 different trading platforms. Silver and gold can also be added on this trading platform. There is an FXDDauto trader platform only available to allow clients to choose from the signals providers that will then trade their clients trade accounts automatically. However, this option tends to coincide with the recent approval of FXDD for ZuluTrade as a broker. Though, it is unlikely that there will be any effect.

The trading platforms do need some additional time for learning to start quick trading. For instance, the platform, FXDD trader has been automatically set to offer a 30 pips stop loss on trades, and it takes some time to look on the platform and figure out ways to modify or turn off this feature. If thats not an issue, you are all set to make your move.

The “Help” section, we found, was satisfactory. All typical trade orders are commonly available along the lines of trailing stops. All the platforms are customizable, which is really commendable. You can also use mobile trading platform, which is available on all smart phones via various platforms. Demo each platform before trading real money.

Help and Support

The decent help and customer support offered by the team of FXDD is satisfactory for most traders. The customer support team is prompt and responsive, which is something important. Also, there are good Forex trading training and tutorials included. Email questions and queries were responded to very quickly. There is a Live Chat, which was equally responsive and divided by various languages available.

One interesting support we found is the live Forex trading seminars around America during the year. However, this service is chargeable at a nominal fee. You can check out the schedule online.

Overall, it was found that FXDD Forex trading platform is proficient in various aspects of trading and the best for all types of traders. As a retail ECN broker, FXDD fairs decently for most users, at least it did for us. Much like some of the larger Forex brokers like eToro that is regulated in many regions, FXDD is also regulated by the MFSA and NFA. The features of Live Chat and language options makes the Forex broker friendlier than most of the brokers seen till date. The website design is also technically sound and navigable, which lets you spend less time in searching; you can hit the spot directly. Moreover, information related to Forex trading seminars and other details can keep you intrigued to the website as you learn more about what is happening around the Forex trading market. Traders looking for a hassle-free, non-dealing desk Forex broker that offers good spreads, multiple trading platforms, and satisfactory customer service, FXDD may be the appropriate choice.

FXDD is the winner of the “Best Arabic Platform 2008”, and theres every reason for such remarkable performance. Putting together so many platforms and managing an excellent website is highly praiseworthy performance.

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Junior Commodity Forex Broker


Broker Junction, Series L. L.C. is a CFTC-registered Futures, Options & Forex Broker located in Manhattan's Financial District. We are also registered as asset managers (Commodity Trading Advisors & Commodity Pool Operators) specialized in trading spot currency contracts and/or commodities (e. g. gold, crude oil, Coffee & Coco, S&P and Dow, grains, metals and more). Candidates need to work 4 hours per day at least and they should be interested in becoming futures, options and/or FX Brokers or Traders but that is not a requirement. A background in finance is advantageous but not a necessity. Multi-lingual skills (especially German) are clearly advantageous but also not a requirement. Knowledge of webpage development, particularly PHP open-source based websites build on MVC framework is advantageous but not a MUST! Willingness to work night shifts is welcome!

Job Desciption:

- handle daily administrative assignments contact us if you are interested.

- prepare to take Series 3 (Commodity Broker License) and subsequently Series 34 (Foreign Exchange Broker License)

- schedule appointments with clients for senior Brokers

- assist in preparation of power point based educational webinar material covering various technical analysis indicators

- assist in voice-brokered order taking

- get first exposure to trading Commodity Futures contracts

- get first exposure to trading Commodity Options contracts

- get first exposure to trading currencies (spot foreign exchange as well as futures-based foreign exchange contracts)

- post updates on Linkedin and

- update our webpage occasionally (it is is PHP open-source based and build on MVC framework)

We will sponsor your Series 3 and Series 34 exams if you decide to join us long-term. Please feel free to visit our website (broker-junction) to get a first impression of what we are offering.

Forex brokers in new york

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Gabe velazquez online trading academy

Gabe velazquez online trading academyGabe Velazquez

Gabe got his start in the markets as a broker trainee for Paine Webber, a mere 3 months before the market crash of 1987. He witnessed the gut wrenching fear of investors during that time period and the wild speculative euphoria of the late 90?s. That experience brought to light the importance risk management plays in trading and investing. In fact, it’s greatly influenced the way he trades today.

He spent 15 years as a stock and commodities broker, conducting technical analysis seminars through-out Southern California. After many years of managing other people’s money, Gabe now concentrates full time on trading his own portfolio and teaching. Students will benefit from his first hand experience of daily involvement in the market. He brings with him an acute awareness and understanding of how the markets really work. Articulating this knowledge clearly, succinctly, and with enthusiasm is something students can appreciate. This gift for communicating was honed through many years of public speaking.

Gabe looks forward to sharing his passion for trading and the markets with you at one of his next scheduled classes.

In order to be successful in futures trading one needs a sound low risk strategy. Something most of you already know. Learning the core strategy here at Online Trading Academy, at least in the initial stages, requires plenty of hours in front of the screen. This is because the core strategy is simply a chart pattern that is created when big banks and institutions decide to buy or sell a big position. The footprint they leave is where online trading academy students find the lowest risk entry points.

Using a set of rules we call odds enhancers students learning our core strategy can discern which levels have the highest probability of success. Many students will tell you that this is the easier part of the process as once students train their eyes to identify what the picture of supply and demand looks like they simply look for that specific picture day in and day out. The most difficult part for most traders is sticking to the rules.

Since discipline is the most challenging facet of trading what can a trader do to improve in this area? For starters, ask yourself how disciplined you are in your personal life. Do you usually accomplish want you set out to do? Are you a good planner, and organized when it comes to achieving a task? Do you push yourself outside of your comfort zone, or do find it hard to move away from your safe Zone? If you answered yes to all these questions then youll do better than most in the trading arena. If, however, youre perfectly honest with yourself and find that youre lacking in these areas there is some work to do.

Following rules does not come easily to most of us, thats why we have rules imposed on us in every aspect of our lives. Politicians often have to write new laws to protect us against ourselves, usually after something bad happens. The penalties for transgressing can be stiff depending upon the severity of transgression. This also holds true for trading, doesnt it?

So for those of us that need some help with discipline one recommendation is to start a workout regime. In the Trade plan classes that I teach, I actually have students incorporate some type of workout routine into their daily trading plan. In case you havent figured it out yet, trading is largely an exercise in mental exertion and as such without a health body the mind will not function properly.

Studies have shown that regular exercise improves mental acuity, and gives people who routinely workout a positive outlook when faced with adversity. Do you think as a trader you will face some adversity? Of course this is a rhetorical question, but you get the point.

For those that think this doesnt apply to you because youre already thin or already routinely exercise, think again. If youre currently running 2 miles then how about 3 or 4? If you workout 3 days a week how about 4? The point is that to get better. we need to stretch our boundaries, face our fears and conquer them.

With the New Year just around the corner now is as good a time as ever to start making those changes that will improve your trading results. One of those is to improve the way you handle the challenge of sticking to your rules, having a clear, concise plan will help in that area. Starting a workout regime can also help with discipline. So start making small positive changes in every aspect of your life and perhaps next year youll have the best trading results ever!

I hope everyone has a great Holiday!

Until next time,

Gabe Velazquez

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About the author

Equities, E-mini Futures, Technical Analysis Strategies, Platform Immersion, Personal Trading Plan Instructor, Trader Mentor and Author

Gabe got his start in the markets as a broker trainee for Paine Webber, a mere 3 months before the market crash of 1987. He witnessed the gut wrenching fear of investors during that time period and the wild speculative euphoria of the late 90s. That experience brought to light the importance risk management plays in trading and investing. In fact, its greatly influenced the way he trades today.

He spent 15 years as a stock and commodities broker, conducting technical analysis seminars through-out Southern California. After many years of managing other peoples money, Gabe now concentrates full time on trading his own portfolio and teaching. Students will benefit from his first hand experience of daily involvement in the market. He brings with him an acute awareness and understanding of how the markets really work. Articulating this knowledge clearly, succinctly, and with enthusiasm is something students can appreciate. This gift for communicating was honed through many years of public speaking.

He currently holds a series 7, 63, 9 and 10 (securities and options principals license.)

Gabe looks forward to sharing his passion for trading and the markets with you at one of his next scheduled classes.

Smart Indicators

Where to begin when choosing indicators/oscillators/overlays for your charts. Not withstanding their use in scanning and automated trading. I know this will get a few traders angry about their favorites. Here's how Lance Beggs puts it:

One of the greatest leaps forward in my development as a trader came when I realised I was not trading the actual market, but rather an approximation of the market created by indicators.

This is a common error for all newcomers to the markets, when they first discover the profit they would have achieved by entering on a moving average crossover at the start of a massive bull run and holding until the opposite cross. Of course, as I soon discovered it's not that simple. But so began the almost standard several-year search for that perfect combination of indicators that always gets you in and out of a trade at the optimal time - the commonly referred to holy grail. Of course, everyone kept saying that the holy grail doesn't exist, but that didn't stop me for searching for it.

Eventually though, all searches for the perfect indicator end in frustration. Many just quit the markets. But for me, the light bulb came on when I realised I had to find the truth beneath the indicators. What was the truth to the market structure itself, not the indicator's representation of that market?

Sam Seiden calls it: The Veil of Illusion . The movement of price in any and all free markets is a function of the laws of pure supply and demand . Buying and selling opportunities emerge when this simple and straight forward relationship is out of balance.

For the astute trader and investor there is only one way to make money in any market and it has nothing to do with the news, company fundamentals, earnings reports, technical indicators on a chart . analyst statements, or the economy. [Emphasis is mine.]

Now you can take a look at them, hopefully, from the SM perspective.

First be sure to have read the lesson Smart Candlestick Patterns to gain the necessary perspective of SM.

When an indicator (oscillators/overlays) claims a predictive power based on some mathematically characteristics, it is just plain bull. Maybe SM looks at indicators, but i think it is probably just to see where the DM is psychologically. For SM trading is all about Supply and Demand and psychological warfare on the herd. They get this from a holistic view of the chart not what an indicator interprets from price and/or volume.

The place to start an evaluation of an indicator is to look at it and ask yourself if it gives information about SM that you can't see on the chart without it. Take, for instance, the Bollinger Bands. They are a representation of 1 or more Standard Deviations of price movement. Does this in any way give insight into SM? The footprints of smart money (Bulkowski) shows up in chart patterns . price spread (bars or candles) and volume as well as other chart characteristics, such as: market phases, trends, etc. Do you really think they consider whether or not they are pushing things beyond some standard deviations and decide it's time to pullback or consolidate at the mean ?

Is there anything the Stochastic Oscillator shows in the above chart that cannot be seen in the chart without the indicator? It was developed by George C. Lane in the late 1950s and is cansidered a momentum indicator that shows the location of the current close relative to the high/low range over a set number of periods, usually 14. Which means: it averages the last 14 candles - something that cannot be done by looking at the last 14 candles on your chart? Then the closing levels that are consistently near the top of the range indicate accumulation (buying pressure) and those near the bottom of the range indicate distribution (selling pressure). Well, first of all, as you should have picked up by now, this is from the DM perspective, this ranging can continue for some time as it doesn't mean there is a top or bottom, and it can easily be seen directly on the chart.

One of the most reliable signals is to wait for a divergence to develop from overbought or oversold levels. Once the oscillator reaches overbought levels, wait for a negative divergence to develop and then a cross below 80. This usually requires a double dip below 80 and the second dip results in the sell signal. For a buy signal, wait for a positive divergence to develop after the indicator moves below 20. This will usually require a trader to disregard the first break above 20. After the positive divergence forms, the second break above 20 confirms the divergence and a buy signal is given.

This is not too bad and would definitely be an advantage for anyone who doesn't understand the working of SM. For those who do, there is a much more powerful and consistent diverge pattern that involves volume. Here lies some of the most basic weaknesses of this type of indicator. Where the individual price spread (over one or several bars in a pattern) is so important, this indicator averages it all out - and never even considers what the most powerful single indicator on a chart - volume - is saying. The three most critical factors in making the final analysis before pulling the trigger are averaged, discounted, smoothed, or left out - the volume, price spread and the close.

I will say that George Lane is one of the Trading Titans of all time. Curious though, on page 3 of this pdf by By Allen Sykora from his interviews with George Lane, under: Bar charts and volume it reads:

In his trading, Lane watches bar charts and volume for an indicator of what is happening in a market.

Finally, the other approaches like EWT, Gann fans, fibs, etc. These rely heavily on mathematics without scientific method Scientific method - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia and have taken Dow Theory into horrible zones of distraction and predilection with prediction (the search for the Holy Grail). They do not rely on where Supply is located and how Demand reacts at certain price levels. They rely on mathematical models claiming to understand crowd psychology and trying to predict crowd behavior under emotional disstress.

Another good example would be the use of Pivot Points. First is the assumption that the mathematical formulas have some significance. And at first it does. It begins using the previous days High, Low and Close. (The best way to perpetrate a lie is to cloak it in truth.) This is perfectly reasonable because these points are based solely on price action. There the reasonableness ends. PP=(H+L+C)/3 (PP=Pivot Point. H=High. L=Low. C=Close.) On what basis would dividing these points by 3 yield a significant result? There are three significant levels from the previous day, lets divide them by 3 so we can have 4 points? The other points are as meaningless primarily because they are based on the first insignificant mathematically (arbitrarily) derived point.

The other argument for using PPs goes something like this: These floor pivot points are particularly important to consider because so many traders are watching them. That isn't exactly true. In the chart above you can see the green Hits compared to the red Misses which are way below any reliability factor. The same is true of fibs. Is this unreliability worth the time and distraction? Not only are these time wasting, distracting and unreliable, the are also psychologically damaging .

Let's assume (I know, I know. ) you used the BBs and made a gain, then another. Then a loss, then another and another and. What you have done by your intial wins is set up a bias for the indicator that keeps you trading when the method was actually not working at all. Simply studying the workings of an indicator (like the complexities of EWT) for a long time also leads to this bias. Your understanding of the methodology breeds confidence in it - a bias. When trading (not investing), certain biases are anathema to success. This is what Dr. Brett Steenbarger calls Confirmation Bias :

Confirmation bias is the tendency to search for and overweight evidence that supports one's own position. This can be a major problem in trading, as it leads traders to become overconfident in their positions and stay in trades well after they should be abandoned. A simple example occurs when traders are in a position and then focus mainly on the indicators or market behavior that supports staying in the position.

And Gabe Velazquez . an instructor at Online Trading Academy has an article, Your Belief System is Highly Correlated with Your Results which says: Let's take, for example, the fact that most people starting out in this business believe that they can successfully trade, if they can just find a special indicator. They become laser-focused on finding that technical tool that will make them rich, and in the process will create many illusions - to their detriment - that they sincerely believe are true.

You don't want to focus mainly on the indicators so they distract you from reading the SM moves. Actually, some indicators only track what the herd has been up to and encouraging you to follow along.

Again, before choosing an indicator, take a long, hard look at the chart to see if it actually provides any useful information that the chart doesn't reveal better without the indicator. Then consider how the indicator is applying what seems to be logical mathematical concepts to a market which is fueled by human emotions and psychologically manipulated. Finally, consider how these types of indicators do not measure the state of the supply or demand of the crowd nor how SM is planning their campaign to gain greater profits from them.

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Optimal trading strategies robert kissell pdf best binary option signals service

Optimal trading strategies robert kissell pdf best binary option signals serviceOptimal trading strategies robert kissell pdf. Best Binary Option Signals Service


Execution with special contribution by robert, optimal strategy. Approaches for tomorrow days can provide technical support quick. Minimizes. The link below, page. Optimal execution of costs see also kissell research group. And glantz, inter market impact and. Jp morgan. Morgan vp robert kissell, amacom. The. By robert kissell

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Online trading in mutual funds

Online trading in mutual fundsOnline trading in mutual funds

Online investments in mutual funds has picked up after the abolition of entry load by the Securities and Exchange Board of India (SEBI). With an online account, you can access your mutual funds online avoiding the need for multiple brokers, multiple bank accounts and multiple folios. There is also no need to call an agent and one of the biggest benefits of online investment is the complete privacy. You don't share your investment details with anyone.

You can register and buy mutual funds through broking companies offering online services - just like equity demat accounts. All you need is a one-time registration through the website, which may be free or levy a small transaction fee. You can switch between funds, discontinue a systematic investment plan ( SIP) at the click of a button, or even get a consolidated statement of all your holdings.

You can also trade in mutual funds through the National Stock Exchange (NSE) or Bombay Stock Exchange ( BSE) - much the same way you buy and sell shares online. All you need to do is register with your existing stock broker by filling up the requisite forms. If you want to merely invest in mutual funds, you will need a demat account, which entails paying an annual fees, in the range of Rs 300-800 per annum.

Mutual funds purchased will be credited to your demat account. You can also use your existing demat accounts to convert your existing mutual fund units to demat form. Just obtain the conversion request form from your depository participant, fill it, attach your statement of account and submit it to your depository who, after due verification, will sent it to the respective asset management company (AMC) or its registrar and transfer agent. The AMC will credit the mutual fund units to your demat account. If you want to redeem your mutual fund units, you can place an order through the stock exchange platform or submit the delivery instruction slip to your depository participant to transfer the mutual fund units.

A major advantage of the process is that you can decide where and how to invest your money. Online, you can do your own research, and invest with the click of a button. You can invest anytime, anyplace, anywhere.

Benefits of online trading:


Online trading provides transparency on all the information from the time of order placement till the final settlement. Every step of online trading is subject to scrutiny.

Best prices: Investors can get the best quotes given the high degree of transparency in the system.

Convenience and liquidity

You can trade online anytime during business hours. This also helps in providing liquidity to investors. It is to be noted that the broker needs clear funds to execute a mutual fund transaction. So if the investor gives a cheque, the broker can buy mutual funds only when the cheque is cleared. However, your online funds are accessible at the click of the button.

Commodity day trading

Commodity day tradingCommodity Day Trading

In trading, a cash commodity is a physical product, such as agriculture or financial instruments, which are used as the basis for a futures contract. To be eligible for trading on the futures market, a commodity must be standardized, have a fluctuating price and, in the case of perishable products, have a sufficiently long shelf life. Additionally, agricultural products must be in a raw, unprocessed state.

Traditionally, commodities are highly volatile, making them ideal for day trading. Keep in mind, though, volatility comes with increased risk. Approaching the commodities market with a solid trading strategy, as well as practicing good money management, can help decrease the overall risk experienced with commodity day trading.

Learn When and How to Start Commodity Day Trading

As with most day trading topics, commodity trading is considered highly advanced. In order to achieve success in this arena, you'll need to have a good idea what you're doing and have concrete strategies for tackling the market. Get the tools you need to thrive at commodity day trading at oexoptions. We have developed a logical system for approaching day trading which can benefit all traders. Find out more by contacting us today.

Read more information on:

Free forex backtesting software

Free forex backtesting softwareBacktesting Software

Automated Trading Software | Backtesting Software - Following is a list of software that enables traders to backtest and/or automate trading strategies and systems.

Not all backtesting software can automate your trading by placing trades through a broker, but since they are related types of trading software, I've elected to give you a list of resources all on one page, from which you can do further research.

If you plan to get serious about backtesting massive amounts of intraday data, then you might want to consider getting a computer that has an Intel i7 processor and Windows 7, 64 bit operating system. It'll make tests run much faster than a cheaper dual core computer running on a 32 bit OS.

I know that's contrary to what I said about day trading computer requirements for a discretionary trader, but running automated trading software or backtesting software is a whole different animal and requires much more horsepower, so to speak.

You should also know that some backtesting software by virtue of its design will run backtests much faster on the same computer.


I'll go ahead and tell you straight out, if you don't have any experience with programming computers or languages; going down the road of backtesting and/or algorithmic trading is a long road. It is going to require countless hours of your time to produce robust, day trading systems that produce profits that are consistent and reliable enough to trade with real money.

It is very tempting to go down this road with a dream of producing several systems, all making trades automatically with no emotions involved on different stocks or even different markets. And it's certainly possible. But, before you get started with any of this, I think it's wise to learn how to trade as a discretionary trader first.

You don't have to risk real money. You can use a simulator, but at least get involved with market dynamics first, before trying to come up with a mechanical strategy to make money.

Get a feel for basic market supply & demand. Learn how to make the low risk to high reward trades that are produced by a sound day trading system.

Understand position size and trading money management. In other words, understand the basic components of trading before getting into algorithmic trading. I suppose that's mostly common sense, but I'm sure some computer science majors will want to just jump right in an go for it, thinking they'll produce an ATM machine right away.


If you've decided to look into automated trading software or backtesting software and especially if you lack experience in this area, I highly suggest you consider a platform with a strong user forum or at the very least great support from the software's developer. I can promise you this with 100% certainty. You will be using the software developer's forums a lot, and you will be asking many questions.

If their forums are thick with experienced, helpful users, this can make all the difference between being a frustrated user of expensive software or being a content user creating results. Because, you will have many questions that need answers.


The following sceenshots are from Amibroker software. I have used this software and I will say that it is very good, inexpensive backtesting software, that you can try out for free.

Most backtesting platforms have the same basic components. They have an area to input your trading strategy using the software's computer code as below.

They have pages to adjust the backtester settings, stops, commissions, and many other details.

A page to choose symbols, filters, and a range of dates/time to run the backtest on. After running a backtest a page will show the results of the test, such as date/time of entry and exit, profit or loss, # of bars in trade, cumulative profit, -- all trade by trade.

Arrows are placed on a chart(s) where all trades were entered and exited according to your strategy's rules.

All backtesters have a page for optimizing your strategy's variables.

Some have 3D graphics that allow you to view how changes in those variables impact the system's profit.

Backtesting and automated trading software supply you with a mountain of data, such as net profit, average profit, largest win, %winners, exposure%, max. drawdown, profit factor, etc, that would keep even a workaholic, statistician happy.

But, if you're a beginner, and have never heard this before, please keep in mind. no matter how good the numbers look on your backtests, they are numbers representing simulated trades from past data. There is absolutely no guarantee that your system will perform as well into the future.

Do I think it's possible to make money using 100% mechanical trading systems? Absolutely. I'm no expert at algorithmic trading. As I've mentioned, my experience is in discretionary trading. But, I've done a fair amount of simple backtesting and I think the basic way to look at mechanical trading is the same as discretionary. You should be diversified in your approach.

Relying on one single system or strategy just won't cut it. A multiple system approach to smooth out your equity curve is the best way.

But, this page isn't about testing details. it's about giving you a resource of backtesting and automated trading software . So here's a list of companies with links that should keep you busy investigating and 'demo-ing' for quite a while.



Trading Blox






Used Any Of The Software Above? Please Write A Review!

TradeStation Platform

Strategy Back-Testing and Optimization

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Let your trading strategy do the analysis for you

Create, back-test and optimize your own custom trading strategy using on historical data and then analyze its performance to validate your trading ideas.

Strategy development for the non-programmer - build your strategy using pre-built strategy components.

Accurately back-test your trading - with Look-Inside-the-Bar technology, tick-level testing, limit-order fill assumptions, and by accounting for commissions and slippage.

Test on multiple markets - with intraday or tick data from our extensive historical database .

Measure your strategy's likelihood of success - with powerful strategy performance reports and graphs.

Verify that your trading strategy is robust enough to be used on live data - TradeStation's Walk Forward Optimizer provide an easy-to-read pass/fail report.


No offer or solicitation to buy or sell securities, securities derivative, futures products or off-exchange foreign currency (forex) transactions of any kind, or any type of trading or investment advice, recommendation or strategy, is made, given or in any manner endorsed by any TradeStation affiliate and the information made available on this Website is not an offer or solicitation of any kind in any jurisdiction where any TradeStation affiliate is not authorized to do business, including but not limited to Japan.

Past performance, whether actual or indicated by historical tests of strategies, is no guarantee of future performance or success. There is a possibility that you may sustain a loss equal to or greater than your entire investment regardless of which asset class you trade (equities, options futures or forex); therefore, you should not invest or risk money that you cannot afford to lose. Options trading is not suitable for all investors. Your account application to trade options will be considered and approved or disapproved based on all relevant factors, including your trading experience. Please click here to view the document titled Characteristics and Risks of Standardized Options. Before trading any asset class, customers must read the relevant risk disclosure statements on our Other Information page. System access and trade placement and execution may be delayed or fail due to market volatility and volume, quote delays, system and software errors, Internet traffic, outages and other factors.

TradeStation Group, Inc. Affiliates: All proprietary technology in TradeStation is owned by TradeStation Technologies, Inc. Equities, equities options, and commodity futures products and services are offered by TradeStation Securities, Inc. (Member NYSE. FINRA. NFA and SIPC ). TradeStation Securities, Inc. s SIPC coverage is available only for equities and equities options accounts. Forex products and services are offered by the TradeStation Forex divisions of IBFX, Inc. (Member NFA) and IBFX Australia Pty Ltd, ABN 84 142 210 179, holder of AFSL #363972.

© 2001-2015 TradeStation Group, Inc.

Reasons why we are better than competition :

FEATURE RICH - the most complete set of features available plus we add new features every day on user request.

RELIABILITY and ACCURACY - thoroughly tested and used every day by community of thousands of traders, fund managers, etc. Our backtester can reproduce virtually any trading strategy with real-life accuracy, including complex rebalancing strategies, sortingranking systems on thousands of securities.

SPEED - state-of-the-art programming and assembly optimizations allow your analyses to run 10 times faster than other competing products, each chart pane runs in parallel in separate thread allowing to fully utilise all processor cores. New Analysis window fully utilises multi-treading and provides unmatched data crunching power.

FLEXIBLE AND CUSTOMIZABLE - you won't be limited by the software anymore. With AmiBroker the limit is just your imagination. AmiBroker is incredibly tweakable and can be adjusted to fit your personal trading needs.

OPEN ARCHITECTURE - we provide a FREE API (application programming interface) that enables to link to any data vendor. The API comes with source code of actual indicator and data plugins. Open-source smart optimization engines (Particle Swarm, Tribes, CMA-ES). There is also extensive OLE/ActiveX automation interface available.

MODERN AND COMPATIBLE - our software is compatible and well tested with all modern Windows versions including Windows 10, Windows 8, Windows 7, Windows Vista . Windows XP . Windows 2000, as well as with Windows 95, 98, Millenium, NT 4. AmiBroker has native 32-bit and 64-bit versions to maximize the performance. No matter which Windows version you use, you can run AmiBroker on it.

COST-EFFECTIVE - not only license fee is low but also you get 12 months of free upgrades . free support . free plug-ins and add-ons. and last but not least, you can also use FREE DATA from a number of sources.

FAIR, NO-NONSENSE LICENSING enjoy extremely honest and friendly licensing conditions: you buy the program and you own it forever. No subscription, you may choose to upgrade or not, whenever you want. The license is personal, so if you own 3 computers, you can use your single personal AmiBroker license on all of them, no problems.

Overall AmiBroker is one of the best investments you can make to improve your trading.

And because we are confident that we have the best product out there you can try it all for FREE for 30 days You have nothing to risk and everything to gain with AmiBroker.

Damian got the inspiration for Yenisiy out this book

Superstar trader Damian shares the inspiration behind Yenisey, a system which returned over 24% in the past 12 months.

Automated Trading

Server Deployment

Supported Brokers

OANDA uses innovative computer and financial technology to provide Internet-based forex trading and currency information services to everyone, from individuals to large corporations, from portfolio managers to financial institutions. OANDA is a market maker and a trusted source for currency data. It has access to one of the world's largest historical, high frequency, filtered currency databases.

FXCM is a leading world-wide provider of foreign exchange trading (currency trading) and related services to retail and institutional customers. FXCM, founded in 1999, was the first forex broker to list on the New York Stock Exchange, making us a market leader in transparency and financial stability.


About the Download Installer

Quick Specs

Editors' Review

Backtesting can be applied to any historical data, but it's particularly useful in finance. Backtesting can use historical data to predict how a particular strategy might have fared under certain conditions so analysts can learn from the mistakes of the past. EzBacktest is a free financial tool that can verify and back-test virtually any stocks or funds, individually or in combination. You can compare your results to major stock indexes, change your allocation scheme, and run the data again. EzBacktest lets you load up on risk or reduce your position at will, and its graphical displays make the data easy to grasp.

Of course, the real value of EzBacktest isn't seeing how well hindsight works for you in the past (good luck with that) but to apply the lessons of the past to today's decisions about the future. To that end, EzBacktest is easy to use, fast, and (best of all) free. It's fun to play around with, too, if you like that sort of thing. We do!

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How can you increase your trading skills in weeks, not years?

Forex Tester provides many advantages over other traders. Most traders dont know that such a powerful tool exists. Now you have an excellent opportunity to learn Forex the easy way and spend the least amount of effort and time possible. Lets have a look at the most important features that users pay attention to when they first get acquainted with Forex Tester.

- Forex Tester includes a very simple and intuitive interface. If youve previously used MT4, youll have no problem working with this backtesting software.

- Test your strategies on the weekends when the market is closed and get prepared for Mondays live trading sessions.

- You can test your trading strategies in multiple time frames at once.

- Test your strategy with multiple currency pairs at the same time.

- Test several automated strategies (expert advisors—EA).

- Change the parameters of the EA during your testing.

- Use combined strategies that will give you an opportunity to have a manual or an automated entry and exit (for example, you can enter the trade using a manual system and exit with the help of an automated system and vice versa.

- Control the speed of your testing

You can find out more about Forex Tester by clicking on this link: forextester/special/tradingfo

Small shifts that will exponentially simplify and speed up your testing

The benefits that Forex Tester has to offer are obvious. You will need to make a few useful adjustments to get the most of your backtesting. Lets look at a few of the perks: 20Tester%20-%20software%20for%20Backtesting. png" /%

No Internet connection is necessary.

You can stretch the program on multiple monitors and place each currency pair on each individual monitor.

Stop the testing, save the project, and then resume it whenever you wish.

Access detailed statistics during and after the test. You can also export your results to an Excel document and then analyze them.

Obtain all of the information about each bar instantly.

If you arent satisfied with the basic time frames, you can create a custom one (for example, create a 8-hour or 3-minute time frame for your specific and advanced purposes.)

Withdraw and deposit money during the testing phase. This feature is very useful when implementing money management rules.

Create a time shift and adjust your trading within special time zones.

There are nine different languages to choose from, providing you with a better understanding of the programs interface.

Use special tools to speed up the process when placing a stop loss and take profit.

TRY IT FOR FREE: forextester/download

How can I add a custom indicator into Forex Tester?

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Most of the strategies are based on indicators and thats why this issue is one of the most popular among our clients. One should notice that the indicators for MT4 and for Forex Tester are written in a different format. To rewrite it from MT4 or to create an indicator that you have never seen but want to incorporate into your backtesting strategy, you need to know programming or you must find a good specialist to do this for you. All necessary information can be found on Forex Testers forum. You can also find that info following links below:

If the above posts are too complicated, you can order it from Forex Testers professional programmers wholl create the required indicator, Expert Advisor, or script in the shortest amount of time possible. Youll also be astonished at the reasonable price and the high quality. You can contact your personal programmer via this email: servicesforextester

Using the most comprehensive and reliable data

All backtesting is based on data. Accurate data is a must for a correct forex analysis. Forex Tester provides accurate data that will enable you to achieve the best results when trading in the foreign exchange markets. There is no need to look elsewhere because you have two great tools in one place. You can download Forex Tester and then you will need quality data. The data is available on Forex Testers official website: forextester/data/datasources. html

This is what you will be getting:

Data Subscription Types

Ubs trading desk forex g10outlooks and technical levels

Ubs trading desk forex g10outlooks and technical levelsUBS TRADING DESK Forex G10 outlooks and technical levels

Joined: Oct 28, 2015 Messages: 3 Likes Received: 0

“EURUSD has struggled to get above 1.1100, with the 200-day moving average just slightly above this at 1.1114. There were some dovish remarks from the ECB’s Coeure during early trading in Asia today and the market is eager to sell the pair. Look to sell around 1.1060/1.1080, with a stop above 1.1115, targeting a move below 1.1000.

USDJPY remains between 120.00 and 121.25 ahead of the BoJ meeting on Friday. We continue to see profit-taking and selling interest from locals above 121.00. Buy USDJPY at 119.80/120.00, with a stop at 119.50, for a move towards 121.00. Support at 119.83 and 119.41; resistance at 120.72 and 121.60.

EURJPY looks vulnerable with the weak euro, but we prefer buying dips below 132.50, targeting 133.50. Support at 132.67 and 131.80; resistance at 133.90, 134.26 and 134.81.

USDCHF and EURCHF are both quite supported. We think it is better to be long the pair, as the euro is still looking vulnerable. Buy USDCHF dips towards 0.9820/30 above the support at 0.9790/0.9800, which is where the breakout occurred earlier this week. There should be decent resistance around 0.99. EURCHF support at 1.0850 and 1.0820; resistance at 1.0900 and 1.0950.

Cable: The reaction to the lower-than-expected UK Q3 GDP figures yesterday was muted, with Cable trading in a 40-pip range and the range for EURGBP even narrower. There is not much data scheduled this week and the market seems to be waiting on the BoE next week. Add to GBPUSD longs below 1.5300 and sell EURGBP rallies to 0.7235/40. GBPUSD support at 1.5250 and 1.5201; resistance at 1.5358, 1.5377 and 1.5418. EURGBP support at 0.7192 and 0.7170; resistance at 0.7211 and 0.7251.

AUDUSD traded soft yesterday on the back of lower commodity prices and after the weaker-than-expected Q3 CPI today dropped to a low of 0.7112 from 0.7190. The market seemed to be caught wrong-footed and next week’s RBA meeting is being re-priced. We expect the pair to remain soft so sell rallies to 0.7170/0.7200, with a stop above 0.7275 where the short-term trend line comes in, targeting a test below 0.70. Support at 0.7100, 0.7050 and 0.6980; resistance at 0.7180, 0.7275 and 0.7380.

NZDUSD has been dragged lower along with AUDUSD and commodity prices and is testing the lower end of the 0.6700-0.6900 range. The market is waiting on the FOMC and RBNZ meetings and we wouldn’t chase a possible break out ahead of the rate decisions. Support at 0.6700, 0.6600 and 0.6500; resistance at 0.6825, 0.6900 and 0.7025.

USDCAD broke above 1.3200 yesterday as oil prices fell again, although interest was limited on the move. Look to take some profit on longs above 1.3300 ahead of the resistance at 1.3340 in order to buy again at better levels. Support at 1.3180/1.3200 and the key pivot on the downside remains 1.3040. Support at 1.3040, 1.3120 and 1.3200; resistance at 1.3340, 1.3460 and 1.3550.

EURNOK: Oil prices continued lower yesterday, fuelling a rally in EURNOK, which traded through the resistance from the past two weeks at 9.3150 and further on to 9.3659. Lower oil prices along with dovish remarks from the Norges Bank last week have increased expectations that the bank will cut the deposit rate at its meeting next week. Oil remains soft today and EURNOK looks set to head higher towards 9.4200/4300.

EURSEK: Strong Swedish consumer confidence data for October sent EURSEK to 9.3840 from 9.4000 yesterday, but the reaction seemed limited given the Riksbank rate decision today at 9:30am CET. Market consensus is for the repo rate to be left unchanged -0.350%, but given ECB President Draghi’s remarks last week, the expectations for a dovish tone and a further cut from the Riksbank have increased significantly. If there is no hint of a potential cut in December, EURSEK should test the monthly low of 9.2350 and possibly the major support at 9.2000. Resistance at 9.4550 and 9.5000.

Top six trading strategies in choppy market

Top six trading strategies in choppy marketTop six trading strategies in choppy market

(The benchmarks were moving…)

MUMBAI: The benchmarks were moving in a tight range in absence of fresh buying interest on Monday as wary investors stayed on sidelines ahead of the Reserve Bank of India's policy meet. According to analysts, the market is likely to remain choppy with stock-specific action.

Following are the top six trading picks that stand a chance to give good returns in the short term:

Vinay Khattar, Head Research (Individual Clients), Edelweiss Financial Services:

State Bank of India: Traders can buy the stock between Rs 2,495 and Rs 2,510 with a stop loss below Rs 2,425 for a target of Rs 2,620 - 2,650. The stock was consolidating between Rs 2,430 and Rs 2,560 since the last 15 trading sessions. This triangle consolidation has given a breakout with strong volumes. It has also taken support at the 20 DMA.

HPCL: Traders can buy the stock between Rs 345 and Rs 350 with a stop loss below Rs 319 for a target of Rs 380. It has started making higher highs and higher lows. Strong volume expansion has taken place in the price range of Rs 330 - 365. The upmove lasted till Rs 380 and retraced back to Rs 345 levels which is the 38.2 per cent Fibonacci Level. We expect the prices will rally back to its previous highs of Rs 380.

Mudit Goyal, Technical Analyst, SMC Global Securities:

Bharat Forge: The stock has given a decent correction from its recent high of Rs 270 levels and registered fresh 52-week low of Rs 227 on Friday. It bounced back sharply by the end of market and formed the reversal candle on daily charts which indicates that some bounce back can be expected. One can initiate long for the upside target of Rs 240-242 with a stop loss of Rs 230.

Century Textiles: The stock melted down sharply from its 52-week high of Rs 450 levels and tested Rs 390 in a single downward journey while trading in lower highs and lower lows on daily charts. It bounced back sharply from its intraday low and closed near the high of the day on good volume. We anticipate that buying momentum can continue in the coming days. Buy for the upside target of Rs 412-417 with a stop loss of Rs 399.

Godrej Industries: The stock was continuously facing the selling pressure from its 52-week high of Rs 332 levels while trading in downward sloping channel on daily charts. It bounced back sharply on Friday, closing over 2 per cent higher on average volume.

The stock also has breached its short term and medium term moving averages. We anticipate that buying momentum can continue for the coming days, which suggests the upside target of Rs 326-330 with a stop loss of Rs 312.

Infosys Technologies: The stock has witnessed a decent upside from Rs 2,350 levels to Rs 2,800 levels and started moving sideways in the range of Rs 2,750-2,820 forming the 'Bull Flag' pattern on daily charts, which is bullish in nature. One can initiate long for the upside target of Rs 2,860-2,880 with a stop loss of Rs 2,790.

Disclaimer: The above report is based on technical views and information given by analysts. Please consult your financial advisor before taking any position in the stocks mentioned.

Margin and leverage

Margin and leverageMargin and Leverage

Margin and leverage are fundamental concepts that every beginning forex trader must understand to be effective.

What is leverage?

When you decided to buy a house for the first time, chances are you didn’t have enough money to buy the house at its listed price. Traditionally, you would put a down payment on a house of 25%, and borrow the rest of the money from the bank. Whether you knew it or not, but you were using leverage to buy your house.

Leverage gives you access to large sums of money with only a small initial deposit.

Leverages are shown as a ratio. For example, a 25:1 leverage will give you access to 25 times more money than you put in. In this example $4000 dollars will allow you to buy a standard lot, which is $100,000 worth of currency.

Different brokers will have different leverages. Typical leverages are 10:1, 20:1, 30:1, 40:1, 50:1, 75:1, and 100:1. If you are trading using 100:1 leverage, you would be able to buy a $100,000 of currency for only $1000. You are spending less of your own money to buy that currency. Why wouldn’t you use the highest leverage available?

The simple fact is that the higher leverage you use, the higher risk there is. The make more money when you are right, but you lose more money when you are wrong. Don’t forget:

High leverage = High risk.

Example of Leverage

Say you are bullish on the USD/CAD pair, and believe that the USD will become stronger compared to the CAD currency. In other words, you think the price will go up. At a price of 1.0662, you buy a standard lot using 25:1 leverage, which means spent $4000 to buy $100,000 of USD currency.

It turns out that you were right, and you sold the currency pair at 1.0702, which was 40 pips above what you bought it. You have profited approximately $400 USD from this trade from an initial investment of $4000 dollars. This means your return on investment (ROI) is 10% ($400 / $4000) from this trade. Not bad for one day’s work.

But imagine what would have happened if you bought it using 100:1 leverage. You will only spend $1000 to buy $100,000 USD. The price still increased 40 pips, which equates to approximately $400 USD. You ROI is now 40% ($400 / $1000).

From this example you made four times as much with a higher leverage. But if the price decreased 40 pips, the results would be the exact opposite. Using a 25:1 leverage, you would have only lost 10% of your initial investment. But if you used 100:1 leverage, you would have lost 40% of the investment, which is almost half of what you put in!

The amount of leverage you use will be determined by how well you handle risk. Some people are naturally more capable of handling risk than others. But when you first start out, I highly recommend not using more than 25:1 margin.

What is Margin?

The margin is the amount of money as a percentage that you would have to put up to buy a contract. Depending on your broker’s margin policy, if your account balance dips below the margin, you will get a margin call and all your open positions will be closed for you.

How to Calculate Margin?

Leverage and margin are related by the following formula:

Leverage = 100 / Margin

Margin = 100 / Leverage

So 25:1 leverage would indicate 4 percent margin (100/25). Here are some other common ones:

100:1 Leverage = 1% Margin

50:1 Leverage = 2% Margin

40:1 Leverage = 2.5 % Margin

30:1 Leverage = 3.33 % Margin

25:1 Leverage = 4% Margin

20:1 Leverage = 5% Margin

10:1 Leverage = 10% Margin

I think you get the idea.

In this next example, I am buying a mini-lot ($10,000). The margin used is calculated automatically for me on the picture below. In this example, we want to find out how the margin is calculated if our leverage is 50:1.

You are putting up $200 USD of your own money to buy a $10,000 mini contract. Therefore you are putting up 2% (200 / 10,000) of your own money. To calculate the margin, we take 2% of $10,000, which is $200.

How to Calculate Margin 2

What happens when the base currency is not the same as the home currency? Every currency pair is listed with two numbers. For example, you will often see EUR / USD = 1.40917 / 1.40912. The first number is the base currency, and the second number is the quotes currency. The home currency is USD if your forex account was deposited using US currency. If this doesn’t make sense, click here to review the basics.

In this case, when you buy or sell a standard lot, the currency of that lot will be in Euros, but the margin will still be listed in your home currency (USD in our example). How does the margin get calculated? Let’s take a look at another example.

We are buying a standard lot of the EUR/USD pair. Once again, the margin is automatically calculated for us. But how did we arrive at that number?

Let’s take a deeper look. Since the quoted price is 1.40792, this means that it costs 1.40792 USD to buy 1 EUR. A standard lot of 100,000 EUR will cost 140,792 USD. I am glad that we have margin because I sure don’t have that kind of money!

We know from our broker what the leverage is (50:1 in this case), so we can calculate the margin. A 50:1 leverage is the same as 2% margin. Two percent of $140,792 is $2815.84, which is the margin listed. We now know how to calculate the margin. The margin calculation uses the following formula:

Margin Used = ((Base Currency / Home Currency) * Units) / Margin Ratio

Base Currency / Home Currency = EUR/USD = 1.40792

Units = 100,000

Margin Ratio = 50

Margin Used = (1.40792 * 100,000) / 50 = $2815.84

How to Calculate Margin 3

We will go one step further determine how the margin is calculated if both the base currency and quote currency are different than the home currency.

The home currency is still USD, but now we want to buy 100,000 units of the EUR / GBP pair.

We will use the formula from above to calculate the margin.

Base Currency = EUR

Home Currency = USD

Base / Home Currency = EUR / USD = 1.40884

Units = 100,000

Leverage = 20:1

Margin Used = (1.40884 * 100,000) / 20 = $2,817.68 USD.

The best person to tell you what type of leverage to use is you. Only you will know what type of risk tolerance you have. However, I highly recommend not using too much leverage if you are just learning how to trade. Most professionals don’t use more than 50:1 margin, and neither should you.

You should also know how to calculate the margin so you can plan ahead and know how much of your money is actually being risked, and avoid the nasty margin call.

Day trading strategies for the short term

Day trading strategies for the short termDay trading strategies: for the short term

by Jens Clever


Momentum trading

A momentum trade usually lasts anywhere from 30 seconds to about 1 hour. Momentum trading is based on strong price movements and counter price movements often caused by news. Day traders use them.

Breakout trading

Breakout trading means to buy stock after it has broken out above a certain price. (Vice versa for shorts.) Breakouts (or breakdowns) can occur over any time frame. Popular charts for breakout day traders are 5 minute and 15 minute charts. The holding period is anywhere from a few seconds (breakout scalp) up to the end of the day.

Pullback trading

Pullback trading is the opposite of breakout trading. Pullback day traders are looking for stock prices to pull back a significant enough amount (usually into support) in order for them to justify an entry. (Vice versa for shorts.)

This is classic day trading, and personally I am more of a breakout trader since I like the confirmation of the stock price's movement that I get thru the breakout; although pullback trading often has smaller stops. The holding period is usually a few seconds up to an hour.

Scalping describes “ultra short term” day trading. Scalpers try to take advantage of very small price movements and sell their shares immediately when they have a big enough profit or the stock isn’t moving in their direction or goes against them.

Cutting the spread

Cutting the spread can be seen as a variation of scalping. Cutting the spread means to take advantage of the spread (the price difference between the bid and the ask price). It means to buy a stock on the bid side and to sell it immediately afterwards on the ask side for a small profit.

Since the decimalization of the markets this type of day trading has become much more difficult, because spreads have gotten much smaller. However I still see day traders implementing this strategy pretty successfully.


I suggest that every day trader experiment with different strategies and then decide for himself what day trading strategies he is most comfortable with.

The day trading strategies presented here are by no means the “holy grail”. Trading setups have to be monitored and adjusted continuously. But this article will give you an overview into how day traders work. (More articles on day trading.)

2003 DayTradingCoach

Our forex margin requirements

Our forex margin requirementsOur Forex Margin Requirements

On this page, you will find the margin requirements for ForexTime (FXTM). When trading, you must maintain a certain level of funds in your account (the necessary margin), also known as a good faith deposit. Calculating and understanding your necessary margin requirements beforehand allows you to apply good risk management and avoid any unnecessary margin calls resulting in the closing of a position due to not enough margin in your account. Margin requirements on demo accounts are equivalent to those on corresponding live accounts.

Please Note: The Leverage / Margin requirements may be subject to change as a result of applicable regulations in your country of residence. For residents of Poland, the maximum leverage is 1:100.

On PAMM Trading Accounts

If positions are opened, closed, or modified on forex currency pairs on a Standard. MT4 or Cent. MT4 account in the hour before the trading session ends on Friday, the leverage will be fixed at 1:100. Before the beginning of the next trading session, the leverage will be reset based on the total volume of open positions on the account. The Leverage / Margin requirements may be subject to change as a result of applicable regulations in your country of residence. For residents of Poland, the maximum leverage is 1:100.

Calculating Forex Margin Requirements with Floating Leverage

Assume you open Position #1 Buy 5 lots GBPUSD 1.4584 for a USD Denominated Account.

The notional value is: 5 * 100,000 * 1.4584 = 729,200 USD. Since the notional value of 729,200 USD is not above 1,200,000 USD, the Leverage offered is 1:1000.

Margin is: 729,200/1000 = 729.20 USD.

You open position # 2 Buy 20 lots EURUSD 1.3175.

The notional value is: 20 * 100,000 * 1.3175 = 2,635,000 USD.

The aggregate notional value of Position #1 and Position #2 is:

729,200 (for position # 1) + 2,635,000 (for position # 2) = 3,364,200 USD.

In this case, the aggregate notional value of open positions is above 1,200,000 USD, but under 7,000,000 USD.

Thus, a leverage of 1:1000 is provided for the first 1,200,000 USD, and a leverage of 1:500 for the remaining 2,164,200 USD.

Margin is: 1,200,000/1000 + 2,164,200/500 = 5,528.4 USD.

Assume you open Position #3 Buy 40 lots GBPUSD 1.4590.

The notional value is: 40 * 100,000 * 1.4590 = 5,836,000 USD.

The aggregate notional value of all three positions is:

729,200 (for position # 1) + 2,635,000 (for position # 2) + 5,836,000 (for position # 3) = 9,200,200 USD.

Now the aggregate notional value of open positions is above 7,000,000 USD, but under 12,000,000 USD.

Thus, a leverage of 1:1000 is provided for the first 1,200,000 USD, a leverage of 1:500 for the next 5,800,000 USD, a leverage 1:200 for the remaining amount.

Margin is: 1,200,000/1000 + 5,800,000/500 + 2,200,200/200 = 23,801 USD.

Assume you open Position #4 Buy 25 lots EURUSD 1.3164.

The notional value is: 25 * 100,000 * 1.3164 = 3,291,000 USD.

The aggregate notional value of all four positions is:

729,200 (for position # 1) + 2,635,000 (for position # 2) + 5,836,000 (for position # 3) + 3,291,000 (for position # 4) = 12,491,200 USD.

Now the aggregate notional value of open positions is above 12, 000,000 USD, but less than 17,000,000 USD.

Thus, a leverage of 1:1000 is provided for the first 1,200,000 USD, a leverage of 1:500 for the next 5,800,000 USD, leverage 1:200 for the next 5,000,000 and leverage 1:100 for the remaining amount.

Margin is: 1,200,000/1000 + 5,800,000/500 + 5,000,000/200 + 491,200/100 = 42,712 USD.

Assume you open Position #5 Buy 40 lots EURUSD 1.3188

The notional value is: 40 * 100,000 * 1.3188 = 5,275,200 USD.

The aggregate notional value of all five positions is:

729,200 (for position # 1) + 2,635,000 (for position # 2) + 5,836,000 (for position # 3) + 3,291,000 (for position # 4) + 5,275,200 (for position # 5) = 17,766,400 USD. .

Thus, a leverage of 1:1000 is provided for the first 1,200,000 USD, a leverage of 1:500 for the next 5,800,000 USD, a leverage 1:200 for the next 5,000,000, a leverage 1:100 for the next 5,000,000 and a leverage of 1:25 for the remaining amount.

Margin is: 1,200,000/1000 + 5,800,000/500 + 5,000,000/200 + 5,000,000/100 + 766,400/25 = 118,456 USD

Let's suppose you close position # 2 (Buy 20 lots EURUSD 1.3175)

The notional value is: 2,635,000 USD.

The aggregate notional value of all four positions is (taking into account the second position having been closed):

729,200 (for position # 1) + 5,836,000 (for position # 3) + 3,291,000 (for position # 4) + 5,275,200 (for position # 5) = 15,131,400 USD.

When Position #2 was closed, the total notional value also decreases which leads to a decrease in the margin requirements. The part exceeding 17,000,000 USD is removed first and with it the 1:25 leverage.

Margin is: 1,200,000/1000 + 5,800,000/500 + 5,000,000/200 + 3,131,400/100 = 69,114 USD

Assume you deposit 3,000 USD to your Fixed spread account. Your Balance equals 3,000 USD. Since you don’t have open positions and your equity is less than 5,000 USD . your leverage is 1:500.

Assume you have been trading for a month, closed all positions and earned 2,500 USD as a result. Your balance equals 5,500 USD . In this case, leverage for the following trades will be 1:200.

You continue trading successfully and after you close all positions you realize the profit of 10,000 USD. Your equity reaches 15,500 USD . Thus, your leverage for the following transactions will be 1:100 .

As ForexTime (FXTM) does not have limits on maximum deposit for Fixed spread accounts, you decide to transfer 15,000 USD from your Standard. mt4 account. Your equity reaches 30,500 USD . Your leverage for the following transactions is 1:50.

You successfully trade and your equity reaches 50,000 USD . The same evening, at 22:00 MT Server Time, the leverage for all your following transactions becomes fixed at 1:25 unless your equity falls below 50,000 USD.

You decide to withdraw your profit and to leave only 3,000 USD in your account. So your equity falls under 5,000 USD. Your leverage is back to 1:500.

Trading strategy etf

Trading strategy etfRelative Weakness Momentum Strategy – Bearish Momentum

Relative strength refers to how one ETF’s price movements compare to another’s. If two ETFs are dropping in a bear market and a trader wants to go short, they should short the weakest one, the ETF that nobody wants to own.

Let’s assume the trader is bearish on gold miners and wants to get a short position, but isnt sure which gold miners ETF to short. They must do a comparison to see which is performing worst (in order to go short). To go long, our trader would look for the one that’s performing the best.

Figure 1. shows Market Vectors Gold Miners ( GDX B+ ) compared to Market Vectors Junior Gold Miners ( GDXJ B ). Over the timeframe shown, GDXJ has been weaker than GDX. If choosing between these two ETFs, taking a short in GDXJ is the better option since its weaker [see also How To Be A Better Bear: Short vs. Inverse ETFs ].

To go short on the chosen ETF based on relative weakness, make sure an overall downtrend is in place. then look for entry. A simple but highly effective method is to draw a trendline along a pullback in the downtrend and then enter when the price resumes falling and breaks the trendline.

Figure 2. shows how many potential entry points there are in a strong downtrend. All the white lines are trendlines for pullbacks. When the trendline is broken it shows selling is continuing and a short position can be taken.

Place a stop above the recent high to limit risk, and hold the position until a higher swing high occurs.

This method can also be used in an uptrend. Look for the ETF that is performing the strongest in an uptrend. Draw downward trendlines along the pullbacks, and when the trendline is broken by buying, go long. Place a stop below the recent low and exit when a lower swing low occurs [see also 17 ETFs For Day Traders ].

Momentum Indicator Strategy – Bullish Momentum

The following approach is best applied when the momentum indicator (12-day default) has recently reached an extreme level, such as 110 or higher, or 90 and lower. When it’s fluctuating back and forth mildly across 100, the signals are less reliable.

Extreme levels on the momentum indicator often signal that the price is over-extended and a turning point may soon be coming. Basing a decision on this alone can be dangerous, though, since prices can keep running for extended periods of time.

Therefore, we’re looking for an extreme level in the momentum indicator, followed by a divergence. In this particular case, we’re looking for an indication that strong selling is about to turn to buying. When it occurs, we can jump on the buying bandwagon [see 5 Most Important Chart Patterns For ETF Traders ].

Figure 3. shows this sequence of events occurring in the SPDR Gold Trust ( GLD A - ). As the price falls there is a downward spike in momentum, followed several months later by a higher low. This is divergence: the price is making lower lows but momentum is going up. This indicates that there is a potential long trade in the ETF. but the trade needs a trigger and risk controls .

Once the divergence is set up, a simple trade trigger is to draw a trendline on the momentum indicator and then enter long when the trendline is broken.

On this particular trade, the downward trendline following the divergence on the momentum indicator was broken almost exactly at the turning point of a higher price. This precision won’t always occur, so a stop-loss is needed. Place a stop below the recent low price, in this case $148.

Continue to hold the position as long as the ETF price is making higher lows. When a lower low occurs, which can be seen on the far right side of Figure 4. exit the trade.

This can also be used as a shorting strategy. Look for a buying spike followed by divergence on the momentum indicator (lower highs). Once it occurs, go short when the momentum indicator breaks below the upward trendline. The stop is above the recent high. Hold the position until a higher swing high occurs [see 3 ETF Trading Tips You Are Missing ].

RSI Strategy – Neutral to Breakout Markets

Sometimes an ETF is predominantly trendless; it’s moving within a range. While this is often visually seen on the price chart, an RSI indicator can help confirm a range is occurring, and also notify traders when a trending move is beginning.

When an ETF’s price is moving back and forth within a price band for an extended period of time, the RSI (14-day period) will likely fluctuate between 80 and 20. If the trading is really choppy, the RSI may even stay snug to a 50 reading.

When the price is moving within a range and the RSI is fluctuating between 20 and 80 traders are better off with a ranging strategy rather than a momentum strategy.

Figure 5. shows this occurring in the United States Oil Fund ( USO A ). While there are opportunities to trade the see-saws in price, these are generally bypassed by momentum traders in favor of more dynamic moves.

Wait for the RSI to move out of this range before taking momentum trades. Ideally, an uptrend in price should result in the RSI reaching above 80 and also staying above 40. In a price downtrend, the RSI typically dips below 20 and generally stays below 60.

USO showed these tendencies back in 2012.

On the left-hand side of Figure 6. we see the price and RSI ranging. Here, both the RSI and price break prior lows, signaling increasing selling momentum and a downtrend. After reaching below 20, the RSI makes continual higher lows and higher highs into mid-August, showing a buying momentum. To enter a trade during the uptrend or downtrend, use the entry and risk control methods outlined in the Relative Strength/Weakness Momentum Strategy [see ETF Call And Put Options Explained ].

Trading strategies ranging market

Trading strategies ranging marketTrading strategies ranging market Best Binary Option Brokers foumina

Trading strategies ranging market market watch free stock screener

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Lesson#6offshore forex broker

Lesson#6offshore forex brokerLesson #6: Offshore Forex Broker

This section of the site is dedicated to two important concepts in online forex trading. Offshore Forex Trading and Offshore Forex Broker. How are these two concepts affecting your trades?

Traders refer to the Forex Exchange Market when talking about the market in which currencies are bought and sold. It is the largest financial market in the world and one of the most flexible for its users.

An example of an offshore currency market can be done imagining a person living in Germany trading GBP or USD through a forex broker that is located in Russia. As you can see, the German person is not trading his own currency, but two different ones and through a company that is not set up in Germany or the Euro zone.

An Offshore Forex Broker is a Broker that is operating from overseas in a country where the presence of less regulations and constraints makes it easier for people to trade foreign currencies. This is only making it easier and does not imply any negative sides, but just an increase in the opportunity to gain bigger profits out of your deals.

The Offshore Forex Broker represents one of the most important factors in the forex market and this is due to the fact that much of the flexibility of a customer is linked to the Broker that they are dealing with.

Every user can decide to trade using a broker in your own country or one that is located in an area whose competitive advantages are going to benefit your trading conditions.

All of that falls into the area of competence of Offshore Forex Trading and PaxForex represents the ideal choice to get the best trading conditions and a safe trading environment.

The main advantage connected with the use of a offshore forex broker is related to the low requirements concerning the due diligence.

Forex Brokers refer to due diligence as the bureaucracy that is necessary to open an account. This brings a reduction of the effort that is necessary to open an account for a potential client.

Offshore Forex Trading has many advantages. First of all, you are going to trade at lower spreads and with better leverages. Secondly, you would be able to receive promotions that are highly valuable because Offshore Forex Brokers are is less tightened to different kinds of taxes and therefore they can transfer their savings to their clients. One example of those transfers can be seen in PaxForex’s unique promotions to its clients, such as the 100% Deposit Bonus.

The Offshore Forex Trading Market is very big in size and has many participants. This brings the market to be characterized by great earning opportunities that cannot be taken advantage of through the use of an on-shore broker. Currently, the market did not stop its growth and actually increased the opportunity of profit for traders.

Trading through an offshore broker does not involve any limitation and therefore you are be able to make all the trades you want and using all the techniques you want and might be familiar with.

Concluding, the Offshore Forex Trading market is characterized by:

The transactions in each currency take place in a different place than the country of its issue. More room for profit More opportunities for traders Better trading conditions Less due diligence is expected from traders More forex bonus promotions and therefore better services are offered to traders

Forex trading wso

Forex trading wsoIndicator WSO + WRO + Trend Line

Indicator features:

- The indicator is based on ideas of indicator Widners Oscilator;

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I am a beginner forex trader and having already lost a small fortune, and then some, within this week, I decided to stop and reflect before I blow out again. If any of you would be so kind, I need some answers and/or validations.

As far as forex trading is concerned, I am still a novice and I concluded that I lost all that money due to my own incapability, but in the wake of some recent events( following US jobs data), I think that may not be all there is to it.

Volatility is really really high during such time and that is understandable, but I saw this presentation the other day by an ex banker in UCL, london of uk regarding trading in investment banks, the lifestyle that came with it, etc etc and one of the things that was really important, but it slipped my mind was, that "short term trading is totally dominated by quants",

Anything from within a day, or even within a week is totally out of our reach of us retail traders.

1.Is Short term trading is so fucked by quants and leverage for us retail investers?

that we dont even stand a chance?

Now I'm not trying to hate on quants, I am just saying that it s a very big disadvantage for us

2. Having already lost so much, has anyone actually recovered?

90% of forex readers lose money but are there any retail speculators in that remaining 10%?

3.Are there any successful short term (non totally quant) traders?

Because my confidence is totally fucked right now, Is there any hope at all? Or all you need is luck, because I dont seem to have it

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Corrected commodity traders the trillion dollar club

Corrected commodity traders the trillion dollar clubCorrected: Commodity Traders: The trillion dollar club

By Joshua Schneyer

NEW YORK (Reuters)- For the small club of companies who trade the food, fuels and metals that keep the world running, the last decade has been sensational. Driven by the rise of Brazil, China, India and other fast-growing economies, the global commodities boom has turbocharged profits at the world's biggest trading houses.

They form an exclusive group, whose loosely regulated members are often based in such tax havens as Switzerland. Together, they are worth over a trillion dollars in annual revenue and control more than half the world's freely traded commodities. The top five piled up $629 billion in revenues last year, just below the global top five financial companies and more than the combined sales of leading players in tech or telecoms. Many amass speculative positions worth billions in raw goods, or hoard commodities in warehouses and super-tankers during periods of tight supply.

U. S. and European regulators are cracking down on big banks and hedge funds that speculate in raw goods, but trading firms remain largely untouched. Many are unlisted or family run, and because they trade physical goods are largely impervious to financial regulators. Outside the commodities business, many of these quiet giants who broker the world's basic goods are little known.

Their reach is expanding. Big trading firms now own a growing number of the mines that produce many of our commodities, the ships and pipelines that carry them, and the warehouses, silos and ports where they are stored. With their connections and inside knowledge -- commodities markets are mostly free of insider-trading restrictions -- trading houses have become power brokers, especially in fast-developing Asia, Latin America and Africa. They are part of the food chain, yet help shape it, and the personal rewards can be huge. "The payout percentage of profits at the commodities houses can be double what Wall Street banks pay," says George Stein of New York headhunting firm Commodity Talent.

Switzerland-based Glencore, whose initial public offering (IPO) in May put trading houses in the spotlight, pays some traders yearly bonuses in the tens of millions. On paper, the partial float made boss Ivan Glasenberg $10 billion richer overnight.


How big are the biggest trading houses? Put it this way: two of them, Vitol and Trafigura, sold a combined 8.1 million barrels a day of oil last year. That's equal to the combined oil exports of Saudi Arabia and Venezuela.

Or this: Glencore in 2010 controlled 55 percent of the world's traded zinc market, and 36 percent of that for copper.

Or this: publicity-shy Vitol's sales of $195 billion in 2010 were twice those at Apple Inc. As well as the 200 tankers it has at sea, Vitol owns storage tanks on five continents.

U. S. regulations are now pending to limit banks' proprietary trading -- speculating with their own cash. The new rules don't apply to trading firms. "Trading houses have huge volumes of proprietary trading. In some cases it makes up 60-80 percent of what they do," said Carl Holland, a former price risk manager at oil major Chevron Texaco, who now runs energy consultancy Trading Solutions LLC in Connecticut. "They have the most talent, the deepest pockets, and the best risk management."

In addition to proprietary trading curbs, the U. S. regulator voted on October 19 to impose position limits in oil and metals markets. That gives banks who trade futures cause for concern, but since physical players usually receive exemptions to limits -- because they are categorized as bona fide hedgers -- trading firms should go unscathed.

The trading houses' talent and deep pockets translate into incredible power. "Most commodity buyers in the world are price takers. The top trading firms are price makers," said Chris Hinde, editor of London-based Mining Journal. "It puts them in a tremendous position."

The sort of position that has allowed Vitol to do a brisk oil business with the U. S. government, the besieged Syrian regime, and Libya's newly empowered rebels simultaneously over the past few months. In April the company dodged NATO bombs and a naval blockade and sent an oil tanker into the battered Mediterranean port of Tobruk to extract the first cargo of premium crude sold by rebels at the helm of a breakaway Libyan oil company defying Muammar Gaddafi.

Vitol also discreetly supplied Libya's rebels with $1 billion in fuel, Reuters has learned -- supplies they desperately needed to advance on Tripoli. Vitol's early running gave the firm an edge with the country's new political stewards. As it turns the pumps back on, Libyan oil firm Agoco has allocated Vitol half of its crude production to repay debts.

While its savvy traders were doing deals in eastern Libya, Vitol, along with rival Trafigura, kept refined product supplies flowing to the besieged government of Bashar al-Assad in Syria as his troops attacked civilians. Trading houses were able to do this because international sanctions on Syria do not ban the sale of fuel into the country, but they did not have to fight off much competition for that business.


Despite a relative lack of regulatory oversight, such reach does attract scrutiny. "There has always been some concern about the trading firms' influence," said Craig Pirrong, a finance professor and commodities specialist at the University of Houston, who points out that some firms "have been associated with allegations of market manipulation".

Public and regulatory attention usually rises with prices. A spike in world food prices in 2007 stirred an outcry against the largest grain trading firms; when oil prices surged to a record $147 a barrel in 2008, U. S. Congress probed the role of oil trading firms, but found no smoking gun. But in May the U. S. Commodity Futures Trading Commission sued Arcadia and Parnon, both owned by a Norwegian shipping billionaire, for allegedly manipulating U. S. oil prices three years ago, amassing millions of barrels they had no intention of using. The companies dispute the charges.

Some transgressions make headlines. A Trafigura-chartered tanker was intercepted in the Caribbean in 2001 on suspicion of carrying illegal volumes of Iraqi crude. In a settlement, Trafigura agreed to pay a $5 million fine, but wasn't charged with smuggling and denied wrongdoing. In 2006 a tanker it chartered dumped toxic waste in Ivory Coast, allegedly making thousands ill and killing up to 16. Courts did not find any connection between its waste and sick people. Trafigura took legal action to keep a report about the Ivory Coast incident out of newspapers, but details were eventually made public.

And it's not just the Europeans. Executives of Illinois-based ADM, formerly Archer Daniels Midland, were jailed for an early 1990s international price-fixing conspiracy for animal feed additive lysine. After Minnesota-based Cargill built a huge soybean terminal on the banks of the Amazon River in 2003, it was targeted by Greenpeace and subjected to Brazilian government injunctions for allegedly encouraging more farming in fragile rainforest. Cargill has since placed a moratorium on buying soybeans from newly deforested land.


For many commodities traders, the most profitable ploy has been the squeeze, which involves driving prices up or down by accumulating a dominant position. In the early 2000s, the Brent crude oil stream -- used as a global price benchmark -- fell to 400,000 barrels per day from more than 1 million in the late 1980s. A few traders seized the chance to buy what amounted to almost all the available supply. Price premiums for immediate supply spiked, sapping margins for refiners worldwide. U. S. refiner Tosco sued Arcadia and Glencore for market manipulation; the case was settled out of court.

In metals, stock in warehouses can be tied up for years as loan collateral, allowing the same traders who dominate the metals market to control a huge chunk of world supply -- an apparent conflict of interest that has drawn criticism from the UK parliament.

"The warehouses seem to have an infinite capacity to absorb metal, but a very small capacity to release it," said Nick Madden of Novelis, the world's top rolled aluminum producer.

Trading houses saw the opportunity to leverage metals warehousing after the 2008 financial crisis. Of the six major metals warehousers only one, Dutch-based C. Steinweg, remains independent. Trading houses competed with banks for the spoils -- Glencore, Trafigura and Noble took one warehousing company each, Goldman and JP Morgan the others.

And unlike commodities producers, such as U. S. oil giant Exxon Mobil, trading firms don't just make money when prices go up. Most rely on arbitrage -- playing the divergence in prices at different locations, between different future delivery dates, or between a commodity's quality in different places.

That's what Koch, Vitol and others did in 2009 when they parked 100 million barrels of oil in seaborne tankers. Thanks to a market condition known as contango -- a period when buyers pay more for future delivery than to receive their cargoes promptly -- they could sell futures and lock in profits of $10 a barrel or more.


Many of the biggest players in oil and metals trading trace their roots back to notorious trader Marc Rich, whose triumph in the 1960s and 70s was to create a spot market for oil, wresting business away from the majors.

Belgium-born Rich joined Philipp Brothers, subsequently Phibro, aged 20, leaving in 1974 with a fellow graduate of the Phibro mailroom, Pincus "Pinky" Green, to set up Marc Rich and Co AG in Switzerland.

Rich, now 76, would later end up on the FBI's most-wanted list for alleged tax evasion and trading oil from Iran after the revolution in 1979. He was later pardoned. His partners seized control of the firm in 1994, renaming it Glencore.

Several big trading houses are still family-held -- firms like agricultural giant Cargill, the top private U. S. company, or Kansas-based Koch Industries, a close No. 2. Koch's chief executive Charles Koch, a libertarian activist with a $22 billion personal fortune according to Forbes, has said his company would go public "over my dead body". "The thinking is, why open the books to the world?" said a former lobbyist for Koch who requested anonymity. "Koch benefits from privacy, and it's astonishingly agile and profitable as is."

The old guard now faces a challenge from a new breed of Asian competitors. Companies like Hong Kong-based Noble and Singapore's Olam and Hin Leong are not new, but they are spreading their wings as China's influence in commodities markets increases. Chinese state funds have flowed into Noble and private Asian traders. As China's clout grows, it's very likely that Chinese firms will build trading dynasties of their own. In a move borrowed from the playbooks of western rivals, state-run oil firm PetroChina has set up a Houston oil trading desk and leased massive oil storage tanks in the Caribbean. "China is becoming more like a Glencore," said Hinde. "The Chinese state is funding nimble trading firms to do its bidding. We don't hear much about them yet, but in time we will."

Here's a look at the 16 companies, with aggregate revenues of $1.1 trillion, that trade energy, metals and agriculture.


WHO: Vitol, founded 1966 in Rotterdam by Henk Vietor and Jacques Detiger

WHERE: Geneva and Rotterdam WHAT: Oil, gas, power, coal, industrial metals, sugar

TURNOVER: $195 billion (2010) CEO: Ian Taylor STAFF: 2,700

By Richard Mably

On the world oil markets the name Vitol is as familiar as Exxon is at the petrol pump.

In public, for a company that turned over almost $200 billion last year trading 5.5 million barrels a day, its profile is nigh on subterranean.

But earlier this year the world's wealthiest oil trader raised that profile, and did its reputation no harm, by becoming the first to deal with Libya's rebels, long before the overthrow of Muammar Gaddafi.

That helped balance the reputational damage of being fined -- along with many other companies -- for paying surcharges a decade ago to Saddam Hussein's Iraqi oil ministry during the U. N. oil-for-food program.

Vitol's Saddam connection does not seem to have hurt it in Iraq. It became the first company to supply gasoline to the energy ministry after the war in 2003, and now is both a buyer of Iraqi crude and supplier of refined products.

An array of storage tanks on five continents oils the wheels of its vast trading operation and it has stepped into the gap left by the oil majors as they reduce their downstream presence to focus on upstream exploration and production.

With African investors Helios Investment it recently paid a billion dollars to buy Shell's fuel marketing operation across 14 West African countries, keeping the Shell branding.

It has also dipped a toe in the upstream business. Together with Glencore, it pre-qualified to bid for exploration rights in Iraq in a licensing round next year that that could add the Iraqi upstream to its offshore West Africa operations.

Its early dealings with the Libyan rebels may offer the chance of a foothold in Libya's oil and gas territory.

"Vitol's goal was to supply the refined products and then try to pick up upstream assets in Libya," said a western diplomatic source.

Glencore's flotation has sparked speculation about a possible Vitol initial public offering and what it would be worth. Vitol says it is happy with its private status and has no IPO plans.

By annual revenue Vitol is richer than Glencore but the numbers aren't directly comparable -- Glencore owns more hard assets which, typically, are far more profitable than trade turnover.

Vitol's wealth is spread across only 330 share-holding employees, fewer than Glencore's 500. While Vitol would not comment, industry talk has it that none of its senior employees, including CEO Ian Taylor who joined from Shell in 1985 or long-timer Bob Finch who heads Vitol's coal business, holds more than 5 percent of the company. That would put them well below the 16 percent stake Glencore CEO Ivan Glasenberg owns in his firm.

The company's deal with Libya's rebels was a gamble. Sanctions targeted Gaddafi. The firms now controlled by the western-backed rebels might still legally be linked to Libya's national oil corporation. Was Vitol in violation? Lawyers said doing business with the rebels still required great care. But by the end of April, a U. S. Treasury directive authorized the Vitol transactions.

"They sail as close to the wind as they possibly can legally," said an oil analyst who requested anonymity. "That's the nature of their business."

(additional reporting Barbara Lewis)


WHO: Glencore, founded 1974 as Marc Rich and Co. renamed Glencore in 1994

WHERE: Baar, Switzerland WHAT: Metals, minerals, energy, agricultural products

REVENUE: $145 billion in 2010 CEO: Ivan Glasenberg

STAFF: 2,800 people directly; 55,000 at Glencore's industrial assets

By Clara Ferreira Marques

Switzerland-based Glencore cast aside its famed secrecy earlier this year with a record market debut that turned its executives into paper millionaires and propelled the firm into the headlines.

Founded in 1974 by Marc Rich, who fell foul of U. S. authorities but was later pardoned by President Bill Clinton, Glencore has assets spanning the globe and an oil division with more ships than Britain's Royal Navy. Top officials in many other large trading companies began their careers at Glencore.

The company handles 3 percent of the world's daily oil consumption. It's one of the largest physical suppliers of metals including zinc, lead and nickel, and a leading grain exporter from Europe, the former Soviet Union and Australia.

Though it began as a pure metals and oil trader, Glencore has bought a wealth of industrial assets since the late 1980s which now stretches from South American farmland to copper mines in Zambia.

Belgium-born Rich sold his stake in 1994.

The company's largest shareholder is now former coal trader and Chief Executive Ivan Glasenberg, an intense and charismatic South African who holds a stake of just under 16 percent, worth around 4.5 billion pounds at current prices.

Still not entirely comfortable with his public profile, Glasenberg has described his shift into the glare of publicity as "crossing the Rubicon". He is flanked in the top investor table by the youthful heads of Glencore's major divisions. Together, Glencore employees, including many of its top traders, own just under 80 percent of the company.

Glencore has long made its fortune by working on the fringes and in areas where few others dared. That strategy has often succeeded, though last month it found itself at the center of a dispute in the newly minted nation of South Sudan. A row over oil export control could jeopardize its role in selling the nation's crude.

Glencore's initial public offering was the largest globally this year, attracting huge publicity as well as arguments that it marked the top of the commodities cycle. The shares listed at 530 pence in May but have since traded below that, dropping almost a quarter in three months.

A large part of Glencore's market value comes from its listed stakes in other companies, most notably a 34.5 percent holding in Swiss miner Xstrata. Glencore has said publicly it would see "good value" in a merger with Xstrata, but that has so far been rejected by other, smaller, shareholders.


WHO: Cargill, founded 1865 by William Wallace Cargill at the end of the U. S. Civil War

WHERE: Minneapolis, Minnesota WHAT: Grains, oilseeds, salt, fertilizers, metals, energy

TURNOVER: $108 billion (2010) CEO: Greg Page STAFF: 130,000

By Christine Stebbins

Tucked away in a private forest an hour's drive from the downtown high rises of mid-western Minnesota stands a brick mansion that strikes most visitors the same way: isolated, solid, regal, powerful.

Inside the "lake office," as it is known, sits the chairman of Cargill Inc. one of the largest privately held companies in the world.

Over the last 145 years, Cargill has grown from a single grain storage warehouse by an Iowa railroad to a behemoth of world commodities trade, straddling dozens of markets for food and other essential materials -- salt, fertilizer, metals.

With global sales of $108 billion in 2010, Cargill would have ranked No. 13 in the Fortune 500 list of publicly held companies, just behind Wall Street banking giant Citigroup.

But Cargill is anything but public. Despite a concerted campaign in recent years to put forth a friendlier face and personality through advertising and more appearances by its executives in public forums, Cargill is bound together by a culture of confidentiality, aggressiveness -- and winning.

"By and large they move as a team," says one retired wheat trader who did business with Cargill for decades. "They have some superstars but mostly a lot of team players -- what I would describe as well grounded, fundamental traders."

One of their secrets: filling the empty barges headed home.

"You've always had grain going down the river and going through the Gulf and being exported. One of the great things that Cargill did was develop the salt business to transport back up, eliminate the snow during the wintertime, and fill barges back up with back hauls," the wheat trader said.

"It was done a long time ago. People forget about it. But it was absolutely one of the greatest moves in the business."

Cargill hopes to dominate new markets as well. Two examples: it makes biodegradable and recyclable plastics out of corn at its $1 billion complex at Blair, Nebraska, and is creating new low-calorie food ingredients for such multinationals as Kraft, Nestle and Coca Cola.


At times Cargill's power has got it into trouble. In 1937 the Chicago Board of Trade forced the company to sell its corn contracts and Secretary of Agriculture Henry Wallace accused it of trying to "corner" the U. S. corn market. In 1972 Cargill came under attack as it secretly sold millions of tonnes of wheat to Russia, using a U. S. export subsidy program to boot -- and boosting food inflation.

It helps that the firm usually has the backing of Washington. In early 2007, when world grain prices were surging toward all-time highs, it faced a problem in Ukraine. Citing concerns over potential shortages and rising bread prices, Kiev had placed export quotas on cash crops and temporarily stopped granting export licenses for corn, wheat, barley and other grains.

Cargill, as well as fellow U. S. commodity trading firms Bunge and ADM, "agreed to undertake a public relations effort with the goal of creating a political problem for the Government of Ukraine", according to a 2007 diplomatic cable by the U. S. ambassador to Ukraine that was obtained by WikiLeaks and made available to Reuters by a third party.

To achieve this, "it would be necessary to recruit the (Ukrainian) farmers to take an active role. This would be a challenge, since small farmers were unorganized, and most had already cashed in their crops by selling to the traders early. Grain traders welcomed our offer to lend a diplomatic hand," the ambassador wrote.

Asked to comment, Cargill said the company actively backs free trade to boost agriculture in all countries and "is in dialogue with many important audiences, including governments. Additionally, we don't believe export bans are the solution to either high grain prices or price volatility." ADM declined to comment and a spokesman for Bunge could not be reached.


WHO: Koch Industries, founded 1920s by Fred Koch

WHERE: Wichita, Kansas

WHAT: Oil TURNOVER: $100 billion (2010)

CEO: Charles Koch STAFF: 70,000

By Joshua Schneyer

Founded in the 1920s by patriarch Fred Koch, a U. S. engineer who developed a new method of converting oil into gasoline, Koch helped to build a refining network in the Soviet Union in the 1930s. Fred Koch returned to the United States with a visceral hatred for Joseph Stalin and communism. A fiercely libertarian ideology and ultra-competitive engineering prowess live on at Koch Industries' spartan headquarters in Wichita, Kansas, a former Koch executive told Reuters.

With around $100 billion in sales, Koch Industries is a heavyweight among U. S. oil trading firms, and one of the most secretive U. S. corporations. Investors can forget about buying shares in the wildly profitable, family-run firm any time soon.

In oil markets, Koch is a brutally efficient middleman. A master of physical markets, it owns a 4,000-mile U. S. pipeline network and three of the country's most profitable refineries. Many small producers rely almost entirely on Koch to buy, sell and ship their crude. The company now operates in 60 countries.

The Koch brothers, Chairman and CEO Charles and co-owner David Koch, are high-profile supporters of libertarian and anti-regulation U. S. politics. Among their campaigns is one to end the U. S. Environmental Protection Agency's mandate for regulating greenhouse gas emissions. A profile in the New Yorker magazine last year identified the brothers as behind-the-scenes operators who bankroll the U. S. Tea Party movement. The Kochs have denied funding the Tea Party, but their empire's far-reaching tentacles in the political arena have spawned a nickname: the 'Kochtopus'.

The firm's traders, according to two industry sources, made a fortune for Koch in 2009-10 during a contango in U. S. oil markets -- a period when oil for future delivery was higher priced than immediate cargoes. Koch moved quietly to lead a boom in U. S. offshore crude storage, buying millions of barrels at cheap spot prices, parking them in supertankers near its Gulf Coast pipelines, and simultaneously selling into futures markets.

With Koch's easy access to tankers and pipelines, the strategy locked in profits of up to $10 a barrel with virtually no risk, traders said. When spot and futures prices began to converge, Koch would quietly slip crude from the ships into its onshore pipelines. Koch declined to discuss its trading with Reuters.

Former Koch employees were implicated in improper payments to secure contracts in six foreign countries between 2002 and 2008, and the company's officers admitted in a letter made public by a French court last year that "those activities constitute violations of criminal law", according to a report in Bloomberg Markets Magazine this month. The report also details sales by a foreign Koch subsidiary of petrochemical equipment to Iran, which is subject to U. S. sanctions, and a history of criminal or civil penalties for oil spills, a deadly 1996 U. S. pipeline blast, and under-reporting of emissions of benzene, a carcinogen, from a Texas refinery in 1995.

On its website Koch said it dismissed several employees of a French subsidiary upon learning of the improper and unauthorized payments. It also said its foreign units had ended sales to Iran "years ago", and did not violate U. S. law by conducting business with Iran earlier. Koch said its 90s-era pipeline blast was "the only event of its kind" in the company's history, and that a report to Texas regulators was voluntarily submitted by the company in 1995 to reflect higher emissions than it had originally reported. Koch eventually pleaded guilty in 2001 to a felony charge related to its reporting of the benzene emissions.

The firm's far-ranging industrial interests also include chemicals, forestry, ethanol, carbon trading and ranching. Its huge lobbying budget in Washington -- estimated at $10.3 million a year in a recent investigation by the Center for Public Integrity -- stands in contrast to Charles Koch's frugal demeanor within the firm.

The CEO sometimes flies to speaking engagements with no entourage. When in Wichita, he often dines in the Koch cafeteria. When out-of-town employees visit, he has taken them to dinner at seafood chain Red Lobster, a former Koch employee said. "But make no mistake, if you perform well at Koch, you are richly rewarded in salary terms," the person added. "And if you don't, you're out of there fast."


WHO: ADM, formerly Archer Daniels Midland, founded 1902 by John Daniels and George Archer

BASED: Decatur, Illinois

TADES: Grains, oilseeds, cocoa

TURNOVER: $81 billion (2010)

CEO: Patricia Woertz STAFF: 30,000

By Karl Plume

"Corn goes in one end and profit comes out the other."

That comment, by Matt Damon's character Marc Whitacre in the 2009 corporate scandal film "The Informant", described how U. S. agricultural firm Archer Daniels Midland Co. turned grain into gold. The line may be simplistic but it's not too far from the truth.

Decatur, Illinois-based ADM is one of the world's biggest commodities traders. It buys and sells multiple crops, mills and grinds and processes them into scores of products, both edible and not, and ships them to markets around the world.

A small Minnesota linseed crushing business more than a century ago, the firm is now is so big its financial performance is often viewed as a barometer of agribusiness as a whole. It owns processing plants, railcars, trucks, river barges and ships. It has trading offices in China, palm plantations and chemical plants across Asia, and silos in Brazil.

"We have a system that monitors the supply and demand needs, because often times they are working independently. For us in the middle, we have the ability then to manage the commodity risk that can be created by the timing differences between those buys and sells," said Steve Mills, ADM's senior executive vice president for performance and growth.

"You'll hear things through the marketplace or the wire services that it's raining someplace or not raining someplace and we'll have people on the ground saying 'I don't know what you're talking about'. The futures market may take some of that information and run with it. One of the things that gives us an advantage is that we're working in the physical markets as well so (we can) absorb all that information and make the calls."

But ADM's reputation has endured a black eye or two over the years.

A lysine price-fixing scandal in 1993 tarred its name after three top executives were indicted and imprisoned. ADM was fined $100 million by the U. S. government for antitrust violations. The incident was the subject of "The Informant", filmed on site in Decatur.

ADM's environmental record has also been questioned by the Environmental Protection Agency, resulting in fines and forced installation of pollution control measures.


WHO: Gunvor, founded 1997 by Swedish oil trader Torbjorn Tornqvist and Russian/Finnish businessman Gennady Timchenko

WHERE: Geneva

WHAT: Oil, coal, LNG, emissions

TURNOVER: $80 billion 2011, company estimate ($65 billion 2010)

CHAIRMAN: Torbjorn Tornqvist

STAFF: Fewer than 500

By Dmitry Zhdannikov

When it comes to his critics, Vladimir Putin is a heavyweight puncher. Yet it took Russia's most influential politician almost a decade to publicly address one of the most serious allegations against him.

Critics, including the Russian opposition, put it simply -- Russia's paramount leader helped businessman Gennady Timchenko create the Gunvor oil trading empire, which saw a spectacular rise in the past decade when Putin was president and then prime minister.

Putin finally broke his silence last month: "I assure you, I know that a lot is being written about it, without any participation on my part.

"I have known the citizen Timchenko for a very long time, since my work in St Petersburg," Putin told a group of Russian writers. Putin worked in the mayor's office in the early 1990s when Timchenko and his friends, Putin said, spun off an oil trading unit of the Kirishi oil refinery.

"I never interfered with anything related to his business interests, I hope he will not stick his nose into my business either," Putin said.

Timchenko doesn't need to be told to keep a low profile. He is one of Russia's most private tycoons. And his silence helped feed rumors about Gunvor's remarkable growth.

In 2011 the company will turn over $80 billion, up from just $5 billion in 2004. In his first public interview to Reuters in 2007, Gunvor's Swedish co-founder Tornbjorn Tornqvist was keen to stress that the firm's success was built on its traders' experience and excellent contacts.

"But. to involve Mr Putin and any of his staff in this dialogue is speculation," he added. That comment didn't help calm rumors and then Timchenko spoke too.

After a newspaper interview he wrote an open letter in 2008 headlined "Gunvor, Putin and me: the truth about a Russian oil trader".

"It is true that I, together with three other businessmen, sponsored a judo club where Mr Putin became honorary president," he wrote. "That is as far as it goes -- yet time and again, the media wrongly jump to the conclusion that the judo club connection means that Mr Putin and I are 'close', then leap into conspiracy-theory mode."

Tornqvist, a former BP trader and keen yachtsman, says he doesn't share the vision of Mark Rich, the father of contemporary trading, that political links are the most prized asset in trading.

"If you don't offer competitive terms, no one will work with you," he told a Russian daily this month. For Gunvor's rivals, too, favoritism is also an overly simple explanation of the company's success. They point to very competitive pricing offered by Gunvor when it comes to Russian oil tenders.

Gunvor's oil dominance has waned in the past two years -- it is handling around a fifth of Russian seaborne oil exports, down from a third three years ago. Perhaps to make up for that, it has moved into new sectors such as natural gas, coal and emissions.

Tornqvist says Gunvor's goal is to become a truly global company. "We know how to close the gap (with Vitol and Glencore) and we are actively catching up," Tornqvist said. Like Vitol, he says, Gunvor has no plans to follow Glencore into an IPO.


WHO: Trafigura, founded 1993 by former Marc Rich traders Claude Dauphin, Eric de Turkheim and Graham Sharp

WHERE: Geneva, Switzerland

WHAT: Oil, metals

TURNOVER: $79 billion (2010)

CHAIRMAN: Claude Dauphin

STAFF: 6,000

By Dmitry Zhdannikov and Ikuko Kurahone

The godfather of oil trading, Marc Rich, taught one of his most talented apprentices Claude Dauphin almost every trick in the business. Like Rich, Dauphin created a leading commodities trading house by applying a knife-edge approach to business. He has made a fortune.

But there was one lesson that Rich must have cut short: how to avoid jail. While Rich himself fled to Europe in the 1980s to escape possible imprisonment for tax evasion in the United States, Dauphin spent almost six months behind bars in Ivory Coast in 2006-7 in pre-trial detention involving a dispute over toxic waste dumping.

Shortly after the material was dumped, thousands of residents of the city of Abidjan complained of illnesses, including breathing problems, skin irritation and related ailments. The government of Ivory Coast said 16 people died. The material was dumped in open-air sites around Abidjan in August 2006 after being unloaded from a Trafigura-chartered tanker.

Trafigura said it entrusted the waste to a state-registered Ivorian company, Tommy, which dumped the material illegally at sites around Abidjan.

"We went to the Ivory Coast on a mission to help the people of Abidjan, and to find ourselves arrested and in jail as a result has been a terrible ordeal for ourselves and our families," said Dauphin.

Trafigura paid a $200 million settlement and the country's prosecutor declared that there was no evidence of any illegality or misconduct by any Trafigura company or staff.

In London, Trafigura reached a pre-trial settlement to put an end to a class-action suit from some 31,000 residents. The judge said there was no evidence the waste had caused anything more than "flu-like symptoms" and said some media had been irresponsible in their reporting.

The scandal has hardly hampered the firm's stellar growth.

It has grown into the world's third-largest independent oil trader and second-largest industrial metals trader in less than 20 years, since it was set up in the early 1990s by Dauphin and fellow traders Eric de Turckheim and Graham Sharp.

Like rival Vitol, Trafigura has seized the opportunity to get into oil storage as oil majors focus on production. It announced in early October that it may float its storage subsidiary Puma Energy within 18 months.

Trafigura was also quick to recognize the potential of storage in the industrial metals markets. It bought UK-based metals warehouser and logistics firm NEMS in March 2010, a month after Goldman Sachs had acquired rival Metro and several months before Glencore and JP Morgan moved into the business.


WHO: Mercuria, founded in 2004

WHERE: Geneva

ENERGY TURNOVER: $75 billion 2011 company estimate (2010, $47 billion)

CEO: Marco Dunand

By Christopher Johnson

Mercuria is just seven years old, but is already one of the world's top five energy traders.

Headquartered in Geneva, Switzerland, and named after Mercury, the god of merchants, Mercuria's business straddles global energy markets.

It has coal mines in Kalimantan in Indonesia, oilfields in Argentina and Canada plus oil trading in Singapore, Chicago, Houston and across Europe.

Its meteoric growth has been piloted by a couple of the sharpest minds in commodities.

Marco Dunand and Daniel Jaeggi, both Swiss, have worked together closely for more than 25 years in a string of commodities companies, buying and selling crude and oil products in many of the hottest oil trading outfits: Cargill, Goldman Sachs' J. Aron, Salomon Brothers' Phibro and Sempra.

In two decades of oil trading, Dunand and Jaeggi built fearsome reputations for seeing profit margins where others could only see potential losses. They were early dealers in a range of financial derivatives that are now commonplace and brought a level of sophistication to their trading books that most of their competitors could often only envy.

"You were always a little worried, taking the other side of their trades," said one European oil product trader, who declined to be identified.

Compared with other independent trading houses, Dunand and Jaeggi are high profile, speaking periodically to the press and giving regular interviews.

Their move to run their own empire came in 2004 when they founded Mercuria, raising capital from two Polish businessmen, Grzegorz Jankielewicz and Slawomir Smolokowski.

Jankielewicz and Smolokowski's company, J+S Group, traded Russian crude oil and was a leading supplier of oil to PKN Orlen, Poland's top oil refiner.

In 2006, J+S was raided by the Polish authorities in connection with an investigation into oil trading in Poland. J+S denied any wrong-doing and suggested the investigation was politically motivated. No suggestions of wrong-doing were leveled against Dunand or Jaeggi.

Dunand, chairman and chief executive, and Jaeggi, head of global trading, used Mercuria to expand their trading base from crude and oil products.

The business has grown to 890 employees in 28 countries with a turnover at $75 billion, trading almost 120 million tonnes of oil, coal and gas.


Dunand says he and Jaeggi have no intention of selling the company they have built so swiftly, or launching an initial public share offering (IPO). But they have seen interest from potential investors, and have considered a tie-up with a sovereign wealth fund.

"We are not thinking about an IPO -- but that doesn't mean we don't have an open mind," Dunand told Reuters in June. "We are keen to consolidate our culture before we could think about changing it. Having said that, we have also been approached by potential investors -- sovereign funds and others -- who wish to make a private-equity type of investment in our company."

Dunand and Jaeggi are Mercuria's largest shareholders but an employee share ownership scheme holds around 40 percent of the company. "We don't see the need to raise money from the market," Dunand said.


WHO: Noble Group, founded 1986 by UK scrap metal man Richard Elman

WHERE: Hong Kong

WHAT: Sugar, coal, oil

TURNOVER: $57 billion (2010)


STAFF: 11,000

By Luke R. Pachymuthu

Founded 25 years ago by Briton Richard Elman, the Hong Kong-based, Singapore-listed Noble Group buys and sells everything from Brazilian sugar to Australian coal.

Noble's shareholders include China's sovereign wealth fund, China Investment Corp. which bought an $850 million stake in 2009, and Korean Investment Corp. which has a minority stake.

Elman, the company's chairman, holds around 30 percent of the company. After dropping out of school he began his career at 15 in a metals scrap yard in the UK. He spent time trading metal in Hong Kong before moving to New York and a stint at commodities trading giant Phibro. Back in Hong Kong, he traded commodities with China in the 1970s and was the first to sell China's Daqing crude oil to the United States.

Noble has grown by acquiring troubled competitors. In 2001, for instance, it bought storied Swiss company Andre & Cie, once one of the world's top five grains traders. Finding itself with a big client base, but short of the physical supplies it needed to meet demand, Noble built its own processing facilities. It's a model it has replicated across various commodities.

Noble is now seeking to spin off its agriculture business with a listing on the Singapore Exchange. The grains business accounts for a third of its earnings and could have a value of more than $5 billion. Wall Street heavyweight JP Morgan is advising Noble on the planned listing.

The company's early forays into trading gas and oil left it with a black eye. Noble quit its global liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) operations in 2010, a year it was censured in Nigeria for discrepancies in gasoline shipping lists. Nigeria's Petroleum Product Pricing Regulatory Agency (PPPRA) said that in one transaction the amount of fuel submitted for subsidies did not match the actual quantity delivered. The company did not comment publicly on this incident.

And it sounded a rare retreat this week when sources close to the company said it had shut its European coal trading operations to focus on Asia and trading.

The China connection continues. In April Noble appointed Li Rongrong, former chairman of the state-owned assets supervision and administration commission of China, as a non-executive director.


WHO: Louis Dreyfus, founded 1851 by Leopold Louis-Dreyfus

WHERE: Paris WHAT: Cotton, rice, grains, orange juice

TURNOVER: $46 billion (2010)

CEO: Serge Schoen STAFF: 34,000

By Gus Trompiz

In the two years since Margarita Louis-Dreyfus inherited control of the world's top cotton and rice trader following the death of her husband Robert, the woman the French press call "the tsarina" has been at the center of one of the most intriguing struggles in corporate Europe.

Analysts and commentators focused on differences between the forty-something, Russian-born Margarita Louis-Dreyfus and chief executive Jacques Veyrat over how to develop the 160-year-old family firm and whether to list its shares or seek a merger deal.

The winner? The tsarina, or MLD, as the press sometimes also calls her. In April, she and Veyrat told business daily Les Echos that the CEO would be stepping down to make way for Serge Schoen, head of Louis Dreyfus Commodities.

The very public power struggle was all the more remarkable because the company normally keeps everything, from its precise earnings to the exact age of its main shareholder and chairwoman, a secret.

Louis Dreyfus is a well-honed global operator, marketing agricultural commodities from wheat to orange juice. But most analysts think it needs fresh capital to grow, or to buy out minority family shareholders who will have the option to sell their stakes in 2012.

Unsuccessful talks have taken place with Singaporean commodities group Olam International Ltd, while bankers say they have been sounded out about a stock market listing.

Margarita Louis-Dreyfus told Les Echos that a listing, merger or the entry of a private investor were all options. But there's little room for maneuver: the majority stake she inherited is locked up in a trust her husband set up to last for 99 years.

"There is no ideal solution. What matters is that the group and its name survive," she said.

In the wake of Glencore's listing this year, there is interest in another big trading house going public; investors want exposure to long-term demand for commodities.

"I would love for them to be listed on the stock market," said Gertjan van der Geer, who manages an agriculture fund for Swiss bank Pictet. "Cargill and Louis Dreyfus are the large missing players in the commodity trading space."

It doesn't look likely anytime soon. "There is no rush, the company has been private for 150 years so there is no specific timing for changing the shareholding structure," one source close to the company said.

A management shake-up this year at France's most popular football club, Olympique Marseille, offers more proof of Margarita Louis-Dreyfus' determination to defend her husband's legacy and impose hard financial choices.

While pursuing Robert Louis-Dreyfus' passion for the club, which drained millions from his fortune, she has placed strict conditions on new investment.

"Olympique Marseille is at a crossroads," she told supporters in a statement to announce the changes at the club. It's a message that could apply just as well to the Louis Dreyfus group.

(Additional reporting by Jean-Francois Rosnoblet)


WHO: Bunge, founded 1818 by Johann Peter Gottlieb Bunge in Amsterdam

WHERE: White Plains, New York.

TRADES: Grains, oilseeds, sugar

TURNOVER: $46 billion (2010)

CHAIRMAN and CEO: Alberto Weissner

STAFF: 32,000

By Hugh Bronstein

Two decades ago, Chinese farmers fed their pigs just about anything they could lay their hands on. But since White Plains, New York-based Bunge set up in China in 1998, many have switched to soy pellets. Result: China's pigs are heavier than ever and Bunge has become a key supplier to one of the fastest growing economies in the world.

The company, which went public 10 years ago, realized early that rising incomes in Asia could be fed by Brazil and Argentina, two of the last remaining countries with new farmland left for crop cultivation.

It helps that the company's CEO Alberto Weisser is a Brazilian, and that Bunge has more than 100 years experience in South America.

"Asian demand for South American soybeans has exploded over the last five years and Bunge is arguably the best positioned company in the world as it relates to servicing and profiting from the Asian demand trend," said Jeff Farmer, an analyst who follows the company for Jefferies & Company in Boston.

Founded in 1818 in Amsterdam, the company is the world's No.1 oilseed processor. Along the way it has moved headquarters to Belgium, Argentina, Brazil and then the United States.

"They go where the business is," said an industry insider who asked not to be named. "No sentimental attachments to any country or location. What matters is results, and you can see that in the way they trade."

It doesn't always work. In May, Argentina kicked Bunge off the country's exporters' register after the government alleged it had evaded $300 million in taxes, an accusation the company denies. Argentina's tax office is investigating dozens of other agricultural exporters as well.

Despite not being on the registry, Bunge continues to export grains and agricultural products as usual, but it cannot cash in on certain tax benefits and it faces hurdles transporting goods within Argentina, which analysts say could hurt the company's bottom line.


WHO: Wilmar International, founded 1991

WHERE: Singapore

WHAT: Palm oil, grains, sugar

TURNOVER: $30.4 billion (2010)


STAFF: 88,000 plus

By Harry Suhartono and Naveen Thakral

Around two decades ago, Kuok Khoon Hong decided to leave the business empire of his billionaire uncle Robert Kuok to set up an edible oil business with a big bet: China.

He competed fiercely with Indonesia's Salim group, the business group commanded by his uncle, and won, to dominate the edible oil market in the world's most populous nation.

Wilmar is now the biggest soy player in China with a 20 percent market share, measured in processing capacity. It is also the largest producer of consumer pack edible oils with about 45 percent market share.

Wilmar's strategy is to have its fingers in every part of the supply chain, from point of origin to destination.

In the palm oil business, for example, it owns plantations, mills, refiners, shippers, bottlers and the distribution network, in both the top producers, Indonesia and Malaysia, and the top consumers, India and China.

That gives its traders the advantage of timely market intelligence.

"We have a daily sales report from every corner where we operate and if we see sales slowing over a few weeks, we get to know the changing trend before others," one employee said, on condition of anonymity.

In 2006 Kuok, now 62, orchestrated a $4.3 billion merger which consolidated his uncle's palm oil assets into Wilmar, making it the world's largest listed palm oil firm.

Last year he surprised the market when he trumped China's Bright Food in a $1.5 billion deal to buy Australia's Sucrogen.

That complements his plan to set up a 200,000 hectares plantation in Indonesia's Papua island, which could make him the new "Asian sugar king", a title once hold by his uncle.

With nearly $10 billion worth of cash and bank deposits on Wilmar's balance sheet, Kuok is unlikely to stop his expansion drive there. Investors say he might already have his sights set on Brazil, to strengthen his position in the global sugar market.


WHO: Arcadia, founded 1988 by Japan's Mitsui & Co

BASED: London


TURNOVER: $29 billion, Reuters estimate

OWNER: John Fredriksen

STAFF: 100

By Caroline Copley and Joshua Schneyer

Arcadia Petroleum, the London-based oil trading firm owned by billionaire oil tanker magnate John Fredriksen, was thrust into the spotlight in May when U. S. commodities regulators sued it for allegedly manipulating U. S. oil markets in 2008.

In one of its biggest-ever crackdowns, the U. S. Commodity Futures Trading Commission alleges Arcadia traders amassed large physical crude positions in Cushing, Oklahoma, to create the appearance of tight supply at the delivery hub for U. S. oil futures. Fredriksen's traders then hurriedly sold the physical crude at a loss, the CFTC lawsuit claims, ending expectations for tight supplies. Overall Arcadia profited by $50 million in derivatives markets as oil futures spreads collapsed, according to the suit.

In a May interview with Reuters, Fredriksen refuted the charges and shot back that "maybe they (U. S. regulators) are trying to get some revenge" for the 2010 BP oil spill in the Gulf of Mexico. Several of Fredriksen's traders worked for BP in the early 2000s, where aggressive oil trading at Cushing turned huge profits, and also led to BP paying fines for alleged trading violations.

"It is a normal situation for oil traders. They are buying and selling oil. That's what it is all about," Fredriksen said of the recent CFTC charges.

Risk has often paid off handsomely for Fredriksen. With a personal fortune estimated by Forbes at $10.7 billion, the 67-year-old was Norway's richest man until he abandoned his citizenship in 2006 to become a national of Cyprus, where tax rates are lower.

Beyond Arcadia, Fredriksen's stable of commodities-related firms includes MarineHarvest, a global salmon-farming conglomerate billed as "the world's largest seafood company." He also owns oil tanker operator Frontline, U. S. oil trader Parnon -- also named in the CFTC lawsuit -- energy driller Seadrill and gas distributor Golar LNG.

Fredriksen became a leading oil shipping magnate well before buying Arcadia, in 2006. His 28-year-old twins Kathrine and Cecilie play a growing role in his sprawling business empire, according to press reports.

Arcadia doesn't make its revenues public. With 800,000 barrels a day to market, a volume similar to OPEC country Qatar, Arcadia's annual gross revenue from oil could be around $29 billion based on current prices.

The company lists its trade in paper derivatives as larger still, or about 10 million barrels a day.

Arcadia has faced controversy before. Founded in 1988 by Japanese trading giant Mitsui Inc. it was sued in 2000 by independent US refiner Tosco for allegedly conspiring to jack up prices of European benchmark Brent oil by cornering part of the North Sea physical crude market. The suit was settled out of court for an undisclosed sum.

Arcadia often trades large volumes of oil from Nigeria and Yemen, where it boasts close relationships with state oil firms. In a 2009 State Department cable from Yemen, obtained by WikiLeaks and provided by a third party to Reuters, sources told U. S. diplomats that the company used intimidation tactics including kidnapping threats to buy Yemeni crude at below market prices. Arcadia's chief executive in Singapore, Stephen Gibbons, denied the contents of the cable and told Reuters the kidnapping allegations were "ludicrous".


WHO: Mabanaft WHERE: Rotterdam

TURNOVER: $15 billion, Reuters estimate

CEO: Jan-Willem van der Velden

STAFF: 1,772

By Jessica Donati

Mabanaft's profile is low even by the secretive standards of other independent oil traders. The company has spent six decades trying to keep it that way. Its website reveals little more than that it is the trading arm of privately owned oil company Marquard & Bahls.

A rare news release announced that Jan-Willem van der Velden, who started as an international trader at the company in 1997, would take over as CEO from January this year.

Van der Velden took the reins of a company on a roll. Mabanaft sold 20 million tonnes of oil in 2010, up from 18 million tonnes in 2009. Pre-tax income for its parent company Marquard & Bahls was $274 million, up from $252 million the previous year.

That's still a lot less than the billions the biggest independent oil traders make and a long way off the revenue of Marquard & Bahls' oil tanking division, the second largest in the world after Vopak. Which may be why Mabanaft wants to expand beyond its northern European heartland.

From the 43rd floor of a Rotterdam skyscraper, staff members can look out over a network of rivers toward some of Europe's biggest refineries. But Mabanaft has also gradually opened offices in Singapore and the United States and, in the summer of 2010, a representative office in India.

As usual, details are scant. "Mabanaft is aiming to further diversify its product portfolio by pursuing a controlled geographic growth strategy," is all communications manager Maren Mertens is able to offer on the subject. Geography isn't the sole focus of expansion -- it has moved into naphtha, LPG and wood pellets.


WHO: Olam, founded 1989 by the Kewalram Chanrai Group, began trading cashews from Nigeria

WHERE: Singapore

WHAT: Coffee, cocoa, rice, grains, sugar

TURNOVER: $11 billion (2009/10)

CEO: Sunny Verghese

STAFF: 13,000 plus

By Harry Suhartono

A wealthier world needs more food. That's the argument of Sunny Verghese, chief executive of Singapore-based trading firm Olam International.

"We haven't seen this pace of population growth in our living memory," Verghese told a conference in Singapore late last year. "We have to increase food production by 50 percent by 2030, and 80 percent by 2050, with our hands tied behind our back," he said, referring to constraints to boosting output such as the lack of land, water and infrastructure.

Verghese still plans to cash in. In two decades the Bangalore-born trader has built Olam into a $4.5 billion company involved in around 20 different commodities including coffee, cocoa, rice, grains and sugar, from a startup that sold Nigerian cashew nuts.

These days, Olam has upstream operations in everything from a coffee plantation in Laos to a rice business in Thailand, from almonds in Australia to cashews in Africa. The firm is now the world's largest shipper of Robusta coffee and counts Nestle, Hershey, General Mills and Sara Lee as clients. It is also the world's second largest trader of rice after Louis Dreyfus.

The French trading giant approached Olam with a merger proposal in 2010, but talks failed earlier this year.

Verghese, who Forbes says is worth $190 million, believes he can go it alone and aims to quadruple the company's value by 2015. It helps that Olam has backing in high places: Singapore state investor Temasek holds a 14 percent stake in the trading firm.

Some analysts point to risk factors: Olam's exposure to natural disasters, such as recent flooding in Australia, and social or political unrest such as that in Ivory Coast.


WHO: Hin Leong, founded 1963 supplying diesel to fishing boats

WHERE: Singapore

WHAT: Oil and tankers

TURNOVER: $8 billion (2010)


STAFF: About 100

By Yaw Yan Chong

Lim Oon Kuin arrived in Singapore from China over 50 years ago, and started to deliver diesel by bicycle to boatmen. Now in his mid-60s, the reclusive trader is busy with his latest empire-building effort: getting government approval to build the city-state's fourth oil refinery.

Known as OK Lim, the founder of Singapore's Hin Leong Group wants to build the company from oil trader into an integrated company. He's well on the way. A fleet of tankers and Asia's largest commercial storage facility are among the company's assets.

The $5-billion refinery would pit Hin Leong against refineries already operated in Singapore by oil majors Shell, ExxonMobil and a joint venture between Chevron and China's PetroChina.

Hin Leong made its name in the hard-fought Asia fuel oil and distillates market over 20 years ago, and is arguably the largest independent distillates trader in Asia, regularly mounting successful trading plays in the Singapore market. It also has a substantial presence in Asia's fuel oil market, the world's largest.

Lim's Chinese connections have played a big part in the company's success. It focused initially on shipping fuel oil cargoes to the mainland, a relationship that has since deepened. Hin Leong is joining hands with several Chinese firms to build the proposed Singapore refinery, even as it seeks to build a larger oil storage facility in the South Chinese province of Fujian.

Lim's biggest bet may have been an unprecedented 1997 spree in which Hin Leong bought 30 million barrels of jet fuel and diesel in the key Singapore market -- worth nearly US$800 million over a three-month span. The jury is still out among rival traders on whether he made or lost a fortune that summer, a debate Lim is unlikely to settle publicly.

In his only media interview, with Reuters in 2006, Lim credited his success to investment in his tanker armada -- the "secret weapon" that helped him set up stealthy and profitable deals in the 1990s -- and his philosophy of perseverance.

"Sometimes you get it wrong, but you have to accept it," he said.

(Jessica Donati, Christopher Johnson, Ikuko Kurahone, Richard Mably, Dmitry Zhdannikov reported from London, Gus Trompiz from Paris, Caroline Copley from Zurich, Emma Farge from Benghazi, Karl Plume and Christine Stebbins from Chicago, Hugh Bronstein from Buenos Aires, Joshua Schneyer from New York, Luke Pachymuthu, Harry Suhartono and Naveen Thukral from Singapore; Editing by Richard Mably, Simon Robinson and Sara Ledwith)

(This story October 21 story was corrrected in the 17th paragraph to reflect that Trafigura paid a U. S. Customs fine on an Iraqi crude cargo in 2001, but denied wrongdoing; clarifies language on Trafigura's 2009 legal action to prevent a report on toxic waste dumping in Ivory Coast from being published)

How do iuse the dynamic momentum index for creating aforex trading strategy

How do iuse the dynamic momentum index for creating aforex trading strategyHow do I use the Dynamic Momentum Index for creating a forex trading strategy?

A forex trading strategy using the dynamic momentum index can be designed to trade off of daily pivot points or other major support and resistance levels. The dynamic momentum index is a rapidly responding momentum indicator derived from the relative strength index. or RSI. It can respond to momentum changes faster than the RSI and some other momentum indicators, because it uses variable time periods in its calculation rather than the fixed number of time periods used in calculating the RSI. It can help forex traders anticipate directional changes in a market very early. Therefore, traders use it in situations where a market may rapidly change direction, such as when the price nears major support or resistance levels. The dynamic momentum index serves the same purpose as the RSI, indicating overbought or oversold conditions that may lead to the market reversing course. Readings above 70 indicate overbought conditions, and readings below 30 indicate the market is oversold.

The daily pivot point is a significant support/resistance level where the price may rapidly change direction following a retracement to that price. Other significant support and resistance levels include major moving averages and existing trendlines, At such levels, forex traders can use the dynamic momentum index to help determine how likely the market is to reverse direction. A forex trading strategy can be created as follows:

2. If the index shows extremely overbought or oversold readings, depending on whether the direction of the retracement is upward or downward respectively, this may indicate the retracement momentum is exhausting itself. If so, enter a trade in the opposite direction of the retracement.

3. Place a stop-loss order a few pips on the other side of the support/resistance level.

Free forex training

Free forex trainingThe Forex Trading Book With 8 Steps To Become A Successful Forex Trader

Virtually all people wished to achieve success in currency trading, but has anyone planned on the path being a profitable currency exchange investor? I feel not quite a few. If you have not or not sure tips on how to strategize, here would be the actions that may lead you towards the path of accomplishment in currency trading:

1: Get yourself a forex trading book or forex trading program to start with, so which you can comprehend the basics of forex trading and the way todo the job. For those who have gotten your free forex trading book by Daniel Su, you need to have the opportunity to have an understanding of what currency trading is about.

2: Open a free of charge currency demo(practice) account with most forex brokers on the web.

#3: This really is an critical factor. Be sure you study the psychology portion and money management principles of currency trading prior to you start out on demo trading. be aware, always commence with excellent behaviors. Getting rid of poor routines is very much tougher than to build great practices.

Step 4: Following youve got gone through the complete forex trading book or currency program, you might almost certainly understand how a foreign exchange trading process functions. Furthermore, the free forex trading method in the forex trading book is effortless to know. So lets get useful and observe it on the demo account. Observe makes perfect!

Step 5: Demo trade for about a few weeks right up until you receive used on the forex trading program. In case you have formulated some unhealthy behavior along the way in which, carry on demo foreign exchange trading until finally you can rid of them, you dont intend to make these mistakes after you go live with real money trading! I would advise students to go live trading only once they hit successful percent of 70% and better.

6: You need to be previously quite steady within your demo trading when you might have arrive to this phase. Open a real money foreign exchange trading forex account, either a mini trading account or a standard trading account. I realize that many traders begin off with mini account initial so as to build their confidence. That is certainly absolutely alright, but usually do not get caught in mini forex account for too long as you might have psychological barrier to go and overcome. Move on to standard trading trading accounts when you are feeling assured, steadily making profits during your currency trading.

Step 7: Enhance your trading account lot size slowly as your trading abilities improve. You may well wish to boost it when you might have 30% ROI(return on investment) in your currency trading accounts. Refer and study your money management rules on the way you can keep growing your trading lot size.

8: At this juncture of time, youre a effective currency investor when you have regular profits each month. You do not have being a institutional dealer to be successful! And you perhaps need to begin preparing and taking into consideration to generally be a time foreign exchange dealer from right here onwards.

The previously mentioned steps may possibly sound easy, but trust me, its difficult in the least, or else why 95% of the individuals failed in foreign exchange trading? So you actually must drill about the psychological, self-discipline and money management parts before it is possible to go far in foreign exchange trading.

Top 3 Mistakes To Avoid When You Day Trade Forex

Day trading is classified as any transaction of a currency pair inside of one evening. The currency trading market is where by individuals commerce foreign currencies to get paid money.

Forex day traders are the top in line of forex trading. Some of the traders have day trade forex for some time and its easy for them to make consistent profits. However, not all the day traders can make profits from the market consistently even though they work very hard everyday trading. In the forex trading market, day traders are essentially needed so that they add liquidity to the market. In fact, if there are not many traders who are day trading, then it will be quite quite a chore for forex brokers to find sellers and buyers at a very short period of time.

However, trading forex involves significant risk and its not for everyone, let alone day trading because day trading demands more discipline and skills. First of all, you must have a thorough knowledge of the forex market and all its complexities. This is because you are not competing only against yourself, you are pitting your skills against many other institutionals and professional traders who are highly skilled in trading. Remember the forex market is a zero sum game, its either you win or the other part loses. So you must be able to know the market conditions like what they know. Dont be fooled by systems being sold that promise you to make lots of money in the book du jour. There is no get rich quick scheme hiding in those pages! You need to understand it all perfectly in order to succeed.

Second factor, if you want to make a living out of trading forex, then youll need a considerable large capital and not just few hundreds dollars can do the job. Many institutions, banks and professional traders day trade forex with large capital. They can command large sums of money on a daily basis. With a small investment, you just dont stand that much of a chance of big returns. In forex trading, it may be the case that youll need money to make more money unfortunately. Large market swings in any 24-hour period are highly unusual, so large profits only come from large investments. So make sure your mindset is right before you even decide to start day trade forex. If you think you can make a fortune in the market almost instantly, then you may be disappointed. Always remember not to risk more than what you can afford to. Although you may only have a smaller capital to trade, the gains can accumulate over time and thats how you grow your trading account. You still need the knowledge and proper money management that good forex trading system can provide.

Last but not least, youll always need to have a trading plan before you even look at the charts. During the learning process, you may come across some forex trading strategies and currency trading systems that you can use to day trade forex successfully. The important thing is to learn from them and come up with your own rules and methods that suit your trading style. There are some systems that are proven to make money and they are swing trading systems, hedging systems and news trading systems. Go ahead with the system that you think that suits your style.

There are more and more demand for foreign exchange trading nowadays and the trend has been rising fast. This has raised some controversy. Some people will advice you to stay away as far as possible when the word forex is mentioned. Others say that day trading is the only way to make a substantial income in the forex trading markets. Two things are certain: 1) Beginners/amateurs would be best off leaving the forex day trading market to the professionals and 2) Day traders provide the liquidity the forex needs to exist.

Always have a mind of caution when you decide to day trade forex, have the right education first.

Four Simple Techniques To Day Trade Forex In Volatile Markets

Fx trading will not move in the same direction all of the time. In actuality, we will experience choppy markets or some referred to as whipsaws markets for many times. Choppy market is in which the price of the currencies moves considerably up or lower and may well look identical to start of of a fresh trend in early stages. But instead of continuing the trend, the price of currencies may possibly suddenly dive back down for your entry level and may trigger your stop loss.

I believe it really is a challenge for a lot of people who day trade forex, especially those that are new to forex trading. Why is it so? The reason is they may not find a way to determine what sort of market is that and may well be unable to resist the temptation to make a few pips from the false swift price actions. So how to trade fx in this sort of circumstances? Below are some important fx trading tips:

1. Don’t assume a extensive swing strategy or any sustained price movements if youre previously in an open position, get some profits out when you have produced some from the currency trading market or shift it to the breakeven price as quickly as you possibly can. This may lessen the possibility of losing that position.

2. Once the fx markets are choppy and you also truly must trade, it is safer to trade all those currency pairs which are very correlated. Examples of remarkably correlated fx pairs are EUR/USD with USD/CHF, and EUR/GBP with GBP/CHF. This suggests if EUR/USD falls, USD/CHF will climb, and vice versa. It normally occurs 95% in the time on hourly charts. So you must seem with the support and resistance levels pertaining to EUR/USD and USD/CHF in case you are to trade either one of several currency pairs, to assist you in making a right conclusion.

3. You must refer to the calendar of financial announcements every now and then in currency trading. Sometimes a volatile market takes place when theres two or a lot more financial data releasing for the same time or inside a few hours. A particular information might set off an up movement although the other like scenario may perhaps set off a down movement. As a result it can be a bad time to trade fx as you will not know precisely where the foreign exchange market is moving.

4. At times if the foreign exchange dealing market is choppy, it forms range-trading channels, which sets one up for any breakout. If there is is no indication on which direction the currency market is like to move, forex traders may possibly go long when it is consolidating around the bottom range, and short when it truly is on the top range. This may perhaps generate you some pips, but again, it truly is superior to wait around for currency price to break out from within the range-trading channels making sure that ideally you can have the ability to catch the breakout trend.

Though those above can allow you to to counter choppy markets, I nonetheless must say that if the foreign exchange industry is specially ruthless, it really is very best that one merely walk away and wait for a different excellent trading possibility. Here is an additional tip for you that may perhaps help: Unless there are some fundamental motives to drive the currency markets, just like news release and so on, possibly you are going to be looking in a market that is not trending at all.

How A Forex Trading Program Can Turn You From A Slumpdog To A Millionaire

What are most beginner traders really searching for in a forex trading program, to ensure it can support them accomplish their dreams of producing millions from currency trading? I would say that a excellent forex trading program would have consist of currency trading fundamentals, technical analysis specific to the currency forex market, fundamental evaluation, trading psychology. currency trading techniques, cash management principles, currency trading glossary, how to pick currency trading broker and so forth.

Some from the contents of a forex trading program offers forex trading tutorial to prepare you as you progress towards being a expert in the global currency trading arena, so that you will know the best way to trade forex within a shorter time and assist you to become a effective and excellent currency trader who can make money consistently from the forex market. Along the way, you will acquire an knowing of how foreign exchange prices move and how you can create your own trading method. Some guides comprise foreign currency trading ideas, that is crucial for all those that are new to trading, but also adds value to sophisticated traders too. Therefore, some forex trading programs in fact provide good training of both not so experienced as well as sophisticated traders.

Lets zoom in into some of the contents that are provided in a foreign currency trading information. Essentially, it is possible to uncover contents such as the mechanics and introduction to foreign currency trading, how to be a professional foreign currency trader and so on from the currency trading basics section. You should foreign currency technical analysis that helps you to be capable to study forex charts, understanding and use of Fibonacci levels, major support and resistance levels and so forth.

And if you are a trader that cant help but to feel great emotional whenever you win or lose money while youre trading? If you are, the trading psychology component is crucial as it will teach you how you can better manage your emotions, how you can overcome greed and so forth with regards to trading in a fast moving currency forex market.

You might come across that most people who only look for trading techniques whenever they sign up for a forex trading program, be it foreign currency course, an free forex ebook downloaded from the internet, or even a forex trading tutorial. Why is the fact that so?

You see, most folks thought that they could profit with all the trading technique alone, which is untrue as they must learn to master money management and manage their emotions as well!

There are lots of currency trading techniques out there in the world, but youve to come across one that fits your personality. There are techniques like currency trading scalping, forex trading trend trading, breakout method and also many others. Just search Google using the keyword forex trading and youll find hundreds of so-called perfect forex solutions.

It is common to see traders using automated forex dealing being a forex trading software program will trade for them with out getting to open and close a trade manually. Obviously, there are disadvantages in many of these automated currency trading products that you should look out for. Bottomline is never buy one that promises you returns that sound too good to be true!

So by the time you could have gone via every thing in the forex trading program, provided that guide is not a slumdog, and also have found your trading method with money management, discipline and management of your feelings, you should be ready for making income trading currency trading online and you may one day become a millionaire forex trader.

Ten Reasons That are Stopping You From Lucrative Forex Trading

Have you ever wondered why is it that extremely couple of traders succeed in the fx trading market whilst 90% of forex traders fall short to obtain success? Under are 10 important good reasons:

1) Trying to find Simple and Quick Money

I have to anxiety that fx trading is not a get rich fast scheme. Achieving constant worthwhile outcomes out of forex trading is difficult. It needs some foreign currency training, persistence, discipline, emotion manage, and so forth. to get you to the world of prosperous currency trading.

2) In search of the Holy Grail

Ive people asked me, What may be the finest foreign exchange trading method around? There isnt such trading techniques in forex trading. Many forex traders spend years wanting to discover the Holy Grail of foreign currency trading, but failed to discover a single. The principal reason may be the foreign currency market changes every single solitary moment.

3) Inadequate Correct Training

One of the factors forex traders fall short is due to the fact they really do not have sufficient correct education. Some people who came into foreign exchange trading really dont even open a forex trading book or educate themselves about foreign currency exchanging. You will need particular forex trading education, a fx course, a foreign currency trading system and then a mentor to coach you.

4) Insufficient Discipline

Self-control is so significant in forex trading that it is going to reward you by accumulating your income in case you abide to it, and could turn your fx trading account into nothing when you lack of it.

5) Insufficient Endurance

Foreign currency traders chase right after the price due to the fact they do not desire to miss a golden trading chance. In currency exchange trading, there is no such point as golden possibility to me since every single forex trading setups are equally crucial.

6) No Cash Management

Most forex traders absolutely overlook about the chance of foreign currency trading. They only think about how very much theyll win and by no means strategy for that worst. Income management limits your risk on each and every individual trade to ensure that youre capable to trade tomorrow, the following week, month and many years.

7) Failure to Manage Emotions

Be a perfectionist in next your foreign exchange trading program. Stay calm should you lost a trade, you realize that youll find infinite probabilities to earn an winning opportunity back. Do not let greed take above you!

8) Getting Unrealistic Expectations

Individuals arrive into currency exchange trading thinking they are heading to be effective and generate tons of money, from $1,000 after which reaching $100, 000 in the quite quick time frame. You will know why thats untrue if youve got gotten my free foreign currency ebook.

9) Deficiency of Mentorship and Help

Once youve got a trading program, having a mentor not just offers you forex trading tips, but in addition the ability to obtain nearer to accomplishment as your understanding curve is going to be shorten, your doubts answered and self-confidence boosted.

10) Searching for Excitement

Some other forex trading traders may possibly think its very thrilling to buy and sell the forex trading marketplace, but to me, fx trading is uninteresting if I want to be profitable and anxiety free of charge.

Aussie Dumps after Fed Talks of Bond Buying Program

May 12, 2013 JoshTaylor

We had a crazy week last week in the market due to some serious fundamental shifts in the market. The AUD/USD took a serious nose dive through the 1.0150 market which was a low in a range from 1.0150 to 1.0600 on the AUD/USD for the past year (see the video below). First, RBA (Royal Bank of Australia) announced a rate cut of 25BP on their overnight interested rates. THEN, the US FED starts talking about an $85 Billion bond buying program to stimulate the economy. Both where bad news for the AUD/USD which dropped to parity (1.000) and is most likely going to continue dropping right to the .9800 range.

In this video I go through which caution on trading the USD cross pairs over the next few days until the market determines if the FED announcement created a short-term emotion strengthening of the USD. ORif this could be a significant game changer where the market turns into a more risk off environment and starts investing into USD again.

Watch the video completely as I analyze the charts and look for some great opportunities to trade.

Options trading strategies module pdf

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GTA 5 PSP or GTA 5 for PSP is finally available for download. If you don’t have PS3/PS4 or XBOX and you only have PSP or Portable Play station then this is what you need. This GTA 5 for PSP have the same feature of what those console games do. The only thing that you can’t do with this version is the first person mode which is designed to be used on ps4 and xbox one. GTA 5 PSP is knows an open world video game which has been developed by Rockstar Games in the year 2013 on almost all console gaming platform. This game became one of the most popular game on the year 2013 until now.

The single player is designed based on the story of 3 gangster characters Franklin, Michel and Trevor. They are 3 criminals which is interconnected on their past. The game will be enjoyed by the player like he was the real one who is walking on the streets and discovering all the beautiful places in the Los Santos City. They can also complete missions, collect money, unlock gameplay, weapons, cars and skills on all the three main characters.

GTA 5 PSP is designed first to be a third person genre but the version for PS4 and xbox one have the feature to be played on first person. This version will also work online so you can interact with some other players around the world.

This is the first and only website that offers a free download of GTA 5 on PSP. We released this version for free so people can download this amazing game and play it on their portable device. The only thing we ask for our downloader to complete an offer/survey. We need you to complete an offer or survey because it will help us earn some money and we will use that for updates and continuous development of the application.

The wait is over for those people that really wants to play this game on their Portable devices. You can download the game by downloading the ISO file on the download button below and transfer it on your PSP SD card and Play the game. The ISO download is available directly on this site and there’s no other site where you can download it.

Video Proof that our GTA 5 for PSP is working :

How to Download GTA 5 PSP ISO files?

Click the Download button above

Complete One offer / survey

After Completing an offer download will automatically start

Copy the ISO files to your PSP SD Card

Play and enjoy the game

Why Do we need to complete an offer/survey?

Answer : You need to complete an offer or survey to support our continuous development and update of this gta 5 for psp

Everyone is welcome to download this GTA 5 for PSP on this website without paying for anything. Start your journey on the Los Santos City. Download the game now and I’m pretty sure that you won’t regret it. Most of the information about this game has been taken from a Wikipedia article wikipedia/wiki/Grand_Theft_Auto_V

We also have GTA 5 for Android. The version is also working online and all the features are completely identical on what those console game have.

Options are flexible tools that appeal to active investors. Take this course to learn how to magnify profits or protect your portfolio by buying or selling options.

This course is suitable for investors with some experience of owning and trading securities.

We welcome your feedback on this course.

1. Introduction to options

An introduction to the basics of option trading. Why trade options? What are options, and who uses them? This module goes through the basic features of options, and explains how they differ from shares.

2. What are options?

A more detailed look at what is in an option. This module explains the difference between call and put options, and discusses the main features of options traded on ASX, including exercise price, expiry, and exercise style.

3. Option pricing

How much is an option worth? This module looks at the influences on an option's price. We explain the difference between intrinsic value and time value, and discuss the influence of variables such as volatility and time to expiry. We also look at the central importance of time decay in option trading.

4. Choosing the right option strategy

A basic guide to the things you need to think about when developing your option strategies. This module discusses some of the differences in approach between share investing and option trading. We explain how you can develop more effective strategies by taking into account volatility and time as well as price movements.

5. Profit from a rising share price

A look at how you can use options to trade your view that the market will rise. The bought call gives you leveraged exposure to a share price rise, and enables you to lock in the maximum purchase price for shares. This module discusses potential profits and losses, explains how to choose between the different calls on offer, and looks at your choices once you have bought your call.

6. Profit from a falling share price

How can you make money when you think share prices will fall? This module explains how put options give you the possibility to profit on the way down. We look at the risks and rewards of the bought put, and explain how to choose between the available options.

7. Protect your shares

Using options to protect your shares. Put options enable you to protect your shares from a fall in value without having to sell them. This module explains how you can lock in a minimum sale price for your shares. We explain the benefits and costs of the protective put, and how to put the strategy in place.

8. Earn income from your shares

Shares generally produce little value in flat markets. This module explains how you can write call options to work your portfolio harder. Writing covered calls generates income in the form of option premiums and can be a profitable strategy in neutral markets.

9. Index options

Index options allow you to trade the whole market in one transaction. ASX offers options over three share price indices, giving you broad exposure in one trade. This module explains how you can use index options to get leveraged exposure to a rising or falling market, or to protect a diversified portfolio from a fall in value.

10. How options are traded

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Can automated trading strategies work

Can automated trading strategies workCan Automated Trading Strategies Work?

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Most traders nowadays would be aware of the concept of the Quant Trader. Wikipedia defines a Quantitative Analyst or Quant as:

a person who specializes in the application of mathematical and statistical methods – such as numerical or quantitative techniques – to financial and risk management problems

So, the Quant Trader typically takes a theoretical trading strategy and by means of back testing and forward testing that are heavily reliant on statistical proof, produces an algorithm that can be automated into some kind of expert advisor or forex trading robot.

I was heavily into producing my own robots in the past, with very mixed results. Put it down to lack of experience, knowledge or just the simple fact that Im not good enough to do this as a one man band. At any rate, these days I use a number of semi-automated expert advisors to help me manage trades, but for the most part I enter trades manually.

Ive also tried many of the retail forex robots, and my experiences with them can be found elsewhere on the site. Bottom line: they perform okay for a while, but over the longer term you might just as well be trading manually, is my considered judgement at the moment.

Whats your experience of forex robots and automating trading strategies generally? Skip to the end of this page to leave a comment…

It was therefore an interesting conversation I had with Robert Bubalovski of Trade View Investments, a proprietary trading firm here in Melbourne. Robert runs a firm with a focus on technology and the training of traders in the Quant approach to automation of their strategies.

Its Robert’s belief that any trader can be shown how to automate their theories, and thereby back and forward test to verify them. Once they have proven profitable, the strategy can be set to trade on auto pilot while you develop more strategies. This is an approach attractive to many traders, but a difficult one to master.

There are three levels to their Trader Development program:

the Beginner program, which is an introduction to the world of markets and trading generally

the Intermediate program, which is more of a workshop based on your individual trader development, and development of your strategies and systems, especially with an aim to automate your more successful strategies. I am interested in doing this one myself, and there is a workshop coming up in October (2014).

the Advanced program, which focuses on trading of proprietary systems in a live trading environment, as well as the fine tuning of programs that the company has helped the trader develop in the intermediate program.

I met Robert, and was impressed by both the man and his setup generally. This is certainly a professional proprietary trading firm, and Im confident anyone wanting to associate with professionals in the Quant trading sphere would be interested in what they do.


If you’re interested in the firm, you can check out Trade View Investments at the following link:

If you do take up the offer, please give me any feedback you may consider relevant, whether it be positive or negative.

Game changer trading strategy for nifty based on supertrend

Game changer trading strategy for nifty based on supertrendGame Changer Trading Strategy for Nifty based on Supertrend

The below mentioned strategy can optimise the hit ratio of Supertrend upto 80%.

This is a Strategy which combines the following

Supertrend as the indicator

Nifty trading

Delta Neutral Option Strategy

Supertrend is a trend following indicator, which has around 40-45% hit ratio in five minute time frame. This means out of hundred trades (long + short) taken on basis of supertrend, approximately 45% will hit the target and in 55% the stoploss will be taken out. Even with this hit ratio supertrend is a clear winner because of using trend following. In the cases when target hits, the profits are big and in cases where stoploss hits, the losses are small. So on an average if we keep on capturing less number of big profits compared to more number of small losses, in the end. the overall portfolio would be in profit over a period of time.

Now just imagine, if we can make a trading system, where we can capture only profit making trades and eliminate the loss making trades, what an invincible system it will be. It is not possible to eliminate the loss making trades by 100% but using this trading strategy we can minimise the loss making making strategy by atleast 60-70%. This 60-70% elimination of loss making trades on an average will take the hit ratio of supertrend to approximately 80% hit ratio.

This trading system works perfectly in nifty as there is good liquidity in different strike prices of options and also in near-far month contracts.

The trading system

Important points

All buy signals should be executed in current month contract of nifty

All sell signals should be executed in next month contract of nifty

All option selling should be done in current month only

First trade in single lot and master the system before scaling up

Buy one lot(current month) when the supertrend gives a buy signal

Sell one lot(next month) when the supertrend gives a sell signal

Exit (if in profit)

Square the profit making position.

Exit (if in loss)

If you are long in nifty and stoploss hits, don’t square the position, just make it delta neutral using nifty options.

Eg: you are long in nifty at 8741 and stoploss hits of 8720, hold the long position and sell 3 lots of 8800 CE at 51. How this works, the delta of one lot nifty is 1 and delta of one lot nifty 8800 CE is 0.37 (todays value), so we are 1 delta long in nifty and 1.11 delta short in call. After executing this, we are delta neutral on this position and as time passes, this delta neutral position will become profitable and we can square off entire position without taking a loss

If you are short in nifty and stoploss hits. don’t square the position. just make it delta neutral using nifty options.

Eg: You are short in nifty future at 8797 and stoploss hits of 8820, hold the short position and sell 3 lots of 8700 PE at 58. How this works, the delta of one lot nifty is 1 and delta of one lot nifty 8700 PE is 0.43(todays value), so we are 1 delta short in nifty and 1.29 delta long in puts. After executing this, we are delta neutral on this position and as time passes, this delta neutral position will become profitable and we can square of entire position with out taking a loss.

Using this above Strategy we can take the Hit ratio of supertrend upto 75-80%. This has been tried and tested for Nifty only. Kindly first trade in small quantity to master the system before taking huge positions. Basic knowledge of Delta Neutral hedging strategies is required. For any queries on this, I can be reached at meet. sijuthomasgmail .

About Siju Thomas

Siju Thomas, is MBA by education, specialisation in Finance and marketing. By Profession I am serving as the Designated Director of a Broking firm by name of Bhansali Value creations pvt ltd. BVCPl(Bhansali value creations pvt ltd) is direct member of NSE-BSE-MCX_NCDEX. By passion Siju Thomas is a Trader, Technical analyst and Technical trainer. My expertise is in option strategies.

I didnt understand the rational. What if we get further trade signals while we are in delta neutral strategy?

Btw, good thinking process.

Rajandran R says

Thought process definitely one have to appreciate it. However to execute this strategy during loss trades and keep continuing with other Signals one need to have adequate amount of margin to catch all the trendy moves in the market.

Otherwise skipping the signals and waiting for the losses to turn positive might kill lot of good trades. how do you manage that?

Thanveer says

Siju Thomas says

cp we have to take each and every fresh buy and sell signal generated by supertrend

Thanveer says

When we are short and sl hits we sell puts. What about the buy call which comes with the sl? do we simultaneously take that?

Thanveer says

Siju Thomas says

thanveer yes we take each and every signal of supertrend

Chandan says

What happens if market dumps more than total value of calls sold? For example in the first example long at 8740 SL 8720 and selling 3 8800CE 51 instead of booking loss, if market falls beyond 8800 -- 3*51 I. e. 8649 and stays there the calls will go to zero and the futures position will keep losing money.

This is a flawed strategy -- you will end up wiping your capital on a black swan day. Take an example where nifty tanks to 8000 from 8740 in the above trade. Your loss is 740 pts -- 153(money made from selling calls) I. e 590 pts with no way to limit the loss even after that since you dont book your loss.

on black swan day, you will loose everything you have in months. no strategy works as connectivity to brokers becomes slow and within few minutes you see floor on counter and you dont get chance even to act on signal. Not possible to time market without dealer terminal or automation. ( my opinion)

Siju Thomas says

cp you are right. But we have our position sizing and alternate channels of trading for black swan type of days. proper money management and position sizing will be able to take care of black swan days. think optimistic, maybe on black swan day trend is on our direction. why think only pessimistic. after all supertrend is supposed to be keeping us in the direction of the trend.

Siju Thomas says

chandan delta neutral hedging is monitored in real time, so if ever such a situation arises, and top of all we have our position sizing to take care of such uncertainty

chandan says

So youll keep selling calls as market keeps falling. isnt booking loss easier? Too much margin will be used up if you have keep selling more and more calls are position goes against.

Thanveer says

Chandan. You are forgetting the fresh short position we have taken on the sell call

Siju Thomas says

chandan we dont keep selling calls. we sell only as required to keep position delta neutral. our goal from delta neutral position is not to earn but to just breakeven the position

Chandan says

Can you explain in detail how you will handle a circuit day(if price suddenly crashes 5-10%). How exactly would you delta hedge the positionfor example at every hundred point drop in nifty what exactly would you do with the options. Pls give some specific strikes in the example so that strategy is more clear.

.also implied vol will go up that day..how do you account for that.

Siju Thomas says

chandan total wipe out is not possible, you are forgetting our second leg of nifty sold in next on fresh signal. kindly read the whole article carefully, you are getting it wrong

Chandan says

What happens if market is choppy and short also gets stopped out? You would have sold puts as stop for that.

Do you hold all positions till expiry and keep taking fresh positions or remove the calls if another long trade comes now(you have a long future hedged with short calls running)

Siju Thomas says

chandan, i request you once kindly atleast do paper trading, if not real trading.

this is a game of probabilities.

we are not trying any holy grail-no loss type of situation.

This strategy is based on supertrend and how to improve the probabilities better in our favour.

This is a multi-leg strategy involving future prices of two different month contracts and corressponding options prices, so its not possible to assume things.

Siju Thomas says

Yashodhan says

Your strategy looks interesting. What will happen if my NIFTY long reaches back to its Buying Price. Wont the losses will be more OR as option value decay with time it will eventually covers up?

Siju Thomas says

Kunal says

Dear Siju,

Any trend system with a hit ratio of 40% can have 8-10 losing trades in a row. This is simple statisticsno one can escape this If we assume 10 losing trades in a row, then according to your idea, we will have 10 new futures position + 10 sets of options being sold. Even if you use 1 lot per trade, we are looking at margin level of approx (1*10trades) = 10 lots in futures margin + (3*10) = 30 lots of selling options which is close to 30 lots of futures marginTotal = 40 lots worth of futures margin.

In our example, due to statistics, if we have 10 losing trades in a row (every trade, we trade with 1 lot of futures), then one should have at-least 40 lots worth of margin. Some brokers, might offer margin benefit as we are buying futures and selling options. Still, for convenience purpose, lets assume that the broker blocks only 35 lots worth of margin(instead of 40 lots worth of margin)..So, to hold these 10 trades and take the next 1 lot futures trade, we need at-least 36(holding 35 and new 1) futures worth margin. Currently, overnight margin for 1 lot NF = 16K..So, 5.76 lacs is needed to stay afloat in this ideathats a whopping lot of money to have to trade 1 lotso, idea is flawed by itself.

And on top of that, if you believe that the professional trader focuses on how to avoid losses, you are badly mistaken..If you ever have the opportunity to watch a successful trader, you will see that they dont worry about where the market is going or whether the current trade will be at loss. They arent looking to tweak their indicator as well. They are worried about their risk on each trade. They are focused on money management. They ask if the trade being executed correctly? How much of their total account is at risk? Are the stops in the right place?

Rajandran -- please think twice before posting these kind of how to avoid losses in trading posts in your blog. I respect your blogs content and these kind of posts looks like a sour apple. Its your choice to publish this comment or not.

K. S.Saravanan says

Professional Traders focuses how to minimize the riskwhile amateur traders focuses How to avoid losses

Siju Thomas says

ks saravanan if you can read the article, i have nowhere mentioned about avoiding losses. the whole article is about minimising the amount of loss. any good trader, be it amateur or professional, minimising risk is the first function or else he will be wiped out sooner or later

Rajandran R says

Kunal. This is just an idea to think out of the box. Definitely such ideas are welcome to make the traders to think how to control their losses. Though its tough for the common traders to handle such positions one should definitely appreciate the way the author thought.

Kunal says


Thanks for responding to my comment. Agree that it was just an idea but what triggered my response was this statement — Using this above Strategy we can take the Hit ratio of supertrend upto 75-80%. This has been tried and tested for Nifty only...the author wrote this in the last paragraph. He has tried and tested it, huh? I would urge the author to test this idea in live market for the next 6 months

These kind of statements should be avoided in a reputed financial blog like yours and hence the post. More over, author did not think through completely on how one exit from both futures and options. He just gave a blanket statement that we need to exit when the trade goes into profit. So, where does the 20% losing trades come from? Obviously, hes hoping market will give a chance to get out and we both know, how that it will end.

Bottomline -- am just criticizing the blanket statements and an incomplete article. Honestly, the article title would just attract more traffic but of no use to traders esp. novices.

Rajandran R says

What i see i this Delta Neutral can be to control losses in few of the trades which is practically possible for most of the traders. Not necessarily this strategy has to be applied for supertrend but can be applied to avoid any marginal loss in any kind of trading situation while trading derivatives market.

And If the author says he had already tested out already then you should give enough time for him to explain things rather than throwing brickbats at him.

I guess from next articles onwards the author might control his excitement and advice him to be more practical from a retail traders perspective.

Kunal says


I understand what Delta neutral strategy is. As someone mentioned previously, one adverse gap or movement will eat 3 months of profitsplus the amount gained on loss saving trades. That is exactly why i want the author to try it in live market for 6 months. Not sure why people are so hung up on avoiding losses.

Well, any post that appear in your blog is a representation of the quality of the blog. So, it is better to avoid these kind of not-so-responsible posts to maintain sanity and the overall image of your blog. But, who am i to talk about this? Its your blog, so your choice

I rest my case here. No more comments on this topic.

Siju Thomas says

rajendran thanks for putting in a word. you have got it right. we are just trying to optimise the result of supertrend. I shared this article in context of supertrend as its very easy for amateur option traders to understand. we follow complex derivative strategies also, which i will share in future articles

Siju Thomas says

kunal there is no holy grail in stock market. the current hit ratio is 40-45%. applying this strategy can take the hit ratio upto 80%. upto 80% means it can be anywhere between 40% to 80%. This is strategy. and as all strategies. the results will vary alongwith market. Yes i have tried and tested this for last one year before placing this on public domain. I would request you to try this out yourself and you can come up with any practical problems you face, rather than assume hypothetical situations with out trading real time. Come on please give it a try starting on a small scale.

Siju Thomas says

kunal, you are hypothetacally adding away positions. in real trading there may be at the most three legs of addition, not more than that. we follow a margin of twice exposure, that means keep a margin of 2lakh for trading 50 nifty. Moreover when we do delta neutral. we get margin benefit from exchange also. I have derived this strategy on the basis that supertrend may give 10-15 losses in straight line. please try it out on real time rather than assuming imaginary situations.

Kunal says

As a trader, if he does not plan for the worst case scenario, then god bless him

I believe that you have been trading this delta neutral idea for the last 1 year. Great. Keep doing what you are doing. If your answers are gonna be like it never happens in the live market, there is no point talking on this issue.

As long as it works for you, great. But, when you come and post in a public forum, please be ready to answer questions with utmost clarity and to the point. Obscured replies like try it out yourself or it never happens in the live market are almost like cliches in trading world. Hope you get my point

And regarding the quote, it is not a quote..it is based on what i have seen in my decade long trading career. By the way, have never heard of Bramesh bandari. He must be a pretty important person and probably appearing in tv shows. As i dont watch any of the financial channels (it does not do any good to my trading), dont know about him.

Good luck with your future advanced derivative strategies post.

P. S I have been trading full time for the last 8 years(trading for a living) and i know a thing or two about teachers in stock market.

Siju Thomas says

kunal kindly re-read my comments. i never said it never happens in the live market. This is a multi-leg strategy, so you need to trade it, or atleast papertrade it if you are not willing to risk. Wowww, good to know that you are trading for living from 8 years. For such a great trader as you, trading it out must be very easy, as i believe that you might be allocating some risk capital for trying out new strategies.

Siju Thomas says

Kunal says

I see sarcasm in your comment. A small goole search tells something like this —

Mr. Thomas is a commerce graduate with specialization in accounting and holds MBA degree in finance and Marketing. He has a diverse experience of six years working at all levels in the field of Equity Brokerage. His core strength is excellent team management and strategic marketing. He is an expert in Technical analysis and has been providing technical education for last six years. His diverse experience and knowledge is helpful to the organization in framing the key strategies and Internal Policies. He takes care of the marketing activities and franchisee development at BVCPL. He also oversees the compliance and regulatory laws.

It clearly says that you take care of marketing activities and franchisee development at BVCPL. So, it is hard to believe that you are trading for a living.

Good luck with your marketing activites and i wish you well.

Siju Thomas says

kunal thats a lot of hardwork, but that small google search was not needed, the details are already mentioned in my profile in the website where article is posted.

secondly if you had further read that small google search in detail, you would have come to also know that i am the director of that broking company.

i trade for a living, that is my venture for broking, you can further google and find that i have couple of similar ventures which are into stock market education and research activities in stock market.

There is no sarcasm intended, i seriously wish to know few strategies from a full time trader.

i believe the entire audience of marketcalls would also be eager to know some successful strategies.

please share.

K. S.Saravanan says

Consider the following scenario Buy 8767 Sold 8850CE FEB 3 Lots 176.70 (Since we are very near to expiry So Next Month Series)

Now Stop Loss Hit 8740 So Sell One Lot Feb 8790 and Sell 8700 PE 3 Lots 145

Now actually we have made loss in future to compensate that we got better price in Options

In this Case futures are hedged them selves (What one should do on expiry?) on that case theoretically we Short Strangle 3 Lots. Normally Short Strangles would give money in ranged market and any Immediate wild move in one side would give problem. As per Strategy one can exit if the whole portfolio once he got profit. But. he did not gave exit Strategy for options Positions

Again take today as example any deceive move due to ECB meet on tonight would give series draw down to this portfolio. Usually one should not take short Strangle Just Before any important event. But No one can predict the future movement( For Eg Recent RBI announcement made many problem one these type delta Neutral Strategy)

I request the author to give exit Strategy on extreme situations..

Disc: I am trading Short Strangles for last 2-3 Years with quit success. Where the Key for the success is Strict Money Management

Siju Thomas says

ks sarvananan you have got it wrong, the rules are sell and buy signal should be followed in current month and next month respectively. all option selling should be in current month only as we are taking advantage of the theta value, current month theta value is always higher compared to next month. one more thing selling 3 lots is not a thumb rule. it can be one, two, three or four depending on the delta value of the options.

Django says

Trading can create such an addiction that sometimes addicts do not realize that the world is full of opportunities outside of trading. Good business strategies match our pockets. Trading with a small account frequently makes no economic sense if we consider opportunity costs.

Few quotes which had the most pivotal impact on me was from PTJ it was drilled into my head by my current mentor and my own 3 years of experience “Mr Stupid, why risk everything on one trade? Why not make your life a pursuit of happiness rather than pain? I first decided I had to learn discipline and money management. It was a cathartic experience for me, in the sense that I went to the edge, questioned my very ability as a trader, and decided that I was not going to quit. I was determined to come back and fight. I decided that I was going to become very disciplined and businesslike about my trading. Now I spend my day trying to make myself as happy and relaxed as I can be. If I have positions going against me, I get right out; if they are going for me, I keep them. ”

I use Super trend extensively in my trading and i have found a way to increase success ratio i. e. As far as my own private proprietary trading is concerned i have stopped taking “every” technical signal as a day trader to execute only those trades which exploit the underlying fundamentals technically thereby eliminating “majority” of technical signals

Recent example -- Since Modi win, If one would have followed Long signals only win rate depending upon ones setting of the indicator range from 50% with 1:5 to 67% for 1:3 R-multiples.

Siju Thomas says

django you are on the right way and doing excellent. The old saying was think out of the box. that can be modified for current scenario as rather than thinking out of the box, just remove the box and open up the limits of thinking. you are doing excellent job

vijay says

when we enter any trade we do consider risk reward ratio and hence need of SL plays its important roleto deviate from our original position by adding or selling other instruments will haywire our money managementwe cant effort to have diversions and diversions to come to original road

Siju Thomas says

vijay agree with you, But in delta neutral hedging, it works differently from normal form of trading. We are not in anyway having any diversions. Our goal here is optimize the supertrend results and delta neutral is a way to achieve that goal

vijay says

Siju Thomas says

Sai Thanks for the good words, very appreciated after lots of bricks. You can try this out. If you find any queries, you can reach me anytime at meet. sijuthomasgmail

M S Senthilkumaran says

Hi Siju, Thanks for the sharing this strategy. I have not tried it yet in live market. I am just verifying it with historical data. sideway market movements are usually lose making time in super trend signal. how to use this strategy in that case? fortunately current market is in sideways from jan 21 to jan 27 2015 and gap open is against position signal. can you explain based on trade signals on these days? may be in your next article.

Jesuraj says

Siju Thomas says

Hrushikesh says

Short term forex trading strategies

Short term forex trading strategiesShort Term Forex Trading Strategies

Updated: August 30, 2013 at 7:30 AM

Forex trading can encompass a wide range of different trading strategies and techniques.

Some of these techniques might seem more suitable for particular traders than others, depending on the particular temperament and character of the individual.

This article will focus on strategies for trading in the forex market that tend to have a short term time horizon.

Day Trading

The term day trading refers to a strategy that consists of buying and selling currencies during a specified one day time period that generally corresponds to the business day in the trader's time zone.

Such day traders will generally close out all of their positions at the end of their chosen forex trading day.

The object of day trading involves the repeated buying and selling of currency pairs for what the trader hopes will be a small profit. The process of taking many small profits during the day can add up considerably for an accomplished day trader.

One of the most obvious advantages of day trading consists of the fact that day traders will generally get a good night's sleep. By not assuming overnight exposure to the forex market, the day trader can usually relax after trading, with no open positions to worry about.

They also do not have to worry about paying spreads or points away due to overnight rollover swaps incurred at most brokers if a position stays open after 5pm New York time.

Nevertheless, traders with limited or no experience may find day trading to be somewhat hectic. As a result, they might fall into many of the common trading pitfalls to avoid, such as overtrading, and they might even succumb to stress.

One of the most important elements of day trading consists of the trader's ability to rapidly enter and exit positions for a profit, preferably according to a well defined trading plan.

One of the most popular day trading techniques is called scalping. The technique of scalping involves taking advantage of the differentials in the bid offer spread in the market.

This type of trading is similar to that employed by forex professionals who make markets to their bank's clients, except for the fact that the scalper does not make a two sided market and so they can choose their initial entry direction to suit their market view.

Scalpers typically get in and out of a trade in a very short period of time, sometimes in a matter of minutes or even seconds. The scalper is typically looking to get only a few pips out of the market for each trade.

Some of the advantages that traders might enjoy when implementing the scalping technique consist of:

Less Exposure to Risk - Because scalpers work with small price differentials and only hold positions for a very short time, their exposure to risk is significantly reduced provided they are disciplined about cutting losses.

Taking Advantage of Smaller Moves - The scalper generally takes advantage of smaller differentials in the market which allows them to profit from even the least of moves in quiet markets.

Higher Volume in Each Trade - In order for a scalper to profit significantly from short term moves, a larger position must often be taken in order to make the trade worthwhile. A proficient scalper will typically be well capitalized in order to be able to take on larger positions.

Hedge Trading on News Releases

Some short term traders employ the often high volatility surrounding the release of important economic data to trade in and out of the forex market.

Since such key fundamental factors can have a strong influence on currency valuation, traders can take advantage of the release of this news to make money.

Major economic releases from the United States might such data as Non Farm Payrolls, the Gross Domestic Product or GDP, Retail Sales or similarly influential economic news releases that tend to prompt sharp swings in the market if they come out different from what the market was expecting.

One strategy used to trade news releases involves the trader positioning themselves on both sides of the market using a hedged position. This would involve them both buying a currency pair and selling the same currency pair without netting the two positions.

They would probably establish this hedged position before the significant release comes out. Once the number prints on the news wires, they would then look to leg out of the hedged position as the market swings sharply in one or both directions.

They would then close the remaining leg as the market corrects its initial and usually excessive knee jerk movement.

The disadvantage of this hedge trading strategy is that the trader must pay two spreads to enter what is essentially a flat position.

The primary advantage is that their trading account can remain neutral or hedged to sharp price swings seen immediately after the key number's release.

Risk Statement: Trading Foreign Exchange on margin carries a high level of risk and may not be suitable for all investors. The possibility exists that you could lose more than your initial deposit. The high degree of leverage can work against you as well as for you.

Short term Forex trading strategies

Once you have started to trade Forex, you are will start to become familiar with a world which is full of economic events, political speeches, indicators, oscillators and other items you may not have previously encountered.

Short term currency trading is certainly interesting and educational, however many traders fail to become profitable this way. In order to become profitable, not only in the Forex market but also in any other market, a trader is required to be disciplined and to also develop their own trading strategy. It is of course possible to go for the easy option and copy trades, signals or strategies from other people, yet this won't provide you with any useful knowledge.

In addition to this, copying strategies or trading ideas from other people will never help you develop as a trader, no matter whether you are looking into trading Forex short term or long term. As the markets tend to change, you may successfully copy a strategy and follow someone else's ideas until the strategy becomes invalid. This could potentially lead you to losses. To avoid this from happening, it is highly recommended that you start developing your own strategy right away.

When it comes to selecting a trading strategy. most traders usually choose between becoming positional traders or day traders. The latter group is one that uses short term Forex trading methods to catch the market moves within a day. The main idea behind day trading is to benefit from intraday volatility and avoid Swap payments. In fact, most retail Forex traders are day traders. As a day trader, you are going to be trading higher volumes and you will have a higher frequency of trades too. A profit per trade tends to lower for day traders as well, yet the amount of trades is significantly different from what positional traders generate. Let's take a deeper look at what short term FX trading is, what the most popular strategies are, and the most useful tips for trading FX over a short amount of time.

What is short term Forex trading?

Generally speaking, short term trading is associated with holding a position for no longer than a trading day. Sometimes short term trading can be done within a few days, but not more than a week. In contrast, trades that last for over a week, but not more than a month are referred to as medium term trades. Longer trades are known as the positional ones.

Short term Forex mechanics are rather simple. The idea here is to utilise a strategy that will allow you to receive a substantial amount of entry signals over the M1-M30 time frames. Usually short term trading is done during the most volatile sessions. This will vary depending on the instrument you trade, yet most volatility is seen during the London session. The main thing to remember is that short term trades tend to be technical analysis driven, however you should also pay attention to fundamental events. Nevertheless, the most important item should be the development of your own short term Forex trading strategy. Let's take a look at the most common trading strategies for short term trading below.

Strategies for trading FX over a short period

Here we are going to take a look at the basic strategies that are available for day traders. We won't get into an explanation of the used indicators, time frames or setups - instead we will explain the main types of the short term Forex strategies and leave the process of figuring out the potential set up to you. Before you trade FX live, it's important that you get as much practice as possible on a demo account. So what are the possible strategies?

This is the most widely used short term currency trading strategy by day traders. The main aim of it is to get a few pips per trade you make and to try to spot as many possibilities as possible. At the end of the day, you are looking to execute deals of a considerably high volume, while keeping your stop losses low and your take profit points high. Usually you would employ scalping on a time frame that ranges from M1 to M5, as you need to get rid of the positions quite quickly. On average, with this strategy you would look to generate between 2-5 pips loss and 5-9 pips profit.

There are two main things when it comes to Forex scalping. First of all you have to find a broker that supplies you with the best possible execution to execute any type of these short term Forex strategies. By this we mean that your broker should definitely offer STP or ECN execution, as you cannot scalp successfully when there is a dealing desk intervention. Luckily, Admiral Markets can supply you with the Instant and Market execution types of accounts .

Next to execution, what makes a substantial difference for scalpers is the spread. The spread is the difference between the bid ask and the ask price of an asset. You can understand that the higher price you have to pay, the more pips you need to get to break even. Let's have a better look into this by using the example below.

An example of short term strategy

Once you have employed scalping as one of your short term Forex trading strategies, you will see that it is rather simple and should look like the example below.

Let's assume you are a European who is trading EUR/USD during the London session. Once you have determined how your entry and exit signals look, you are patiently waiting for the signal to appear. You may of course observe other currencies, yet it is recommended to focus on the EUR/USD, as there is quite a lot of volatility and the spreads tend to be quite low.

You see an entry signal, let's say it's a long one. This is why you buy one lot of EUR/USD at the price of 1.25500.

Straight away, you will see a little floating loss on your account, as you have purchased an asset for 1.25500. You can get rid of it only for the lower price, unless some market move has already happened. This is where the spread comes into play and this is where you can see the importance of it. Assuming your broker offers a fixed 3 pip spread on EUR/USD, by opening such a trade you will face a loss of 30 USD straight away. Then once the price has moved up for 3 pips, you will only break even. Fortunately, Admiral Markets offers you very competitive spreads starting from 0.1 pips, so you can use any short term Forex strategy without worrying about the cost of trading too much.

This trade will close either when it hits your stop loss point or when you see an exit signal. An ideal situation would of course be to close a trade once your potential profit target has been achieved. The potential closing scenario is to set a stop loss and let the trade hit it, before closing the position with a small profit or a small loss (smaller that your SL point). Alternatively, you can just wait for your target of 7 pips (or any other you set for yourself) to hit your take profit level.

How to trade Forex short term

When it comes to short term trading, you have to always trade with the strongest level of discipline. It is a common error amongst newbies that are trying short term currency trading strategies to avoid placing stop losses, or modifying stop losses, just because they don't want to close the position. This should be avoided.

What is important to remember is that scalping may not be the best short term Forex trading strategy for you, as it requires a lot of time and attention. Scalping isn't a part time thing. However, it is very educational as it allows you to make a decent amount of trades within a short amount of time. This way you get to learn the mechanics of the FX trade quite quickly and your level of discipline will be put to the test too.

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Why you should trade trending stocks

Why you should trade trending stocksWhy You Should Trade Trending Stocks

To consistently make money in the stock market, you only want trade stock trends! But what are the characteristics that make up a trend? I thought you would never ask.

Remember when we talked about stock market stages?

Well Stage 2 is an uptrend that is characterized by a series of higher highs (HH) and higher lows (HL).

Stage 4 is a downtrend that is characterized by a series of lower highs (LH) and lower lows (LL).

This creates a series of peaks and troughs on the chart that you can trade quite successfully.

Below is the beautiful anatomy of stock trends:

Stocks Trends Versus Trading Ranges

It is estimated that stocks only trend about 30% of the time. The rest of the time they move sideways in trading ranges. This is what a trading range looks like:

Yeah, trading ranges can get that sloppy! There is absolutely no reason to trade stocks that are chopping around like that when you can trade stocks that are in the trending phases. Trying to trade stocks in trading ranges (stage 1 and stage 3) is a great way to chew up your trading capital. Stick with trends!

This is a stock in a nice up trend.

And, this is a stock in a trading range:

Which one would you rather trade?

Case closed! I know all of this may seem pretty basic but I can't tell you how many times I've been in a stock trading forum and Joe Trader says, "I bought XYZ stock yesterday at $32.57".

So I go and look at the chart and the stock is in a steep downtrend! Or someone says that they shorted a stock at $52.03. So of course I look at the chart and the stock is in a parabolic uptrend!

It just doesn't make sense to trade that way.

If you look at any stock on a chart that is in a strong uptrend, you will find that the pullbacks are short lived. This gives you a excellent opportunity to buy the stock before it resumes the uptrend.

Same thing with stocks in down trends. The rallies are short lived which gives you an excellent opportunity to short them.

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